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A2 Psychology Hampton College

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1 A2 Psychology Hampton College
Psya3 Aggressive Behaviour Learning outcomes: To find out why people become aggressive Be aware of the different situations in which aggression can exist Use the explanations to reduce aggressive behaviour Miss Keightley

2 A2 Psychology Overview – resit revision for AS papers at Friday lunch
Psya3 Psya4 Aggression Sleep Eating behaviour Gender Schizophrenia Research methods Addictive behaviour

3 A2 key issues to be aware of
Longer essays More research and independent study needed Form arguments and make solid conclusions Issues, debates and approaches Issues – science, ethics, the use of animals, Debates- nature vs nurture, reductionism, free will vs determinism Approaches- psychodynamic, cognitive, biological, behavioural and humanistic

4 A’ level Psychology – assessment criteria
Ao1 – knowledge (description of a theory) Ao2 – application (applying the theory to an unfamiliar setting, using research to support/contradict a theory, using other examples such as those from the news/media) and evaluation (pros and cons for theories and research) Ao3 – links to science, use of IDA, conclusions

5 A2 Psychology Homework Set every Monday due for the following Monday Every Monday you come with all parts of the homework If you are missing any of it for whatever reason you will be sent away and marked as absent You should spend 4- 5 hrs a week on Psychology homework 1 part- study work (reading and making notes) 2nd part- essay/project/presentation preparation/research All research should be hand written Any homework problems see me before Monday

6 Learning objectives for Monday 6/09/10
Be able to define aggression Be aware of the social psychological approach to aggression Be able to apply such theories to real life aggression Homework due for 13/09/10 Read and make notes on the social psychological approach to aggression (hand written using a textbook/other sources beyond the lesson, minimum 2 sides) Study- research and find examples of prison violence/riots (include details to allow you to identify potential causes) Extension work Make notes on research evidence linking video game violence to actual violence. Evaluate the conclusions drawn (essay style).

7 Aggression - AQA exam criteria
Social psychological approaches to explaining aggression Social psychological theories of aggression, for example, social learning theory, deindividuation Explanations of institutional aggression for example prison aggression Biological explanations of aggression The role of neural and hormonal mechanisms in aggression The role of genetic factors in aggressive behaviour Aggression as an adaptive response Evolutionary explanations of human aggression, including infidelity and jealousy Explanations of group display in humans, for example sports events and lynch

8 Connection – Think of some examples of real life aggression
Pick 3 of these and attempt to explain why they may have occurred e.g. serial stabber in America – possibly a serial killer, gaining something from stabbing (psychological/physical)

9 Exploring the causes of aggression
–Zidane’s head butting episode Dano Sonnex

10 Hugh McFall – murdered wife and daughter
Hugh battered his wife and daughter with a mallet in the middle of the night. He then committed suicide. He apologised in the note. The acts were linked to financial trouble he was believed to be in.

11 Cultural variations What is ‘aggression’ varies depending on where you are in the world and the time period. For instance, you see a female being hit by a male, clear example of domestic violence. Is this acceptable in the UK?

12 Somalia A 13 year old girl was raped by 3 men.
Her father reported it to the police only for them to declare it an act of adultery under Islamic law She was stoned to death on 27th October 2008 by a group of 50 men 1000 spectators 1 boy tried to stop it and he was shot dead

13 Iran 16th October 2008 the death penalty for under 18 year olds was discussed. It was decided that they would no longer execute under 18s as a matter of course However, certain cases may still go to the death penalty but this is to be private At the moment 130 under 18s await the death penalty

14 Turkey Ferhat Gerçek was only 17 when he was shot in the back and left paralysed by a policeman in Turkey. That was in October Nearly three years later, there has still been no proper investigation into what happened and not one police officer has been suspended. Instead of being free to start piecing his life back together, is himself on trial. Ferhat was selling with other young people, a legal political magazine when he was shot.

15 Cultural factors What specifically in the UK causes us to be aggressive?

16 Defining aggression Hostile- caused by being provoked/upset. Aim to harm Instrumental- to gain a reward, e.g. money, means to an end Pro-social- aggression to prevent greater harm, e.g. police shoot a terrorist Tony Martin shot burglars- what type of aggression is this?

