Presentation on theme: "A2 Psychology Hampton College"— Presentation transcript:
1A2 Psychology Hampton College Psya3 Aggressive BehaviourLearning outcomes:To find out why people become aggressiveBe aware of the different situations in which aggression can existUse the explanations to reduce aggressive behaviourMiss Keightley
2A2 Psychology Overview – resit revision for AS papers at Friday lunch Psya3Psya4AggressionSleepEating behaviourGenderSchizophreniaResearch methodsAddictive behaviour
3A2 key issues to be aware of Longer essaysMore research and independent study neededForm arguments and make solid conclusionsIssues, debates and approachesIssues – science, ethics, the use of animals,Debates- nature vs nurture, reductionism, free will vs determinismApproaches- psychodynamic, cognitive, biological, behavioural and humanistic
4A’ level Psychology – assessment criteria Ao1 – knowledge (description of a theory) Ao2 – application (applying the theory to an unfamiliar setting, using research to support/contradict a theory, using other examples such as those from the news/media) and evaluation (pros and cons for theories and research) Ao3 – links to science, use of IDA, conclusions
5A2 Psychology HomeworkSet every Monday due for the following Monday Every Monday you come with all parts of the homework If you are missing any of it for whatever reason you will be sent away and marked as absent You should spend 4- 5 hrs a week on Psychology homework 1 part- study work (reading and making notes) 2nd part- essay/project/presentation preparation/research All research should be hand written Any homework problems see me before Monday
6Learning objectives for Monday 6/09/10 Be able to define aggressionBe aware of the social psychological approach to aggressionBe able to apply such theories to real life aggressionHomework due for 13/09/10Read and make notes on the social psychological approach to aggression (hand written using a textbook/other sources beyond the lesson, minimum 2 sides)Study- research and find examples of prison violence/riots (include details to allow you to identify potential causes)Extension workMake notes on research evidence linking video game violence to actual violence. Evaluate the conclusions drawn (essay style).
7Aggression - AQA exam criteria Social psychological approaches to explaining aggressionSocial psychological theories of aggression, for example, social learning theory, deindividuationExplanations of institutional aggression for example prison aggressionBiological explanations of aggressionThe role of neural and hormonal mechanisms in aggressionThe role of genetic factors in aggressive behaviourAggression as an adaptive responseEvolutionary explanations of human aggression, including infidelity and jealousyExplanations of group display in humans, for example sports events and lynch
8Connection – Think of some examples of real life aggression Pick 3 of these and attempt to explain why they may have occurred e.g. serial stabber in America – possibly a serial killer, gaining something from stabbing (psychological/physical)
9Exploring the causes of aggression –Zidane’s head butting episode Dano Sonnex
10Hugh McFall – murdered wife and daughter Hugh battered his wife and daughter with a mallet in the middle of the night. He then committed suicide. He apologised in the note. The acts were linked to financial trouble he was believed to be in.
11Cultural variationsWhat is ‘aggression’ varies depending on where you are in the world and the time period. For instance, you see a female being hit by a male, clear example of domestic violence. Is this acceptable in the UK?
12Somalia A 13 year old girl was raped by 3 men. Her father reported it to the police only for them to declare it an act of adultery under Islamic lawShe was stoned to death on 27th October 2008 by a group of 50 men1000 spectators1 boy tried to stop it and he was shot dead
13Iran16th October 2008 the death penalty for under 18 year olds was discussed.It was decided that they would no longer execute under 18s as a matter of courseHowever, certain cases may still go to the death penalty but this is to be privateAt the moment 130 under 18s await the death penalty
14TurkeyFerhat Gerçek was only 17 when he was shot in the back and left paralysed by a policeman in Turkey. That was in October Nearly three years later, there has still been no proper investigation into what happened and not one police officer has been suspended. Instead of being free to start piecing his life back together, is himself on trial. Ferhat was selling with other young people, a legal political magazine when he was shot.
15Cultural factorsWhat specifically in the UK causes us to be aggressive?
16Defining aggressionHostile- caused by being provoked/upset. Aim to harmInstrumental- to gain a reward, e.g. money, means to an endPro-social- aggression to prevent greater harm, e.g. police shoot a terroristTony Martin shot burglars- what type of aggression is this?
