# David S. Jones School of Pharmacy.  High Academic Background (circa 435 tariff points)  Requirements (AAB or ABB with an A in a fourth AS subject) 

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David S. Jones School of Pharmacy

 High Academic Background (circa 435 tariff points)  Requirements (AAB or ABB with an A in a fourth AS subject)  Subjects required at A2  Chemistry  At least one from Physics, Mathematics, Biology  One other A2 subject  Mathematics required at GCSE

 Key Numeracy Skills/Algebra  Needed throughout the course  Assessed at entry to level 1  30% failure rate  Limited opportunity to address deficiencies  Examples include:  Rearrangement of equations  Calculation of doses/concentrations/molarity  Use of equations

 Pharmaceutical Statistics  Needed throughout the course (but mostly in Level 4)  Assessed in the skills component in Level 1  30% failure rate  Limited opportunity to address deficiencies  Examined in levels 2 and 4

LEVELS 1 AND 2  Probability and distributions  Central tendency/Variation  Confidence Intervals  Transformations  One sample parametric/non-parametric tests  Two sample parametric/non-parametric tests  Paired and unpaired  Chi-squared test  Linear regression LEVEL 4  Multiple hypothesis tests  ANOVA  Kruskal-Wallis test  Post hoc tests  Multiple regression  Logistic regression  Epidemiology  Introduction to Bayesian statistics

 Logarithms  Base e  Other bases  Changing bases  Use of Log/Semi-log graph paper  Trigonometry  Basic details ranging through to calculus of trigonometry

 Calculus  Key component of several scientific sub- disciplines  Pharmacokinetics  Chemical Stability  Population growth studies

 Students navigate through the course to avoid mathematical topics  Some students leave QUB with a good degree but devoid of many skills that are required in clinical practice (research???)

 Mathematics is not a specified subject at A level  Content of the Advanced/Advanced Subsidiary and GCSE courses  Modular design of the Advanced and Advanced Subsidiary courses

 GCSE  Gradual reduction in content over 20 years  Reduction in problem solving activities  Variation in standards across examining boards  Is the mathematical standard at GCSE level suitable for science based courses?

ADVANCED SUBSIDIARY  Modular  Subjects studied in isolation  Different mathematical experiences for each student  All students study C1 and C2  Third subject is usually M1 or S1 (Decision mathematics?)  Reduction in content ADVANCED 2  Modular  Subjects studied in isolation  Different mathematical experiences for each student  All students study C3 and C4 (usually)  Third subject is usually M2 or S2  Reduction in content

 Key Numeracy Skills/Algebra  Covered in GCSE (in theory not practice)  Expanded depth through AS and A2 studies  Logarithms  Fundamentals ▪ Covered in AS (in theory not practice)  Base e ▪ Covered in A2  Other bases and changing bases ▪ Covered in A2

 Trigonometry  Basic definitions provided at GCSE level  Calculus and use provided at A2 level  Calculus  Introduction provided at AS level  Expanded at A2  More emphasis given to Differentiation  Applications are not taught or examined  By level 3 this knowledge has been forgotten

 Statistics  Level 1 basic requirements are provided by S1 and S2 modules  Students are lacking in a basic understanding of the meaning and applications of the information studied  In first year assessments, some of the student who have failed the examination have completed the above modules

 Problems have been identified  Surveyed mathematical needs  Identification of how students most effectively learn mathematics  Summer 2011  Generation of pdf descriptions of key mathematical topics  Accompanying podcasts and worked examples (Camtasia)  Provision of mathematical examples placed within a pharmaceutical context

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