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CSCC69: Operating Systems

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1 CSCC69: Operating Systems
Assignment 2 Some slides are borrowed from CSCC69 offered in winter 2012

2 Virtual Memory Allowing a program to be designed as though there is only one kind of memory, "virtual" memory, which behaves like directly addressable read/write memory (RAM). Need to manage what is in memory (TLB, page table, coremap) Swap pages on request

3 Virtual Memory Translation Look aside Buffer (TLB): is a cache that memory management hardware uses to improve virtual address translation speed. The search key is the virtual address and the search result is a physical address.

4 Virtual Memory TLB hit: if the requested address is present in the TLB; the retrieved physical address can be used to access memory. TLB miss: if the requested address is not in the TLB; the translation proceeds by looking up the page table.

5 TLB Miss When a page is requested but not in memory?
Page fault When there is no more space in main memory to bring in pages? Replace, evict

6 Core Map The core map is a table containing an entry for every physical page frame in the system. For each page frame, a core map entry keeps track of: Is the page frame allocated or free? Which address space is using this page? Which virtual page number within space? Plus possibly other flags, such as whether the page is currently locked in memory for I/O purposes.

7 Swap Space Swap space is used when the amount of physical memory (RAM) is full. If the system needs more memory resources and the RAM is full, inactive pages in memory are moved to the swap space. Swap space is located on hard drives, which have a slower access time than physical memory.

8 OS 161 Page Tables OS/161 paging uses virtual memory objects
struct vm_object defined in src/kern/include/vmprivate.h A VM object defines a region of an address space Contains a base virtual address and an array of pages Redzone - A possible guard band against other vm_objects struct vm_object { struct lpage_array *vmo_lpages; vaddr_t vmo_base; size_t vmo_lower_redzone; };

9 OS 161 Page Tables Each VM object has an array of logical pages (lpages), one for each virtual page in the region lpage stores where the page is in physical memory (lp_paddr), and where the page is stored in swap when not in main memory (lp_swapaddr) If the page is not in RAM, lp_paddr is INVALID_PADDR. If no swap has been allocated, lp_swapaddr is INVALID_SWAPADDR. Low bits of lp_addr used to hold flags (DIRTY, PINNED) Read comments in src/kern/include/vmprivate.h struct lpage { volatile paddr_t lp_paddr; off_t lp_swapaddr; struct spinlock lp_spinlock; };

10 Lpage Operations lpage_create - creates an lpage object.
lpage_destroy - deallocates an lpage, releases any RAM or swap pages involved lpage_lock/unlock - for exclusive access to an lpage lpage_copy - clones an lpage, including the contents lpage_zerofill - materializes an lpage and zero-fill it

11 Coremap Logical pages are nice, but we ultimately need to work with physical memory Need to keep track of physical pages Coremap contains an entry per physical page frame to indicate its status

12 Coremap Inverted page table: Maps pages in memory to their virtual addresses It allows you to use the physical address to find the logical page that inhabits it (NULL if empty) Has bit flags that indicate if pages are kernel pages, pinned (busy), etc. struct coremap_entry { struct lpage *cm_lpage; /* logical page we hold, or NULL */ ... /*flags*/ };

13 Coremap Functions coremap_alloc_one_page(lp, pin): called when a page is needed. None free? Call do_page_replace coremap_{pin, unpin}: pin/unpin a page page_replace: returns number of the page to be evicted Replacement algorithm do_evict: performs the page eviction do_page_replace: starting point for page replacements

14 Coremap_entry vs. lpage
Each lpage entry is a logical piece of memory That memory may be in memory It may also be in swap (on disk) Each lpage points to the location of its data The coremap maps physical memory to virtual When you need physical memory, consult the coremap to see what memory is free Each entry points to an lpage.

