Mark Twain Transition figure Transition figure Work published after Civil War Work published after Civil War Associated with antebellum era Associated with antebellum era
Twain - Life Born in Hannibal, MO (1835) as Samuel Clemens Born in Hannibal, MO (1835) as Samuel Clemens Worked on Miss. steamboats Worked on Miss. steamboats Fought in Civil War Fought in Civil War Journalist after war in California & Nevada Journalist after war in California & Nevada
Twain - Life Published ”Jumping Frog” in 1869 Published ”Jumping Frog” in 1869 Later moved East – full-time writer, lecturer Later moved East – full-time writer, lecturer Nationally famous Nationally famous Personal troubles lead to ”Great Dark” period in 1890s Personal troubles lead to ”Great Dark” period in 1890s Dies in Connecticut (1910) Dies in Connecticut (1910)
Twain - life Humorist Humorist Southwestern humor Southwestern humor Tall tale Tall tale Realist Realist Anti-imperialist Anti-imperialist
Contradictions Associated w/ West Associated w/ West Associated w/ antebellum era Associated w/ antebellum era Known as humorist Known as humorist Wrote about simple man Wrote about simple man Lived mostly in East Lived mostly in East All works written after Civil War All works written after Civil War Cynical at end of life Cynical at end of life Very money-conscious Very money-conscious
Twain - Works “Jumping Frog of Calaveras County” (1865) “Jumping Frog of Calaveras County” (1865) Innocents Abroad (1869) Innocents Abroad (1869) The Gilded Age (1873) The Gilded Age (1873) Tom Sawyer (1876) Tom Sawyer (1876) Huck Finn (1883) Huck Finn (1883) Connecticut Yankee (1889) Connecticut Yankee (1889)
Huckleberry Finn "All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn. If you read it you must stop where the Nigger Jim is stolen from the boys. That is the real end. The rest is just cheating. But it's the best book we've had. All American writing comes from that. There was nothing before. There has been nothing as good since." Ernest Hemingway, Green Hills of Africa, 1935
Huck Finn - Reception Criticized in 1880s when it first appeared Criticized in 1880s when it first appeared Banned by Concord Library Banned by Concord Library Why? Why? Criticized today for different reason Criticized today for different reason On list of ”Most Challenged Books” from 1990-2007 by ALA On list of ”Most Challenged Books” from 1990-2007 by ALA Why? Why?
ALA list of most challenged books 1990-99 1. Scary Stories (Series) by Alvin Schwartz 2. Daddy’s Roommate by Michael Willhoite 3. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou 4. The Chocolate War by Robert Cormier 5. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain 6. Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck 7. Harry Potter (Series) by J.K. Rowling 8. Forever by Judy Blume 9. Bridge to Terabithia by Katherine Paterson 10. Alice (Series) by Phyllis Reynolds Naylor 11. Heather Has Two Mommies by Leslea Newman
ALA list of most challenged books 2000-07 1. Harry Potter, by J.K. Rowling 2. Alice series, by Phyllis Reynolds Naylor 3. The Chocolate War, by Robert Cormier 4. Of Mice and Men, by John Steinbeck 5. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, by Maya Angelou 6. Scary Stories, by Alvin Schwartz 7. Fallen Angels, by Walter Dean Myers 8. It’s Perfectly Normal, by Robie Harris 9. And Tango Makes Three, by Justin Richardson/Peter Parnell 10. Captain Underpants, by Dav Pilkey 11. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain
ALA most challenged books - 2013 1) Captain Underpants (series), by Dav Pilkey 2) The Bluest Eye, by Toni Morrison 3) The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian, by Sherman Alexie 4) Fifty Shades of Grey, by E.L. James 5) The Hunger Games, by Suzanne Collins 6) A Bad Boy Can Be Good for A Girl, by Tanya Lee Stone 7) Looking for Alaska, by John Green 8) The Perks of Being a Wallflower, by Stephen Chbosky 9) Bless Me Ultima, by Rudolfo Anaya 10) Bone (series), by Jeff Smith
Huck Finn “Good gracious! anybody hurt?” “No’m. Killed a nigger.” “Well, it’s lucky; because sometimes people do get hurt.
Huck Finn - innovations Language Language Perspective of common man Perspective of common man
Huck Finn – major themes Search for freedom Search for freedom Social satire Social satire Development of Huck Development of Huck
Huckleberry Finn 1. Logic of fleeing southward. 2. Tom & Huck freeing Jim at end.
Reactions to ending Hemingway Hemingway Ralph Ellison Ralph Ellison Toni Morrison Toni Morrison
Charles Chesnutt Born in North Born in North “Free person of color” “Free person of color” Doctor, author Doctor, author Explores mixed-race issues Explores mixed-race issues passing passing
Charles Chestnutt “The Wife of His Youth” “The Wife of His Youth” The Conjure Woman The Conjure Woman “The Goophered Grapevine” “The Goophered Grapevine” Status of mulatto Status of mulatto In white society In black society
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