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Dyslexia: Definitions and Services Created by: Tracie Young RICA Teacher Montague Village Elementary.

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Presentation on theme: "Dyslexia: Definitions and Services Created by: Tracie Young RICA Teacher Montague Village Elementary."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dyslexia: Definitions and Services Created by: Tracie Young RICA Teacher Montague Village Elementary

2 Fact vs. Myth Myth #1- Dyslexic children see letters and words backward, which causes reversals (ex: reading “saw” instead of “was”) Fact #1- Dyslexic children have trouble NAMING but not copying letters. Backward writing and reversals of letters and numbers are COMMON in the early stages of writing development among all children (Shaywitz, 100).

3 Fact vs. Myth Myth #2- True dyslexia is uncommon, affecting fewer than 5% of the population. Fact #2- According to the Connecticut Longitudinal Study, “reading disability affects approximately one child in five” (Shaywitz, 30)- up to 20% of the population.

4 Fact vs. Myth Myth #3- Dyslexia is more prevalent among boys than girls. Fact #3- Boys are more commonly DIAGNOSED with dyslexia than are girls (as much as 5:1), but when tested in a research-based manner, a comparable number of boys and girls are identified as reading disabled (Shaywitz, 32).

5 Fact vs. Myth Myth #4- Dyslexia is simply a developmental lag and kids will grow out of it over time. Fact #4- Based on the Connecticut Longitudinal Study, dyslexia is a “chronic condition that does not represent a temporary lag in reading development” (Shaywitz, 33).

6 Fact vs. Myth Myth #5- There is no way to truly diagnose or predict dyslexia. Fact #5- Dyslexia is a congenital condition that no only runs in families but appears to be carried as a genetic trait (Shaywitz, 99). Brain imaging maps have shown that people with dyslexia actually process words in a different part of the brain than non-dyslexics. (Shaywitz, 87).

7 Fact vs. Myth Myth #6- Dyslexia cannot be treated. Fact #6- Dyslexia CAN be accurately identified and treated! The core problem in dyslexia is being able to turn print into sound. With intensive instruction, students can be taught to overcome this deficit (Shaywitz, 82).

8 Facts Additional Facts Students can be dyslexic and TAG identified. Students can be identified as early as age 6. Students with dyslexia have difficulty with both decoding and encoding. Reversals are not relevant to diagnosis. There is no single test for dyslexia. We must look at an entire profile of the student.

9 Facts Additional Facts Many dyslexic students can comprehend well. Dyslexic students may do quite well on STAAR. A dyslexic student shows strengths in the areas of oral and verbal comprehension. They have an average to above average ability to learn and comprehend when material is presented orally. Many also show strengths in the area of Math computation.

10 International Dyslexia Association’s Definition of Dyslexia Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.

11 Definition of Dyslexia according to the Texas Education Code TEC “Dyslexia” means a disorder of constitutional origin manifested by a difficulty in learning to read, write, or spell, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and socio-cultural opportunity. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences my include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experiences that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.

12 Four Primary Characteristics of Dyslexia Difficulty reading real words in isolation. Difficulty accurately decoding nonsense words. Slow, inaccurate, or labored oral reading (lack of reading fluency). Difficulty with learning to spell.

13 Characteristics are the result of difficulty with the following: The development of phonological awareness (including segmenting, blending, and manipulating sounds) Learning the names of letters and their sounds Phonological memory Rapid naming of familiar objects, colors, or letters of the alphabet

14 Secondary Consequences Variable difficulty with word recognition in isolation or in context Variable difficulty with aspects of reading comprehension Variable difficulty with aspects of written composition A limited amount of time spent in reading activities

15 Cognitive Ability The student must demonstrate cognitive ability to support age-level academic learning. Academic strengths in the absence of print are evident. Other coexisting deficits may complicate identification and may deserve further assessment and intervention. Ie: Speech and Language issues or ADHD

16 Preschool Characteristics May talk later than other children May have difficulty with rhyming Difficulty pronouncing words Poor auditory memory for rhymes and chants Slow to add new vocabulary words Difficulty with word recall Trouble learning numbers, days of the week, colors, shapes, and how to spell and write his or her name.

