Presentation on theme: "Adult ESOL Learners with Emerging Literacy"— Presentation transcript:
1Adult ESOL Learners with Emerging Literacy Robin Lovrien Schwarz,M. Sp.Ed: LD; Ph.D.Consultant in Adult ESOLand Learning Difficulties
2Introduction In this webinar, you will learn what research tells us Learners with little or no literacy and who are attempting to gain literacy in a new language present a special challenge to teachers.In this webinar, you will learn what research tells usAbout adults who have never been to schoolHow acquiring literacy changes the brainWhat this all means in thinking about how to teach these learners to read.
3Persons with NO prior formal education in ANY language Who are These Learners?Persons with NO prior formal education in ANY languageThey are NOT personsWho are literate in a non-Roman alphabet (e.g. Thai, Chinese, Arabic)With limited or interrupted education in another languageWho went to school but did not succeed in becoming literate
4They are Similar to Literate Learners in Many Ways: From many different culture and language backgroundsAll ages --young adult to elderlyMay already be bi/multilingualSurvivors/strong/lots of life experiencesOften successful workers/community members/parentsHave similar goals-- learn English to integrate better, keep or get better jobs, education
5Differences are Significant “Learning to read and write is a revolution in the brain.”Castro-Caldas & Reis, 2003
6When We Learn a Writing System…. Visual images of lettersVisual sequences of letters and wordsTo recognize individual sounds in wordsTo associate letters with sounds, words with picturesAbout grouping, finding similarities (e.g. all things that begin with the letter….)To think of words as “things” that can be manipulated for more meaningTo use both sides of the brain to understandAnd generally to organize incoming information
7Literacy Organizes the Brain: “…Schooling and in particular the knowledge of orthography introduces in the brain new strategies for information processing…” (Castro-Caldas & Reis, 2003)“…Learning to read and write during childhood influences the functional organization of the adult human brain.” (Castro-Caldas, Petersson, Reis, Stone-Elander & Ingvar,1998)“…Brains of illiterate subjects show patterns of activation that are different from those of literate subjects, thus reflecting that environmental conditions can influence brain organization.” (Ostroski-Solis, Garcia & Perez, 2004)
8In Other Words…According to researchers, the brain learns not only the elements of the written system…but it also learns to organize incoming information according to the writing system being learned: For example, readers of English learn to scan visual fields from upper left corner; readers of Arabic scan visual fields from upper right.Information is no longer random in the brain
9Adult Non-literates Have Not Developed Most School Skills Awareness of individual sounds in words; a sense of language associated with printVisual processing and discrimination skills (e.g. seeing what is important in pictures, seeing differences in letters and words)Fine motor skills (for holding writing utensils, writing on lines, in boxes,)Thinking and processing skills which are learned in school
10School is DifficultSome observed behaviors in non/low literate learners:Not knowing how to hold a bookDifficulty finding where to look on a pageConfusion about seeing patterns in workbooks, spelling; not understanding that pages are in sequenceSlowness or difficulty in writing, copyingExtreme difficulty in retaining informationAlphabet/sounds of lettersNames of things--colors, body parts,Slowness or difficulty in generalizing/applying learning
11And Then There is Adult Learning/ Language Learning…. Neuroscience tells us clearly:Adult brain processes more slowlyAdult brain has much harder time perceiving and processing new speech sounds: Language acquisition is often very slow and difficult for adults.Adults attempting literacy in a new language must also contend with new sounds, unfamiliar vocabulary, etc.
12Another Language Complication Adult NL/LLs:No concept of grammar, organization of languageNo language of language (how to talk about parts, elements of language)No knowledge of terms for anything ABOUT language (grammar terms, writing conventions)If L1 is unwritten, these terms do not even exist in those languages
13Think About How LL Learners are Usually Taught….. Alphabet--often both cases at once (about 44 different symbols if using print)Pictures, drawingsCopying letters, writing personal informationUsing linesUsing specific spaces on paperOral skills ( new words, speech sounds)Concept of correctness of language, spellingLiteracy, language terms: Capitals, punctuation, grammar terms etc.
14Yet We Know That….A non-literate person’s brain is not ready for all of that…..So where to start??AT THE BEGINNING!
15We Are NOT Refreshing or Extending Skills! Must start at very beginning in terms of pre-literacy skillsDo it in a way that honors adultsNo rushing or skipping over thingsOlder brain can learn BUT difficult to create new neural pathwaysNo benchmarks for rate of learning--individual progress is measured
16Think about How Children Learn to Read and Write: Spend a long time learning, using, playing with languageSongs, rhymes, games, talking to family & peersLearn to interpret pictures from young ageLearn early to identify and associate individual sounds with letters (alphabet books)Many activities to build fine motor skills so can hold, manipulate pencils, pens, markers
17Children Learning to Read English… Do not begin focusing on middle and final sounds until pre-school or kindergartenRead and write ONLY words they know wellUse many media to learn letters, sequences, visual discrimination: clay, wooden alphabets, paint, sand for tactile input to learn letters
18Multiple Ways of Learning= Better Learning Try this: Have someone “write” an alphabet letter on your back without telling you what it is.Can you identify it??This is because you have more than visual memory of letters--tactile, big muscle, kinesthetic memory,tooYour learners need this input, too!!