17Social psychological approaches Social Learning Theory-‘of the many cues that influence behaviour, at any time, none is more common than the actions of others’Bandura, 86
18Social LearningTheory Aggression- will take place if it is:Associated with a reward (e.g. praise/self-esteem)A result of indirect/direct learningBerkowitz and Bandura – aggression is instinctive but it is more the product of learning.
19Social learning theory Bandura (77) 4 steps to modelling:1-Attention2-Retention3-Reproduction4-MotivationEvidenceIndividuals are more likely to imitate others if it results in outcome they like; model is similar to the observer; task observed is easy/v.hardStudy- modelling and Bobo dollsVariation-Bandura: children not allowed to play for 10 mins, got frustrated then was more aggressive with the dollEvaluation – ethical?Studies
20Learned through direct experience Skinner’s principle of operant reinforcement Learned by vicarious experience, e.g. a child learns a behaviour from seeing a role model do something.
21Observing aggressionMost common aggression is reinforced by family membersSiegel (92) the boy who sees his father attack his mother, is more likely to become violentAggression is also more likely to be replicated if it is more life likeIt is also more likely to be replicated if the viewer identifies with the aggressor
22Evaluating SLTThink back to the examples you provided at the beginning of the lesson Can SLT explain all of them? What are the advantages and disadvantages of SLT? How useful is it as a theory? If what they are arguing is true, what implications does this have?
23Key evaluation pointsIs the research scientific? Is the theory based on scientific research? What is the sample like? Is the theory reductionist (focusing on one aspect, ignoring others)? Does the theory treat us as if we have no control over our behaviour (deterministic) or does it suggest we have a choice (free-will)? Were animals used in the study? How useful is it? What are the implications for the real world? Does the research have relevance for today’s real world (ecological validity)?
24SLT – what does this all mean for TV/film/video game violence? AdvantagesDisadvantagesResearch does support the principles of SLTThere is a correlation between domestic violence carried out by children as adults who have witnessed their fathers committing such actsRelies heavily on experimental evidenceResearch lacks ecological validityThe research was accused of creating demand characteristicsReductionist explanation
25Media violence – can it lead to actual violence? The Matrix murders Manhunter game Natural born killers Marilyn Manson
26Your studyIn pairs, read through your study/review of media violence leading to actual violence. Sum up the aims, procedure, results and conclusions for the class Include an advantage or a disadvantage
27Media influence research – does tv/film violence lead to actual violence? Group 1- Charlton Group 2- Bandura et al Group 3- Hodge and Tripp Group 4- The National TV Violence study Group 5- Glasgow Media Group Group 6- Buckingham
28Do individuals really consider the consequences before being aggressive? Discuss in pairs, use real life examples.
29Summary - SLT What are the main ideas of SLT? What are the key principles of behaviourism?Give one study to support SLT.Provide one advantage and one disadvantage for the theory.How useful is it as a theory to explain aggression?Extension- how would Freud account for aggression?Which theory do you support the most?
30Deindividuation: presence of a group leads individual members to feel anonymous and act differently When are we deindividuated?Why would this change our behaviour?
31The evidence Zimbardo (71) prison study Zimbardo advertised for men to participate in a prison simulation experiment.The aim was to demonstrate the power of social roles on an individual’s behaviour.24 men tested as psychologically and physically fit were used, they were randomly selected to prisoner or guard condition.It was intended to last 2 weeks but this was stopped after 6 days.The guards gradually began to treat the prisoners very poorly, waking them up in the middle of the night to force confrontation and deliberately humiliating them.
33Zimbardo (1969)In one study, participants were rendered anonymous by clothing them in oversized lab coats and hoods, compared with normal clothes and name tags in the control condition. The participants' task was to shock a confederate in a situation similar to the classic Milgram studies on obedience. In a first experiment using groups of female students, Zimbardo demonstrated that anonymous participants shocked longer (and therefore more painfully) than identifiable participants.
34Mann (81) ‘baiting crowd’ Mann analysed 21 incident of suicide reported in newspapers in the 60s and 70s.In 10 / 21 cases where a crowd had gathered to watch, baiting had occurred, they had shouted ‘jump’.
