Presentation on theme: "Welcome to the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Learning Module Series"— Presentation transcript:
1Welcome to the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Learning Module Series Liv Haselbach Quinn LangfittFor current modules or visit cem.uaf.edu/CESTiCCAcknowledgements:CESTiCC Washington State University Fulbright
2LCA Module Series Groups Group A: ISO Compliant LCA Overview Modules Group α: ISO Compliant LCA Detailed Modules Group B: Environmental Impact Categories Overview Modules Group β: Environmental Impact Categories Detailed Modules Group G: General LCA Tools Overview Modules Group γ: General LCA Tools Detailed Modules Group T: Transportation-Related LCA Overview Modules Group τ: Transportation-Related LCA Detailed Modules02/2015LCA Module A2
3LCA Requirements and Guidelines: ISO 14044 It is suggested to review Module A1 prior to this moduleModule A202/2015LCA Module A2
4Disclaimer on this Module This module intended only as an overview of ISO by the International Organization for Standardization. It does not include all of the information in that standard and presentation of the information is subject to our interpretations. Therefore, this module is not meant as a replacement for reading the standard when carrying out an ISO compliant LCA, but simply as an introduction to the general requirements.The standard can be purchased from a few sources: ISO ANSI Other standard organizations02/2015LCA Module A2
5ISO 14044:2006 Background LCA Requirements and Guidelines Similar to ISO in:IntroductionTerminology definitionsPhases and overview of processDescribes in more detail the required process for completing a life cycle assessmentFirst and only edition published in 2006Replaces a host of previous ISO LCA standards02/2015LCA Module A2
6ISO LCA Standards Combination Principl es and Frame workISO 14044:2006Requirements and guidelinesISO 14040:1997Principles and frameworkISO 14041:1998Goal and scope definition and inventory analysisISO 14042:2000Life cycle impact assessmentISO 14043:2000Life cycle interpretation02/2015LCA Module A2
7Phases of an LCAImage Sources: Target: wikia.nocookie.net Data: dreamstime.com Earth: business2community.com02/2015LCA Module A2
8Goal Statement LCA Phases Goal statement is the first component of an LCA and guides much of the subsequent analysisGoal must state:Intended useReasons for studyAudienceWhether comparative and disclosed to publicGoal and ScopeLife Cycle InventoryLife Cycle Impact AssessmentInterpretation02/2015LCA Module A2
9All developed to be consistent with the stated goal of the LCA Scope ElementsLCA PhasesAll developed to be consistent with the stated goal of the LCAFunction and functional unitDefine the functional characteristics of the product systemFunctional unit for amount of function achieved, useful as a reference measureSystem boundaryDefine which processes are included in the studyHelpful to include a process flow diagramLCIA methodologyState which impact categories and category indicators are usedState which impact characterization methodology is usedInventory DataObtain either from direct measurement of processes or from secondary sources (or a mix of the two)Include inputs and outputs to air, water, and soilGoal and ScopeLife Cycle InventoryLife Cycle Impact AssessmentInterpretation02/2015LCA Module A2
10All developed to be consistent with the stated goal of the LCA Scope Elements (cont.)LCA PhasesAll developed to be consistent with the stated goal of the LCAData qualityAddress age, geographic coverage, technology coverage, precision, completeness, representativeness, consistency, reproducibility, sources, minimum length of time to collect, and uncertainty.For missing data a zero value, non-zero value, or a calculated value from similar technology should be used and explained.Comparisons between systemsUse the same functional unit, system boundaries, data quality, allocation, and impact assessment procedures (if not possible, identify differences)For publicly disclosed studies must include a critical review and the LCIA phaseCritical ReviewState whether or not a critical review will be conductedDefine how, and by whom, the critical review will be carried outGoal and ScopeLife Cycle InventoryLife Cycle Impact AssessmentInterpretation02/2015LCA Module A2