17 Social psychological approaches
Social Learning Theory- ‘of the many cues that influence behaviour, at any time, none is more common than the actions of others’ Bandura, 86

18 Social LearningTheory
Aggression- will take place if it is: Associated with a reward (e.g. praise/self-esteem) A result of indirect/direct learning Berkowitz and Bandura – aggression is instinctive but it is more the product of learning.

19 Social learning theory
Bandura (77) 4 steps to modelling: 1-Attention 2-Retention 3-Reproduction 4-Motivation Evidence Individuals are more likely to imitate others if it results in outcome they like; model is similar to the observer; task observed is easy/v.hard Study- modelling and Bobo dolls Variation-Bandura: children not allowed to play for 10 mins, got frustrated then was more aggressive with the doll Evaluation – ethical? Studies

20 Learned through direct experience
Skinner’s principle of operant reinforcement Learned by vicarious experience, e.g. a child learns a behaviour from seeing a role model do something.

21 Observing aggression Most common aggression is reinforced by family members Siegel (92) the boy who sees his father attack his mother, is more likely to become violent Aggression is also more likely to be replicated if it is more life like It is also more likely to be replicated if the viewer identifies with the aggressor

22 Evaluating SLT Think back to the examples you provided at the beginning of the lesson Can SLT explain all of them? What are the advantages and disadvantages of SLT? How useful is it as a theory? If what they are arguing is true, what implications does this have?

23 Key evaluation points Is the research scientific? Is the theory based on scientific research? What is the sample like? Is the theory reductionist (focusing on one aspect, ignoring others)? Does the theory treat us as if we have no control over our behaviour (deterministic) or does it suggest we have a choice (free-will)? Were animals used in the study? How useful is it? What are the implications for the real world? Does the research have relevance for today’s real world (ecological validity)?

24 SLT – what does this all mean for TV/film/video game violence?
Advantages Disadvantages Research does support the principles of SLT There is a correlation between domestic violence carried out by children as adults who have witnessed their fathers committing such acts Relies heavily on experimental evidence Research lacks ecological validity The research was accused of creating demand characteristics Reductionist explanation

25 Media violence – can it lead to actual violence?
The Matrix murders Manhunter game Natural born killers Marilyn Manson

26 Your study In pairs, read through your study/review of media violence leading to actual violence. Sum up the aims, procedure, results and conclusions for the class Include an advantage or a disadvantage

27 Media influence research – does tv/film violence lead to actual violence?
Group 1- Charlton Group 2- Bandura et al Group 3- Hodge and Tripp Group 4- The National TV Violence study Group 5- Glasgow Media Group Group 6- Buckingham

28 Do individuals really consider the consequences before being aggressive?
Discuss in pairs, use real life examples.

29 Summary - SLT What are the main ideas of SLT?
What are the key principles of behaviourism? Give one study to support SLT. Provide one advantage and one disadvantage for the theory. How useful is it as a theory to explain aggression? Extension- how would Freud account for aggression? Which theory do you support the most?

30 Deindividuation: presence of a group leads individual members to feel anonymous and act differently
When are we deindividuated? Why would this change our behaviour?

31 The evidence Zimbardo (71) prison study
Zimbardo advertised for men to participate in a prison simulation experiment. The aim was to demonstrate the power of social roles on an individual’s behaviour. 24 men tested as psychologically and physically fit were used, they were randomly selected to prisoner or guard condition. It was intended to last 2 weeks but this was stopped after 6 days. The guards gradually began to treat the prisoners very poorly, waking them up in the middle of the night to force confrontation and deliberately humiliating them.


33 Zimbardo (1969) In one study, participants were rendered anonymous by clothing them in oversized lab coats and hoods, compared with normal clothes and name tags in the control condition. The participants' task was to shock a confederate in a situation similar to the classic Milgram studies on obedience. In a first experiment using groups of female students, Zimbardo demonstrated that anonymous participants shocked longer (and therefore more painfully) than identifiable participants.

34 Mann (81) ‘baiting crowd’
Mann analysed 21 incident of suicide reported in newspapers in the 60s and 70s. In 10 / 21 cases where a crowd had gathered to watch, baiting had occurred, they had shouted ‘jump’.