35. Zimbardo (69) WHY WERE PEOPLE AGGRESSIVE? -individuated behaviour -deindividuated behaviourLeBon (1895) studied French riots in the 1900s and devised a theory to explain why crowds can sometimes become violent. 1. Contagion (ideas and emotions spread rapidly); 2. Suggestibility (in this situation we are more easily suggestible); 3. Anonymity (if we can’t be identified, we behave differently to normal, usually for the worse)
36Darkened room arousal study Gergen et al. (73)Men and women asked to interact for an hour in an environmental chamberOnly instructions- there are no rulesDarkLights onResults: 1-participants were bored2. Hugged, 89% intentionally touched each other, funDEINIDIVIDUATION DOES NOT ALWAYS LEAD TO AGGRESSION
37Football hooliganismCan the ideas of deinidividuation be applied to football hooliganism? Marsh (78) argued that football hooliganism is more about ritualised aggression and gaining status than as a result of deindividuation.
38Evaluating deindividuation Can this explanation account for your type of aggression?
39Evaluating deindividuation AdvantagesDisadvantagesWidely supported by real and experimental evidenceCannot explain mass acts of kindness such as charity eventsAre some of the behaviours due to the associations they have with the outfits when asked to dress up (the KKK effect)Marsh and others have provided alternative explanations for football hooliganism
40Exam questionOutline and evaluate one social psychological aggression (9 marks + 16 marks)
41Institutional aggression- why are people aggressive in hospitals and prisons? .
42Prison violence has increased nearly six-fold between 1996 and 2005, Home Office figures show
43Importation modelPrisoners bring their own social histories/traits to prison (Irwin and Cressey, 62). An individual who has a good reputation/self view outside of prison, will have a good self view within prison. Someone who rates violence highly outside of prison, will rate it highly inside prison. Dano Sonnex- 83 convictions against his family, all had served time in prison.
44Deprivation modelPrison aggression may well be due to inmates being deprived of many thingsThis deprivation makes social relationships difficult when they leave prison/whilst in thereSykes (58) deprivations:Of libertyOf autonomyOf goods and servicesOf heterosexual relationshipsOf security
45The Popcorn model (Folger and Skarlicki, 95) This says that the first person to become aggressive is like the first piece of corn to pop when the saucepan is heated.What caused the heat in the first place that led the first person to be aggressive?This suggests prisoners that are not normally aggressive may become so in prison due to the heat.
46Management Model (Dilulio, 87) Aggression in prisons happens because of failed management, high staff turnover and a lack of discipline among staff.McCorkle et al. (95)Study of 371 US state prisonsMeasures of both individual and group aggressionResults showed there was a stronger link between administration practices and aggression, e.g. ratio of white to black staff was linked to aggression.To reduce aggression- they recommended educational programmes. Likely to motivate people.
47Evaluation of situational models ConConsistent levels of stress in prisons –situational models do not account for sudden riots appearingProRichards (07) examined inmate-on staff and inmate-on staff aggression and found levels of aggression varied from institution to institutionLight (91) found that over 25% of prison violence had no apparent reason/motiveFemale aggression is completely different, strong bonds are typical amongst female inmates, aggression is due to other reasons
48Biological explanations of aggression Hormonal and neural mechanisms play a role in aggressionTestosterone and aggression are linked in adolescent males (Olweus et al 88) and females (Ehlers et al. 80)Testosterone in females is particularly influential when there is too much of it directly after birth and in adulthood
49Testosterone and aggression Mostly studied in non-human animalsInvolves removing and replacing hormonesCastration-one technique that leads to a significant decrease in testosteroneWhen testosterone is replaced in these animals, aggression increases (Simpson, 01)Bethold (1849) noted behavioural changes in cockerals when castrated and then when testes were replacedIs linked to birth date- castration near birth has the most effect
50Testosterone- how does it affect animals and people? Interacts with androgen and oestrogen receptorsDuring the critical period after birth changes can lead to a sensitive period allowing for the effects of testosterone that manifest in adulthood.Presence of serotonin can reduce effects of testosteroneSubtraction and replacement- testosterone paradigm, appears to have supportBut when a castrated animal is given 4 times the normal amount of testosterone, they are aggressive (Sapolsky, 97)
52Bernhardt et al (98)Has shown that males watching sports teams win/lose show increased levels of testosteroneHighly committed males also demonstrate a rise in testosterone just by anticipating wins/lossesResearch –Male fans watching basketball games at Georgia Tech (91)Tracked males watching Brazilian and Italian teams playing in the football World Cup Final in 94.Saliva samples were collected from both before and after the games. Results found testosterone increased by 20% when watching winning teams and decreased by 20 % when watching losing teams.