11Data Collection LCA Phases Collect for each unit process and reference sources, time taken, quality, etc.Clearly define each unit process to prevent overlap in data collectionProvide the following details:Overall process flow diagramsDescription of each unit process with inputs and outputsFlows and operating conditions of each unit processUnits usedDescription of data collection techniquesInstructions to document irregularities and all detailsExample data collection sheet provided in the standardGoal and ScopeLife Cycle InventoryLife Cycle Impact AssessmentInterpretation02/2015LCA Module A2
12Data Classifications LCA Phases Collect data and classify under the following major headingsEnergy inputs, raw material inputs, ancillary inputs, and other physical inputsReleases to air, water, and soilGoal and ScopeLife Cycle InventoryLife Cycle Impact AssessmentInterpretationProducts, co-products and wasteOther environmental aspects02/2015LCA Module A2
13Data Collection Procedure LCA PhasesConsider goal and scopePrepare for data collectionCollect dataValidate dataRelate data to unit process and allocations (reuse, etc.)Relate data to functional unitAggregate dataRefine system boundaryRevise, repeat as neededAlready done if data from literatureAlready done if using databaseGoal and ScopeLife Cycle InventoryLife Cycle Impact AssessmentInterpretation02/2015LCA Module A2
14Life Cycle Impact Assessment LCA PhasesData are converted into potential environmental impactsDuring LCIA determine if:Quality of data sufficient to conduct the LCIASystem boundaries and cut-offs (magnitude of input or output flow that is small enough to be negligible) appropriate to calculate indicator resultsOther methodological choices, like the choice of functional unit or averaging used, decreased the direct linkage between the data collected and environmental impact results obtained, potentially biasing the resultsGoal and ScopeLife Cycle InventoryLife Cycle Impact AssessmentInterpretation02/2015LCA Module A2
15Mandatory Elements LCA Phases Mandatory Elements Characterization ClassificationGoal and ScopeLife Cycle InventoryLife Cycle Impact AssessmentInterpretationMandatory ElementsImpact category selection (Comprehensive set)Category indicator selectionCharacterization model selection (impact methodology)02/2015LCA Module A2
16Mandatory Elements Example LCA PhasesImpact category selection:GWP, AP, EP, ETP, HHNCP, HHCP HHCAP, ODP, SCPCategory indicator selection:kg CO2-eq for GWP, kg SO2-eq for AP, kg N-eq for EP, etc…Characterization model selection:TRACI 2.1* (other options include IMPACT 2002+, eco-indicator 99, CML 2001…)Classification:NH3 (Ammonia) Acidification, HH Particulates, EutrophicationCharacterization:Acidification: 𝑥 𝑘𝑔 𝑁 𝐻 3 𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑘𝑔 𝑆 𝑂 2 −𝑒𝑞 𝑘𝑔 𝑁 𝐻 3 =1.88𝑥 𝑘𝑔 𝑆 𝑂 2 −𝑒𝑞Particulates: 𝑥 𝑘𝑔 𝑁 𝐻 3 𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑘𝑔 𝑃 𝑀 2.5 −𝑒𝑞 𝑘𝑔 𝑁 𝐻 3 =0.067𝑥 𝑘𝑔 𝑃 𝑀 2.5 −𝑒𝑞Eutrophication: 𝑥 𝑘𝑔 𝑁 𝐻 3 𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑘𝑔 𝑁−𝑒𝑞 𝑘𝑔 𝑁 𝐻 3 =0.12𝑥 𝑘𝑔 𝑁−𝑒𝑞Goal and ScopeLife Cycle InventoryLife Cycle Impact AssessmentInterpretationRepeat for each flow, sum results in each impact categoryCharacterization factor02/2015LCA Module A2*TRACI is the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts
17Optional Elements LCA Phases Optional Elements Grouping Weighting NormalizationGoal and ScopeLife Cycle InventoryLife Cycle Impact AssessmentInterpretationData Quality Analysis includesGravity analysis such as Pareto analysis identifies data with the greatest contributionUncertainty analysisSensitivity analysisData Quality AnalysisThese elements can be useful to help decision makers interpret results, but also may introduce additional subjectivity. Inclusion of these elements should be consistent with goal and scope.02/2015LCA Module A2
18Example of terminology for acidification LCA PhasesImpact CategoryAcidification potentialLCI result500 kg SO2, 100 kg NOx , 10 kg HNO3 per functional unitCharacterization ModelTRACI 2.1*Category IndicatorIncrease in acidity in the environment (moles H+)Characterization FactorPotential of each compound to cause acid deposition (such as acid rain) in relation to that of SO2Category Indicator ResultKilograms of SO2-equivalentCategory EndpointsEcosystem effects such as acidic lakes, corrosion to buildings, damage to plantsEnvironmental RelevanceIncreased emissions of species such as nitric oxides and sulfur oxides directly contribute to increases in environmental acidity, depending on transport and chemistry models, such as in the form of acid rain.Goal and ScopeLife Cycle InventoryLife Cycle Impact AssessmentInterpretation*TRACI is the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts02/2015LCA Module A2