35 . Zimbardo (69) WHY WERE PEOPLE AGGRESSIVE? -individuated behaviour
-deindividuated behaviour LeBon (1895) studied French riots in the 1900s and devised a theory to explain why crowds can sometimes become violent. 1. Contagion (ideas and emotions spread rapidly); 2. Suggestibility (in this situation we are more easily suggestible); 3. Anonymity (if we can’t be identified, we behave differently to normal, usually for the worse)

36 Darkened room arousal study
Gergen et al. (73) Men and women asked to interact for an hour in an environmental chamber Only instructions- there are no rules Dark Lights on Results: 1-participants were bored 2. Hugged, 89% intentionally touched each other, fun DEINIDIVIDUATION DOES NOT ALWAYS LEAD TO AGGRESSION

37 Football hooliganism Can the ideas of deinidividuation be applied to football hooliganism? Marsh (78) argued that football hooliganism is more about ritualised aggression and gaining status than as a result of deindividuation.

38 Evaluating deindividuation
Can this explanation account for your type of aggression?

39 Evaluating deindividuation
Advantages Disadvantages Widely supported by real and experimental evidence Cannot explain mass acts of kindness such as charity events Are some of the behaviours due to the associations they have with the outfits when asked to dress up (the KKK effect) Marsh and others have provided alternative explanations for football hooliganism

40 Exam question Outline and evaluate one social psychological aggression (9 marks + 16 marks)

41 Institutional aggression- why are people aggressive in hospitals and prisons?

42 Prison violence has increased nearly six-fold between 1996 and 2005, Home Office figures show

43 Importation model Prisoners bring their own social histories/traits to prison (Irwin and Cressey, 62). An individual who has a good reputation/self view outside of prison, will have a good self view within prison. Someone who rates violence highly outside of prison, will rate it highly inside prison. Dano Sonnex- 83 convictions against his family, all had served time in prison.

44 Deprivation model Prison aggression may well be due to inmates being deprived of many things This deprivation makes social relationships difficult when they leave prison/whilst in there Sykes (58) deprivations: Of liberty Of autonomy Of goods and services Of heterosexual relationships Of security

45 The Popcorn model (Folger and Skarlicki, 95)
This says that the first person to become aggressive is like the first piece of corn to pop when the saucepan is heated. What caused the heat in the first place that led the first person to be aggressive? This suggests prisoners that are not normally aggressive may become so in prison due to the heat.

46 Management Model (Dilulio, 87)
Aggression in prisons happens because of failed management, high staff turnover and a lack of discipline among staff. McCorkle et al. (95) Study of 371 US state prisons Measures of both individual and group aggression Results showed there was a stronger link between administration practices and aggression, e.g. ratio of white to black staff was linked to aggression. To reduce aggression- they recommended educational programmes. Likely to motivate people.

47 Evaluation of situational models
Con Consistent levels of stress in prisons –situational models do not account for sudden riots appearing Pro Richards (07) examined inmate-on staff and inmate-on staff aggression and found levels of aggression varied from institution to institution Light (91) found that over 25% of prison violence had no apparent reason/motive Female aggression is completely different, strong bonds are typical amongst female inmates, aggression is due to other reasons

48 Biological explanations of aggression
Hormonal and neural mechanisms play a role in aggression Testosterone and aggression are linked in adolescent males (Olweus et al 88) and females (Ehlers et al. 80) Testosterone in females is particularly influential when there is too much of it directly after birth and in adulthood

49 Testosterone and aggression
Mostly studied in non-human animals Involves removing and replacing hormones Castration-one technique that leads to a significant decrease in testosterone When testosterone is replaced in these animals, aggression increases (Simpson, 01) Bethold (1849) noted behavioural changes in cockerals when castrated and then when testes were replaced Is linked to birth date- castration near birth has the most effect

50 Testosterone- how does it affect animals and people?
Interacts with androgen and oestrogen receptors During the critical period after birth changes can lead to a sensitive period allowing for the effects of testosterone that manifest in adulthood. Presence of serotonin can reduce effects of testosterone Subtraction and replacement- testosterone paradigm, appears to have support But when a castrated animal is given 4 times the normal amount of testosterone, they are aggressive (Sapolsky, 97)

51 Can watching sports increase aggression?

52 Bernhardt et al (98) Has shown that males watching sports teams win/lose show increased levels of testosterone Highly committed males also demonstrate a rise in testosterone just by anticipating wins/losses Research – Male fans watching basketball games at Georgia Tech (91) Tracked males watching Brazilian and Italian teams playing in the football World Cup Final in 94. Saliva samples were collected from both before and after the games. Results found testosterone increased by 20% when watching winning teams and decreased by 20 % when watching losing teams.