53Less physical sports Chess Mazur et al. (92) Losing a chess match also depressed testosterone levels
54Effects of aggressive behaviour after traumatic brain injury Tateno et al. (03)Brain injury- led to patients behaving more aggressively. Why?89 males with closed head injury in 2 hospitals in Iowa. Different types of brain injury were determined.No difference in aggressive levels, but there was a clear difference in the part of brain damaged and aggression-frontal lobe damage contribute to depression and aggression.
55Evaluations of links between aggression and testosterone Not so clear cutWhat causes what?Tomaszewski et al (03) 933 men- no differences in testosterone in angry and aggressive men and those that are not angry/aggressiveGreat deal of theory is based on animal studies
56The role of genetic factors Research suggests genetics have an influence on aggressionWorks alongside environmental factors (Sternberg, 03)Turner (07) aggression in pigs is inheritedHeritability studies; reverse genetics, cloning DNAMutant mice can be bred without serotonin, they are twice as aggressive compared to normal mice
57Gene –monoamine oxidase A Mice that lack it, show serious anger management problemsCaspi et al (02) studied 1037 children born in 1972 in New Zealand studied until 26.MAOA activity predicted aggression until adulthood. Linked to crime.
58Lombroso Criminals look a certain way, genes determine this Violent criminals are biologically differentTwin studies
59Evaluating biological approaches to aggression AdvantagesDisadvantagesScientific evidenceReductionistIgnores environmental influencesSome of the research is unethicalMost research is based on animals (ratmorphism)
60Nature vs nurture Half- nature Half-nurture Is aggression a product of nature or nurture?Refer to real life examples/studies, your own opinions
61EvolutionaryAggression must have an adaptive function otherwise we would not be aggressive – Wilson (75)Aggression-instinctive and innateSupermale syndrome in prisons
62The Evolutionary approach Combines anthropology, cognitive science, neuroscience and evolutionary biologyInnate brain functions and knowledge help an individual to adapt to their environment
63Human aggressionFromm – we are aggressive for similar reasons to animalsNelson- argues aggression needs to be studied:-learning process; structural causes (eg. without society’s rules); and psychological causes
64Evolutionary explanations Darwin-Origin of the Species (1859)-aggression has an adaptive response-aids survival-groups-mates and procreation-offspringLorenz – we copy animals in these 4 ways:HungerAggressionFearReproduction
65Aggression serves as an important function –for individual survival and procreation Competition arises when resources are limitedAggression- is beneficial to the speciesNewman et al (05) aggression in macaque monkeys has been evident for 25 million yearsHumans might be ‘programmed’ for violenceInherited fighting instinct (Lorenz)
66Are humans programmed for violence? Freud’s ‘death’ instinct‘Survival of the fittest’ has bred aggression in human beings. Human nature is to be aggressive.Natural selection
67Aggression –evolutionary view point Smuts (95) aggression in male primates is used to sexually coerce femalesFemale primates often form strong bonds to combat this aggression from malesMales dominance is sexually attractive (Sadalla, Kenrick and Vershure, 87)Buss and Malamuth (96) women tend to pick men who are able to provide resources
68.Craig- 1st attempt to study aggression from an evolutionary point of viewConcept of Ritualised Aggression –aggression is often for show/power not for damage. Psychologists often believe this to be true of most acts of hooliganismWaller- looked at acts of genocide: aggression takes place because of the ‘in/out group’, inevitable nature of aggression
69A modern example of evolutionary aggression - Infidelity and jealousy Daly and Wilson (88) high proportion of murders are due to male jealousy.