19Four Important Areas to Address: ORAL ENGLISH SKILLSVISUAL DISCRIMINATION AND PERCEPTIONFINE MOTOR SKILLSAUDITORY DISCRIMINATION SKILLS (BASIC PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS)
20ORAL SKILLS Keep it REAL: REAL Items in THEIR environment Experiences (visit a grocery store, a health center, a clothing store, a pharmacy)Situations: THEIR jobs, transportation,People: family (REAL family!!) classmates, teachers, members of their communityBuild receptive skills: Total Physical Response (TPR)
21Visual Skills:Use colored photographs (use the internet for these!! (like previous slide!))Take pictures of people, places learners knowAvoid using pictures that are NOT about them or people, places they can identifyPlay visual bingo: students place markers on items named in a pictureMatch pictures to real items, then to drawings of same item to help understand drawings,picturesIntroduce letters by just finding one that is different in size, then different letter --LOTS
22Fine Motor SkillsNeed to strengthen muscles in hand to hold and manipulate writing utensilsStart with “fat” chalk, markers, pencils, pencil gripsUse newsprint and encourage large motor movements--big circles, parallel lines, etc.Use kindergarten lined paper--BIG lines to begin copying one or two letters at a time.Have learners copy MANY times until more automatic; back up to review every day before adding new (They won’t be bored…..)Use children’s activity books: mazes, follow-the-dot etc. to build strength and skill
23Auditory Discrimination Skills Start with hearing “same” or “different” when listening to words --very easy, gradually harder (first letter different)Have learners count words in EVERYTHING you say to them, every response they must say to you ---count on fingersSpeak SLOWLY!! Enunciate!!Stress phonological skills: first sounds, syllables (of words they are learning); final sounds, rhyme (be CAREFUL of term)
24Auditory Discrimination in Grammar Do not teach grammar directly (remember, they have NO idea what grammar IS as a language concept--We do not study it until we can speak, read and write the language….)Instead, focus on the minimal-pair aspect of grammar: hearing the small difference that changes meaning: read/reads; his/he’s; man/men; eat/ate; talk/talkedDo same/different until they can do it WELL--will increase their comprehension enormously, and production will be more accurate.
25Always Move from Concrete to Abstract: Use objects to teach first sound concept;Then use objects to teach concept of “middle” and “final” sounds:Use three objects students knowLine them up. Indicate the “beginning” (left end)Then show beginning, middle final, using objectsAsk students to change them around :Put cup in the middle; put pencil at the end.Keep directions simple, consistent.Switch to alphabet letters when the concept seems clear.
26Some More Tips:Very gradually have students build up sight word knowledge:Survival words, family names, words they see in their environment (Street names, name of the school, names of stores)These are learned like pictures. Students learn to pronounce by listening to you, NOT by sounding out.As motor skills develop, they can add to learning by copying these words.
27More on Sight WordsSight words are IN ADDITION TO all the other skills they are learning.As they gain mastery of beginning sounds, sight words can be sorted that way;Sight words can be part of the auditory discrimination practice--same/differentHelp student make visual record of sight words learned: stickers, bar graph (concept, not whole graph), words on a ring, etc.
28Here’s an Idea:Non-literate persons are mostly unaware of print in their environment. As your learners master some sight words in the classroom, create a scavenger hunt for them outside of the classroom:Make sure you have words that are easily found: Exit, Men, Women, Stop, Street, One Way, Hours, etc.Students have words on a list and cross them off or put a sticker next to each one they find outside the classroom.Be sure to teach them how to do this. Do it in the classroom with them, and then outside the classroom with them until they catch on.
29Acquiring Skills is NOT Boring! Don’t be afraid to have learners practice skills in many ways!For example: sort pictures by beginning sound (and learn the items in the pictures); play bingo with beginning sounds/pictures; make collages of pictures beginning with one soundThey will be motivated by their improvement and by increasing understanding of what they are doing.All these activities involve school skills,too
30Moving into “Real” Reading Without automaticity in these basic skills, reading and writing will remain difficult!!Use sight words to make simple sentences.Keep reading highly personal, relevant, concrete until you sense that the concept that reading conveys a message is being understood.Calling words is NOT reading!!Sounding out words is NOT reading!!Using text to get information IS reading.
31Thank you! This has been a quick overview of a VERY complex issue. I hope you have gotten enough information to know that you need toStart at the VERY beginningMove slowlyAddress all learning channelsEnjoy watching adults begin to move into literacy!!
32Bibliography/Resources Building Phonological Awareness(These are not specifically for non/preliterate adult ESOL, but have excellent ideas--even pictures, to show how phonological skill building is done.--Just avoid using ideas needing TEXT.)Tolman, C. (2005). "Working Smarter, Not Harder: What Teachers of Reading Need to Know and Be Able to Teach." Perspectives 31(4):Edelen-Smith, P. (1997). "How Now Brown Cow: Phoneme Awareness Activities for Collaborative Classrooms." Intervention in School and Clinic 33(2):
33Resources, Cont.Adult English Language Learners with Limited Literacy. Martha Bigelow and Robin Lovrien Schwarz.Reading and Adult English Language Learners: The Role of the First Language:Teaching Low Level Adult ESL Learners:la/esl_resources/digests/HOLT.htmlWhat Non Readers or Beginning Readers Need to Know:
34Resources, cont.American Handwriting Slow and Easy, Janette Haynes (out of print--locate at Amazon.com/textbooks)Making It Real: Teaching Pre-Literate Adult Refugee Students, Croyden, Treat & Bell--Tacoma Community House Training Project