15 Coremap_entry vs. lpage

16 MIPS TLB Entry src/kern/arch/mips/include/tlb.h
TLB keeps track of mapping from virtual to physical pages High-order word Virtual page number for lookup (TLBHI_VPAGE) : 20 bits (mask 0xffff000) Also has 6 bits for PID; 6 bits unused in OS/161 Low-order word Physical page number (TLBLO_PPAGE) : 20 bits Also has 4 status bits, and 8 unused bits Eg: V for “valid”, D for “dirty” (“writable”/”referenced”)

17 TLB functions Can be found: tlb_write tlb_read Tlb_probe
src/kern/arch/mips/include/tlb.h tlb_write tlb_read Tlb_probe

18 Address Translation Process

19 MIPS TLB In our case the TLB is software-managed (by the OS)
On memory read/write, checks the entries in the TLB in parallel: Entry is found - TLB hit Entry not found - TLB miss Causes EX_TLBL for loads (reads) Causes EX_TLBS for stores (writes) Protection fault - trying to write to read-only memory causes EX_MOD (modify)

20 TLB Exceptions vm_fault() is called from mips_trap in src/kern/arch/mips/locore/trap.c for any TLB exception Different types of VM_FAULT_* are passed on vm_fault() in src/kern/include/vm.h and src/kern/arch/mips/vm/vm.c vm_fault() calls as_fault() in src/kern/vm/addrspace.c and kern/include/addrspace.h Eventually gets to lpage_fault() in src/kern/vm/lpage.c (this is where you come in) On a TLB miss: Look up the page in the page table Implemented in src/kern/vm/addrspace.c: as_fault() Choose an entry in the TLB to replace it In src/kern/arch/mips/vm/coremap.c: tlb_replace() Update TLB entry with PTE from page table In src/kern/arch/mips/vm/coremap.c: mmu_map()

21 Page Faults – High Level

22 Page Faults Minor fault: TLB does not contain a requested PTE (but it is in memory) Find the Page Table Entry for it and insert the new mapping into the TLB and the coremap See coremap.c for a function you can use! (mmu_map) Major fault: the desired page is not in main memory (it’s either in swap space, or hasn’t been created yet) How do we know if it’s a major fault? lp_paddr field of the lpage struct will tell you lp_paddr is INVALID_PADDR if the page is not in memory

23 Page Faults Major fault: desired page is not in memory
Page hasn’t been created yet A new page is allocated to the process and initialized (zero-filled) in src/kern/vm/addrspace.c: as_fault() Page is in swap We need to swap the page into memory from swap space Need a page of physical memory for the page look at lpage_copy for ideas Set lp_*addr to INVALID_* when appropriate - to indicate page is not in main memory or swap

24 Assignment 2 Implement paging by writing the following functions:
lpage_fault --- handles a page fault lpage_evict --- evicts an lpage from physical memory page_replace --- implements page replacement policy sequential replacement random replacement Much of the system is already provided

25 Page Eviction lpage_evict – evict an lpage from physical memory
Evicts the contents of the page at lp_paddr by writing it to lp_swapaddr on the swap device (if it is dirty), and mark lp_paddr invalid Called by do_evict (in coremap.c) when a physical page is chosen for eviction

26 Page Replacement Updating the victim’s PTE to show that it is in swap
swap functions src/kern/vm/swap.c Copying it to disk (iff it is dirty) Evicting (invalidating) victim’s PTE from the TLB Loading the new page into memory Updating the new page’s PTE and inserting it into the TLB

27 Synchronization OS161 assumes that lpages, vm_objects and address spaces are not shared. But one thread may access an lpage belonging to another thread, in order to evict a page Thus you need not use locks when accessing address spaces and vm_objects, but lpages do need synchronization Bit lock is used to save space (see lpage_lock/lpage_unlock)

28 Synchronization global_paging_lock, limits number of pages pinned at any one time swaplock: used by swap_alloc, swap_free, swap_reserve, swap_unreserve cm_pinned locks pages that are in transit. one bit lock per lpage Lock Ordering (i.e you should acquire in this order): global_paging_lock BEFORE coremap pages BEFORElpages

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