70Infidelity leads to violence Sexual infidelity –a behaviour that involves the formation of a emotional attachment to or affection for another99% believe their partners will be faithful11% of women admit to cheating; 21% of men admit to cheatingMost attention on partner not the person who cheats with themEvolutionary- argues men will be more aggressive at infidelity as their child may not be theirs, whereas a female can always be certain the child is their child
71JealousyHarvey et al – sums up the research, claims that there are no simple explanations for jealousyCascardi and Vivian –participants claim most acts of aggression in relationships are due to jealousy
72Proximity and weaponsTechnological advances mean that aggression doesn’t have to be close to the victim, bombs etc can be dropped without direct exposure to the victim(Tin Bergen)
73Difficulties of this approach We are not animalsNot all aggression is over territory/survival etcUse of weapons etc make human aggression incomparableKrueger- evolutionary psychologists concern themselves with aggression and how skills etc are used and why, e.g. aggression is linked to reproductive successBuss- caution is needed when assuming aggression is mostly male on male
74Group displays of aggression Deindividuation3 key things: anonymity; group size and diffusion of responsibilityBystander apathy (pluralistic ignorance)Contagion theory- hypnotic effect on peopleConvergence- like minded individuals come togetherEmergent norm theory (Turner and Killian, 87)Social identity theory (Reicher, 87)
75Contagion theory Groups exert a hypnotic effect on their members This effect alongside anonymity creates ‘moblike’ behaviourBehaviour that occurs is a result of the group not prexisting behaviour
76Emergent norm (Turner and Killian, 87) Crowd behaviour is not irrational or unpredictableGroups of similar people get together for similar reasons, e.g. concerts/protestsThe collective purpose may alter their normal behaviour, norms become different due to the cause
77Emergent norm (Turner and Killian, 87) One problem for instance can unit people that otherwise would not be unitedHogg and Abram (88) the group lacks stabile organisation, so other issues bind groups togetherMembers of a group communicate together to make apparent norms/values of the groupOften influenced by disatisfaction
78Social identity theory (Reicher, 87) Group behaviour involves inter-group behaviour, e.g. opposing sports fans, confrontations with the policeOften with the absence of direct confrontation, there is symbolic confrontationPeople do not lose their identity in a group but they share the identity of the groupOutgroup and ingroup
79Group displays for aggression Frustration aggression - DollardEnvironmental stressors may increase frustration. Dollard et al (39) frustration always leads to aggression.Frustration triggers aggression in shock studies (Geen and Berkowitz)Cues also increase aggression-participants when given the opportunity shock another, were more inclined to do so when a gun was next to the shocking machine (Berkowitz and LePage, 67)
80Relative deprivation theory Gap between what we have and what we want-if too big, we feel aggrieved and justified for being violent.Runciman (66) 2 forms of relative deprivation:-egotistic deprivation: compared to similar individuals-fraternalistic deprivation: compared to other groupse.g. Trade Union protests
81Frustration-aggression hypothesis Environmental stressors may increase frustration. Dollard et al (39) frustration always leads to aggression.Frustration triggers aggression in shock studies (Geen and Berkowitz)Cues also increase aggression-participants when given the opportunity shock another, were more inclined to do so when a gun was next to the shocking machine (Berkowitz and LePage, 67)
82Environmental stressors What about your environment causes aggression?
83Environmental stressors Overcrowding- Calhoun (62) ‘behavioural sink’ –overcrowding in ratsTemperature-Baron and Ransbuerger (78) collective violence in the US-heat.Pain- Berkowitz et al. (79) participants hands in hot/cold water condition.Caused greater pain to another when in the cold water condition.Noise-Glass et al (69) found unpredictable noise has a ‘psychic’ cost, can’t be ignored. Noise-frustration.Lack of control- Donnerstein et al (76) participants were angrier when they had control over a button for shocks.
84Aggression recap questions What is deinividuation and how is it linked to aggression?Which hormone is linked to aggression?Give one theory of why prisoners become aggressiveWhat does the relative deprivation model argue?Which gene is linked to aggression?
85Aggression exam style questions Compare and contrast social psychological explanations of aggression with one other (25)Outline explanations of group displays of aggression (25)Describe one or more psychological accounts of institutional aggression (25)Evaluate the evolutionary approach to aggression (12)
86Aggression key psychologists Dollard Berkowitz Bandura Lorenz Darwin Daly and Wilson Irwin and Cressey Folger and Skarlicki Runciman Reicher Turner and Killian Zimbardo LeBon Marsh
87Michael Roberts murdered his wife Michael Roberts murdered his wife after telling her about his infidelities.What type of aggression is this?Can SLT explain such acts?How would Freud explain such acts?Do you think such acts occur in all cultures?