17 K-3 rd grade characteristics Failure to understand that words come apart and that words can be broken down further into individual sounds. Difficulty learning the letter names and sounds Difficulty decoding single words- lacks strategies Difficulty spelling phonetically Reads dysfluently Relies on context to recognize a word

18 Intermediate/Middle School Characteristics Dysgraphia (slow, non automatic handwriting that is difficult to read). Limited vocabulary Slow, choppy, inaccurate reading Terrible spelling Poor written expression Large discrepancy between verbal and written Difficulty reading printed music Poor grades in many classes

19 Phonological Processing Phonemic Awareness- appreciation of the explicit sounds in spoken words (phonemes). Phonological memory- effective recall of words from short-term memory. Predictive of successful decoding. Rapid Naming- effective recall of names from long term memory. Predictive of reading fluency and rate. Alphabetic Principle- understanding that the sequence of letters in written words represents the sequence of sounds in spoken words.

20 Why are these important? Successful readers have well-developed phonological skill. The alphabetic principle of our writing code requires this ability. Good phonological skills lead to good decoding abilities which in turn aid in comprehension. Without good decoding skills, the reader cannot access his/her higher level thinking skills to get at the meaning. Skills can be applied to guess at the meaning.

21 Dyslexia Identification Step 1: Gathering of Data/ Begin RTI procedures Things to consider: Four Primary Characteristics are evident Student is having difficulty with one or more of the underlying causes of Dyslexia. TPRI is a good indicator for this. Family History Adequate Educational Experience- has the student received good continuous instruction in phonics, decoding, encoding, and comprehension? Absences Cognitive Ability- Does the student possess the ability to learn in the absence of print?

22 Dyslexia Identification Step 1: Gathering of Data/ Begin RTI procedures Examples of pertinent data: Observations of teacher, district staff, parents Student work and classroom assessments (cum folder) Data-based documentation of student progress during instruction and interventions. Results of campus and district assessments LPAC documentation, if applicable Any other data that may show the development of the student’s learning or educational experiences.

23 Dyslexia Identification Step 2: Formal Assessment The dyslexia referral should be made at the completion of the Tier II intervention in the RTI process. This should occur if the student has not made adequate progress with these interventions. The 504 coordinator will handle all dyslexia assessment requests. Assessments are given on each campus by a trained staff member. There are several different tests given to create a profile of scores for each student referral. The tests correlate with the Primary Characteristics of Dyslexia, as well as the Underlying Causes of Dyslexia. Other data and observations must be used to show adequate cognitive ability.

24 Dyslexia Identification Step 3: Committee Meeting A committee of knowledgeable persons will meet to discuss the results of the assessment and review all accumulated data that was gathered prior to the referral. Possible members of the committee may include: Classroom teacher or teacher responsible for student’s reading instruction. RICA/Dyslexia teacher Reading Interventionist 504 Coordinator ELL/ESL Teacher

25 Diagnosis A 504 or ARD committee meeting will be arranged. The Committee will review the data collected to determine the student’s eligibility and determine appropriate instructional strategies and accommodations. Possible interventions for students who do not qualify for Dyslexia services should be discussed at this time, as well.

26 If The Student Is Diagnosed with Dyslexia What Happens Next?

27 Student Receives Dyslexia Services Students will receive Dyslexia services as determined by the 504 or ARD Committee. General Ed Students will receive services and accommodations determined by the 504 Committee. Their accommodations are outlined in an IAP, Individualized Accommodation Plan. Special Ed Students will receive services and modifications determined by the ARD Committee. Their modifications are outlined in an IEP, Individualized Education Plan.

28 Accommodations and Modifications Accommodations Change HOW you teach Do NOT fundamentally alter or lower expectations Provide equal access to learning and opportunity to demonstrate what is known Modifications Change WHAT you teach Only applies to dyslexic students who also qualify for special education services Provides students with meaningful and productive learning experiences based on individual needs vs.