53 Less physical sports Chess Mazur et al. (92)
Losing a chess match also depressed testosterone levels

54 Effects of aggressive behaviour after traumatic brain injury
Tateno et al. (03) Brain injury- led to patients behaving more aggressively. Why? 89 males with closed head injury in 2 hospitals in Iowa. Different types of brain injury were determined. No difference in aggressive levels, but there was a clear difference in the part of brain damaged and aggression-frontal lobe damage contribute to depression and aggression.

55 Evaluations of links between aggression and testosterone
Not so clear cut What causes what? Tomaszewski et al (03) 933 men- no differences in testosterone in angry and aggressive men and those that are not angry/aggressive Great deal of theory is based on animal studies

56 The role of genetic factors
Research suggests genetics have an influence on aggression Works alongside environmental factors (Sternberg, 03) Turner (07) aggression in pigs is inherited Heritability studies; reverse genetics, cloning DNA Mutant mice can be bred without serotonin, they are twice as aggressive compared to normal mice

57 Gene –monoamine oxidase A
Mice that lack it, show serious anger management problems Caspi et al (02) studied 1037 children born in 1972 in New Zealand studied until 26. MAOA activity predicted aggression until adulthood. Linked to crime.

58 Lombroso Criminals look a certain way, genes determine this
Violent criminals are biologically different Twin studies

59 Evaluating biological approaches to aggression
Advantages Disadvantages Scientific evidence Reductionist Ignores environmental influences Some of the research is unethical Most research is based on animals (ratmorphism)

60 Nature vs nurture Half- nature Half-nurture
Is aggression a product of nature or nurture? Refer to real life examples/studies, your own opinions

61 Evolutionary Aggression must have an adaptive function otherwise we would not be aggressive – Wilson (75) Aggression-instinctive and innate Supermale syndrome in prisons

62 The Evolutionary approach
Combines anthropology, cognitive science, neuroscience and evolutionary biology Innate brain functions and knowledge help an individual to adapt to their environment

63 Human aggression Fromm – we are aggressive for similar reasons to animals Nelson- argues aggression needs to be studied: -learning process; structural causes (eg. without society’s rules); and psychological causes

64 Evolutionary explanations
Darwin-Origin of the Species (1859) -aggression has an adaptive response -aids survival -groups -mates and procreation -offspring Lorenz – we copy animals in these 4 ways: Hunger Aggression Fear Reproduction

65 Aggression serves as an important function –for individual survival and procreation
Competition arises when resources are limited Aggression- is beneficial to the species Newman et al (05) aggression in macaque monkeys has been evident for 25 million years Humans might be ‘programmed’ for violence Inherited fighting instinct (Lorenz)

66 Are humans programmed for violence?
Freud’s ‘death’ instinct ‘Survival of the fittest’ has bred aggression in human beings. Human nature is to be aggressive. Natural selection

67 Aggression –evolutionary view point
Smuts (95) aggression in male primates is used to sexually coerce females Female primates often form strong bonds to combat this aggression from males Males dominance is sexually attractive (Sadalla, Kenrick and Vershure, 87) Buss and Malamuth (96) women tend to pick men who are able to provide resources

68 . Craig- 1st attempt to study aggression from an evolutionary point of view Concept of Ritualised Aggression –aggression is often for show/power not for damage. Psychologists often believe this to be true of most acts of hooliganism Waller- looked at acts of genocide: aggression takes place because of the ‘in/out group’, inevitable nature of aggression

69 A modern example of evolutionary aggression - Infidelity and jealousy
Daly and Wilson (88) high proportion of murders are due to male jealousy.