19Comparative Assessment LCIA LCA PhasesNo weighting allowedSufficiently comprehensive set of category indicatorsCategory indicators should be scientifically valid, environmentally relevant, and internationally acceptedNot sole basis for decisionsMust include sensitivity and uncertainty analysesIf grouping used then there are lots of additions (caveats) required as in Section 5.3.2Goal and ScopeLife Cycle InventoryLife Cycle Impact AssessmentInterpretation02/2015LCA Module A2
20Takes the form of conclusions and recommendations InterpretationTakes the form of conclusions and recommendationsLCA PhasesIdentify significant issues with:Inventory dataImpact categoriesSignificant contributions from life cycle stagesInclude information on:Assembled findings from LCI and LCIAMethodologies usedValue choicesLimitationsRoles of interested parties in compilation and reviewConsider the following that may be critically reviewed:Completeness checkSensitivity checkConsistency checkGoal and ScopeLife Cycle InventoryLife Cycle Impact AssessmentInterpretationCompleteness check is making sure all relevant data all data needed for a sound interpretation was includedSensitivity check is examining how much uncertainty might have affected resultsConsistency check is making sure that the assumptions, methods, and data were consistent with the stated goal and scope02/2015LCA Module A2
21Critical Review LCA Phases Process intended to ensure consistency between a life cycle assessment and the principles and requirements of the lnternational Standards on life cycle assessment*Done by an independent third partyDefined in the scopeRequired if comparative and disclosed to the publicAll LCA phases might be critically reviewed, with the exception of the goalAnswers the questions in the following slideGoal and ScopeLife Cycle InventoryLife Cycle Impact AssessmentInterpretationCompleteness check is making sure all relevant data all data needed for a sound interpretation was includedSensitivity check is examining how much uncertainty might have affected resultsConsistency check is making sure that the assumptions, methods, and data were consistent with the stated goal and scope02/2015LCA Module A2*ISO 14044
22Responsibilities of Critical Review Study is transparent and consistent?Methods scientifically and technically valid?Methods consistent with ISO 14044?Interpretations reflect limitations and goal?Data appropriate and reasonable for scope?02/2015LCA Module A2
23Thank you for completing Module A2! Group A: ISO Compliant LCA Overview ModulesGroup α: ISO Compliant LCA Detailed ModulesGroup B: Environmental Impact Categories Overview ModulesGroup β: Environmental Impact Categories Detailed ModulesGroup G: General LCA Tools Overview ModulesGroup γ: General LCA Tools Detailed ModulesGroup T: Transportation-Related LCA Overview ModulesGroup τ: Transportation-Related LCA Detailed ModulesPlease remember that this presentation is not intended as a replacement for reading ISO when carrying out an LCA.
25What is the first step of the data collection procedure? Refine system boundaryConsider the goal and scopeCollect data
26Correct!Since all procedures need to be consistent with the goal and scope, this is generally the first consideration when starting any process in LCA
27What is the difference between ISO 14040 and ISO 14044? ISO is the updated version of ISO 14040ISO describes life cycle assessment procedures, while ISO is an example of a life cycle assessment.ISO is the general introduction to life cycle assessment concepts and procedures, while ISO includes more details about the procedures.
28Correct!ISO simply gives more detail-oriented guidance about the specific procedures for completing an LCA
29Which of these is an optional element of the LCIA phase? GroupingCharacterizationClassificationNone of the above
30Correct!Grouping, weighting, normalization, and additional quality analysis are all optional steps of the LCIA phase.
31Can the Goal and Scope be updated after completing the LCI stage? No, it must be left as originally writtenYes, but it should be avoided if possibleYes, this type of iterative process is encouraged and can strengthen results
32Correct!The entire process of life cycle assessment is iterative between each phase to accommodate incorporation of new information at any point.