29 Examples of Accommodations for a Dyslexic Student Handwriting and/or Copying Tasks Accept brief forms of answers Provide “Modified Note Taking” i.e. fill in the blank. Tape recordings Minimize copying from board, books, or worksheets Provide photocopies Allow student to choose writing instrument Accept Oral work Accept illustrations Allow the use of word processing programs.

30 Examples of Accommodations for a Dyslexic Student Spelling Do not take off for spelling in assignments Teach spelling scientifically Provide a word bank Spelling words should be words the student can already read Teach students abbreviations i.e.: states, months, etc. Allow the use of spell checkers or word processing programs Give fewer words for spelling tests..

31 Examples of Accommodations for a Dyslexic Student Reading Provide taped texts- Readingally.org Allow someone else to read to the student Permit shared reading Enlarge the print Encourage student to use a tracking device Read orally to the student on his or her intellectual level as frequently as possible. Pre-teach vocabulary or new concepts prior to introduction to the whole class..

32 Examples of Accommodations for a Dyslexic Student Written Composition Accept oral or dictated work when appropriate Accept projects when appropriate Shorten written requirements emphasizing the required and essential elements. Allow student to dictate into a tape recorder first then listen and write Be very specific about expectations Allow print or cursive Teach keyboarding.

33 Examples of Accommodations for a Dyslexic Student Testing Give test orally and allow more time Allow the test to be taken in a different environment Give shorter, more frequent tests Discuss test format ahead of time Place fewer questions or problems on a page Give multiple choice questions when possible Be aware of overall test readability Reduce the number of items in matching tests to groups of 5 and arrange the items so that the longer sentences of the matching are on the left and the shorter items are on the right. Practice state testing accommodations prior to TAKS test administration..

34 Remember the “F”- Word FOCUS The focus of any assignment or test should be on determining if the student can demonstrate mastery of the key objective of the lesson. There may be more than one way to demonstrate mastery. Quality -vs.- Quantity

35 Dyslexic State Testing Accommodations Grade 3-8 STAAR Reading assessments and English I, II, and III EOC 1. Orally reading all questions and answer choices to students 2. Extended testing time (pending TEA decision).

36 Accommodation Guidelines Students receiving the State Testing Accommodations should: Have dyslexia or a word level reading disability Regularly participate in a dyslexia or similar program (SPED) Routinely receive these accommodations on all assignments and tests

37 Student Receives Direct Instruction Through Wilson Reading System

38 Program Details 45 minute daily, small group direct instruction with the RICA teacher 12-step multisensory phonics program that does not allow a student to move on until mastery Based on current research-based findings 3-part lessons:  Block 1- Word Study  Block 2- Spelling, Irregular Word Instruction, Vocabulary, and Proofreading  Block 3- Reading Fluency and Comprehension

39 Major Areas of Focus Phonemic segmentation Alphabetic Principle – sound/symbol relationships Decoding Encoding (spelling) Advanced Word Analysis Vocabulary Development Sight Word Instruction Fluency Comprehension with Visualization Metacognition

40 Famous Dyslexics Thomas Edison Beethoven Gen. George S. Patton Magic Johnson Steve Jobs- Founder of Apple Computers Keira Knightly Walt DisneyCher

41 Remember: Accommodating a student is not lowering academic bars. Accommodating a student is lowering academic barriers. Jonathan Mooney What is “Fair?” “The most unfair, unequal, educational experience is the equal treatment of unequals.” Author Unknown

42 Campus Contact Information Campus Contact Information RICA Teacher (Michael Poletti – (254) ) 504 Coordinator (Mrs. Carranza – AP – (254) )

43 Resources 1. Overcoming Dyslexia Written by Sally Shaywitz, M.D. 2. The Gift of Dyslexia Written by Ronald D. Davis 3. The International Dyslexia Association- 4. Wilson Language Online Pat Sekel Ph.D., CALT-Q 6. Scottish Rite Learning Center

44 The Dyslexia Handbook The Texas Education Agency has updated The Dyslexia Handbook Procedures Concerning Dyslexia and Related Disorders The updated version may be accessed at: book pdf book pdf This book defines dyslexia, explains the process for identification, outlines what the instructional program must include, and explains the laws in place concerning the education of dyslexic students.


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