70 Infidelity leads to violence
Sexual infidelity –a behaviour that involves the formation of a emotional attachment to or affection for another 99% believe their partners will be faithful 11% of women admit to cheating; 21% of men admit to cheating Most attention on partner not the person who cheats with them Evolutionary- argues men will be more aggressive at infidelity as their child may not be theirs, whereas a female can always be certain the child is their child

71 Jealousy Harvey et al – sums up the research, claims that there are no simple explanations for jealousy Cascardi and Vivian –participants claim most acts of aggression in relationships are due to jealousy

72 Proximity and weapons Technological advances mean that aggression doesn’t have to be close to the victim, bombs etc can be dropped without direct exposure to the victim (Tin Bergen)

73 Difficulties of this approach
We are not animals Not all aggression is over territory/survival etc Use of weapons etc make human aggression incomparable Krueger- evolutionary psychologists concern themselves with aggression and how skills etc are used and why, e.g. aggression is linked to reproductive success Buss- caution is needed when assuming aggression is mostly male on male

74 Group displays of aggression
Deindividuation 3 key things: anonymity; group size and diffusion of responsibility Bystander apathy (pluralistic ignorance) Contagion theory- hypnotic effect on people Convergence- like minded individuals come together Emergent norm theory (Turner and Killian, 87) Social identity theory (Reicher, 87)

75 Contagion theory Groups exert a hypnotic effect on their members
This effect alongside anonymity creates ‘moblike’ behaviour Behaviour that occurs is a result of the group not prexisting behaviour

76 Emergent norm (Turner and Killian, 87)
Crowd behaviour is not irrational or unpredictable Groups of similar people get together for similar reasons, e.g. concerts/protests The collective purpose may alter their normal behaviour, norms become different due to the cause

77 Emergent norm (Turner and Killian, 87)
One problem for instance can unit people that otherwise would not be united Hogg and Abram (88) the group lacks stabile organisation, so other issues bind groups together Members of a group communicate together to make apparent norms/values of the group Often influenced by disatisfaction

78 Social identity theory (Reicher, 87)
Group behaviour involves inter-group behaviour, e.g. opposing sports fans, confrontations with the police Often with the absence of direct confrontation, there is symbolic confrontation People do not lose their identity in a group but they share the identity of the group Outgroup and ingroup

79 Group displays for aggression
Frustration aggression - Dollard Environmental stressors may increase frustration. Dollard et al (39) frustration always leads to aggression. Frustration triggers aggression in shock studies (Geen and Berkowitz) Cues also increase aggression-participants when given the opportunity shock another, were more inclined to do so when a gun was next to the shocking machine (Berkowitz and LePage, 67)

80 Relative deprivation theory
Gap between what we have and what we want-if too big, we feel aggrieved and justified for being violent. Runciman (66) 2 forms of relative deprivation: -egotistic deprivation: compared to similar individuals -fraternalistic deprivation: compared to other groups e.g. Trade Union protests

81 Frustration-aggression hypothesis
Environmental stressors may increase frustration. Dollard et al (39) frustration always leads to aggression. Frustration triggers aggression in shock studies (Geen and Berkowitz) Cues also increase aggression-participants when given the opportunity shock another, were more inclined to do so when a gun was next to the shocking machine (Berkowitz and LePage, 67)

82 Environmental stressors
What about your environment causes aggression?

83 Environmental stressors
Overcrowding- Calhoun (62) ‘behavioural sink’ –overcrowding in rats Temperature-Baron and Ransbuerger (78) collective violence in the US-heat. Pain- Berkowitz et al. (79) participants hands in hot/cold water condition.Caused greater pain to another when in the cold water condition. Noise-Glass et al (69) found unpredictable noise has a ‘psychic’ cost, can’t be ignored. Noise-frustration. Lack of control- Donnerstein et al (76) participants were angrier when they had control over a button for shocks.

84 Aggression recap questions
What is deinividuation and how is it linked to aggression? Which hormone is linked to aggression? Give one theory of why prisoners become aggressive What does the relative deprivation model argue? Which gene is linked to aggression?

85 Aggression exam style questions
Compare and contrast social psychological explanations of aggression with one other (25) Outline explanations of group displays of aggression (25) Describe one or more psychological accounts of institutional aggression (25) Evaluate the evolutionary approach to aggression (12)

86 Aggression key psychologists
Dollard Berkowitz Bandura Lorenz Darwin Daly and Wilson Irwin and Cressey Folger and Skarlicki Runciman Reicher Turner and Killian Zimbardo LeBon Marsh

87 Michael Roberts murdered his wife
Michael Roberts murdered his wife after telling her about his infidelities. What type of aggression is this? Can SLT explain such acts? How would Freud explain such acts? Do you think such acts occur in all cultures?

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