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E. T. S. I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos1 Part 0 Engineering Computation

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E. T. S. I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos2 Introduction Objectives 1. Broad introduction to Numerical Methods for engineering as a general and fundamental tool for all engineering disciplines (numerical calculus, numerical analysis, and probability & statistics). 2. Literacy in 2 higher-level programming tools widely used in engineering for numerical methods and graphics: Excel and MATLAB. 3. Illustrate and discuss how numerical methods are used in engineering practice, industry, and research. 4. Show some applications of Numerical methods to Civil Engineering

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E. T. S. I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos3 Introduction ENGCOMP Course outline 0. Spreadsheets (Excel) and MATLAB. 1. Approximation, errors, and precision; introduction to numerical differentiation. 2. Roots of functions of one variable. 3. Simultaneous linear equations: - tri-diagonal, LU decomposition, iterative solutions; - norms, condition number, operation counting. 4.Introductory probability & statistics 5. Curve-fitting, regression, and cubic splines. 6. Numerical integration and differentiation. 7. Numerical solution of ODE’s. 8. Introduction to numerical solutions of PDE’s.

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E. T. S. I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos4 Introduction Why are Numerical Methods so widely used in Engineering? Engineers use mathematical modeling (equations and data) to describe and predict behavior of systems. Closed-form (analytical) solutions are only possible and complete for simple problems (geometry, properties, etc.). Digital computers are widely available, powerful, and cheap. Powerful software packages are available (special or general purpose).

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E. T. S. I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos5 Introduction Applications of Numerical Methods in Engineering? Structural/mechanical analysis, design, and behavior: Buildings, dams, bridges, towers Plants, assembly lines, machines Communication/power Network simulation Train and traffic networks Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD): Weather prediction Groundwater & pollutant movement Ocean circulation Dam break and flood routing

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E. T. S. I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos6 Introduction Why study Numerical Methods? Numerical Analysis is a Discipline: Need to understand concepts and theory - Know what problems can be solved. - Know what problems cannot be solved, or when problems will be troublesome. Need to understand methods and techniques - Know why methods work, or judge when they are working. - Be able to create or modify tools (software) as needed. - Evaluate errors, convergence, and stability of arithmetic approximations.

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E. T. S. I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos7 Introduction Why study Numerical Methods? (continued) Use of Numerical Methods is an Art: Numerical methods are approximate. The most appropriate method(s) is not always obvious. Evaluating precision and accuracy is an essential part of the process.

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E. T. S. I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos8 Introduction Instructor:Prof. Enrique Castillo Escuela de Ingenieros de Caminos Universidad de Cantabria castie@unican.es Office Hours: any time by appointment Teaching Assistants : Carmen SordoPS office hours & grading

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E. T. S. I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos9 Introduction Computing Languages: Spreadsheets – Microsoft Excel (w/Visual Basic) Numerical Languages – MATLAB Electronic Communication by e-mail: e-Mail with Eudora or Web Email Computer assignments will be submitted as attachments via e-mail: castie@unican.es Word, Excel, & MATLAB documents as enclosures documents will be distributed via the ENGCOMP web page. http://personales.unican.es/castie/

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E. T. S. I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos10 Introduction ENGCOMP Course Materials Required Textbook and Notes: Chapra & Canale, Numerical Methods for Engineers, 4th Ed., 2002 Recommended Texts: Palm, Introduction to MATLAB for Engineers. The MathWorks, The Student Edition of MATLAB. Pratap, Getting Started with MATLAB. Kuncicky, Introduction to EXCEL. Will Distribute handouts via course web page, e.g.: "Introduction to Spreadsheets: Using Microsoft EXCEL" "Primer on MATLAB"

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E. T. S. I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos11 Bibliography –Chapra S. C., Canale R. P., “Métodos Numéricos para Ingenieros”, Mc. Graw- Hill,1999. Tercera Edición. –Burden R. L., Raires J. D., “Análisis Numérico”. Ed. Grupo Editorial Iberoamericana,1998. Sexta Edición. –Kincaid D., Cheney W., “Análisis Numérico”. Addison-Wesley Iberoamericana,1994. –Press W. H., Teukolsky S. A., Vetterling W. T., Flannery B. P., “Numerical Recipes in C. The Art of Scientific Computing”. Cambridge University Press. Second Edition. –Press W. H., Teukolsky S. A., Vetterling W. T., Flannery B. P., “Numerical Recipes in C. Example Book (C)”. Cambridge University Press. Second Edition. –Stoer J., Burlirsch R., “Introduction to Numerical Analysis”, Springer Verlag, Berlin,1992. –Michael T. Heat, “Scientific Computing: An Introductory Survey”, Ed. Mc Grawn Hill. –Gander W., et al. “Solving Problems in Scientific Computing using Maple and Matlab”, Springer Verlag, Berlin,1993. –Mathews, J. H., Kurtis D. F., “Métodos Numéricos con Matlab”, Prentice Hall Iberia, D. L. 1999. –Ottosen, N., Petersson H., “Introduction to the Finite Element Method”, Prentice Hall, 1992. –Herrero, H., Díaz Cano, A, “Informática Aplicada a las Ciencias y a la Ingeniería con Matlab”, E. T. S. de Ingenieros Industriales. UCLM.

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E. T. S. I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos12 Introduction Weekly Assignments Problem Sets (PS) due Tuesday - teams of 3; work together, check each other - teams to be formed by F, October. 10 - first PS due on T, October. 10 Computer Assignments (CA) due Friday -teams of 3; work together, learn from each other -submit electronically -first CA due next week (F, Oct. 10) -CA01 is on the ENGCOMP web page Assignment submissions must follows the standards described on the course web page.

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E. T. S. I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos13 Mathematical Models Grades & Tentative Weighting (Letter Grade only): Computer Assignments (CA)20% For 2 Prelims 40% Final Exam 20% Attendance & participation & various20% Because ENGCOMP serves to fulfill a College computing requirement, to pass the course, you MUST pass all but one Spreadsheet assignments and all but one MATLAB assignments with a grade of C- or better.

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E. T. S. I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos14 Mathematical Models Evening Preliminary exams: Prelim 1: November 26, 16.00. Prelim 2: To be anounced. Final exam To be anounced All exams will be open book. Be sure to bring your textbook, notebook, pocket calculator, and a writing implement to all exams.

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E. T. S. I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos15 Introduction Teams Objectives: - To simulate professional practice, students will work in teams when doing the homework and computer assignments. - Research shows it is advantageous for the teams to be of mixed ability and for all team members to take responsibility for the work and success of other team members. Implementation: - Teams will be organized freely or assigned by the Professor. - All members of every team will be responsible for the accuracy and completeness of the assignment and any violations of academic integrity.

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E. T. S. I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos16 Bridge crane design example Design elements : top plate, bottom plate, web, etc. Bridge girder

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E. T. S. I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos17 Modes of failure

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E. T. S. I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos18 Modes of failure

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E. T. S. I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos19 Retaining wall example Geometry: heel, stem and toe dimensions, soil cover, etc.

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E. T. S. I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos20 Retaining wall example (Failure Modes) 1. Sliding failure 2. Overturning failure 3. Bearing capacity failure 4. Stem bending failure 5. Stem shear failure 6. Toe bending failure 7. Toe shear failure 8. Heel bending failure 9. Heel shear failure

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E. T. S. I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos21 Vertical Breakwater

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E. T. S. I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos22 Failure modes

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E. T. S. I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos23 Failure modes

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E. T. S. I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos24 Solution

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