Presentation on theme: "1 Using English as a Second Language in Japan Mitsuaki Hayase December 18, 2005 Mie Branch, Chubu English Language Education Society."— Presentation transcript:
1 Using English as a Second Language in Japan Mitsuaki Hayase December 18, 2005 Mie Branch, Chubu English Language Education Society
2 Outline of the talk: 4 parts I.Getting ready to be a user of English as a second language in Japan --ESL in Japan-What does it mean? --Bilingualism --Code-switching --English as an additional language (EAL) --The idea of １ +2
3 II. On “Use” --Importance of “use” --Condition of learning --Communication continuum --Four areas of “use” --Check it out!...how are we using English?
4 III. Demonstration --Information (getting) on the Internet --Multi-listening IV. What do we need to do now ?
5 English as a Second Language ---What does it mean? According to LDLTAL (2002): (1) Narrow sense…When English is necessary for everyday life (2) Loose sense…When English is learned after L1 is learned I. Getting ready to be a user of English as a second language in Japan
6 English as a second language? ---What does Hayase mean? --Loose sense…When English is learned after L1 is learned --”English as a second working language” ( Japan’s Goals in the 21 st Century, 2000)
7 Bilingualism and Code-switching What is a bilingual? --What is your image of a bilingual? Bilingual: A person who uses at least two languages with some degree of fluency (LDLTAL) “About half the world population is bilingual.” (Grosjean 1982, cited in Ichida 2003, p. 22)
8 Hayase would say, “We are all bilinguals in one way or another.” A junior high school student with 1, 000 words……a full-fledged bilingual Code-switching ( 言語切り替え ） English as an additional language (EAL) The idea of “1 + 2”
9 Cook (2001) says: “Teachers should be clear in their minds that they are usually teaching people how to use two languages, not how to use one in isolation.…Rather, the aim is people who can stand between two viewpoints and between two cultures, a multi-competent speaker who can do more than any monolingual.” (p.179)
10 “Becoming bilingual is a way of life.” （ Brown 1994, p. 1) Brown says: “Your whole person is affected as you struggle to reach beyond the confines of your first language and into a new language, a new culture, a new way of thinking, feeling, and acting.”
11 II. On “Use” Importance of “use” (1)Skill-getting vs skill-using (Rivers, 1981: 1 st edition 1968) (2) Usage vs use (Widdowson. 1978) Skill-getting, usage…knowledge of the language Skill-using, use…actual use of the language
12 Conditions for language learning Harmer (2001, p. 70) says: “…all that anybody needs to learn a new language are those three elements: exposure, motivation, and opportunities for use.” Wills (1996, p. 11) says: Essential: exposure, use, motivation Desirable: Instruction
13 Hayase’s scheme in Japan: EXPOSURE INSTRUCTION PRACTICE USE MOTIVATION
14 Communication Continuum (Based on Harmer, 2001) non-communicative end communicative end communication continuum ● grammar/vocabulary practice ● pattern practice ● reading aloud ( 音読） ● Dialogue practice. ● communicative activities with information gap but with specific practice point (ex) How many~? Interview game about families ● authentic tasks using all and any language at your disposal to achieve a communicative purpose (ex) What’s in the card/Ten differences in a picture use in real life
15 Four Areas of Use Communication Information (getting) Entertainment Intellectualization *These four areas are not mutually exclusive.
16 1 st Area of Use: Communication --Writing emails and letters --Talking with ALTs and native speaker colleagues --Talking with foreign students --Keeping a diary: intra-personal communication --Posting messages on BBSs --Joining in on-line chatting
17 2 nd Area of Use: Information (getting) --Reading newspapers, magazines, books, pamphlets in paper as well as on the Internet --Listening to news on the radio and on the Internet --Watching news, documentaries, travelogues on TV and on the Internet
18 3 rd Area of Use: Entertainment --Watching movies on TV, in theaters, and on the Internet --Reading jokes in books and on the Internet --Reading literature in books and on the Internet --Singing songs
19 4 th Area of Use: Intellectualization --Preparing English classes --Conducting classes in English --Co-teaching classes with ALTs --Doing research for writing papers --Using English to improve ourselves
20 Let’s Us Check Our Use of English! Please use the handout onhandout Using English as Second Language in Japan
21 Information (getting) on the Internet BBC (U. K.) CBS NEWS (USA) VOA (USA) THE WHITE HOUSE President’s Weekly Radio Address to the NationPresident’s Weekly Radio Address to the Nation III. Demonstration
22 Multi-listening—A Case Study Bomb Blasts in Egypt on Oct 7, 2004! Time line Egypt Japan 10:00 p.m., Oct 7 5:00 a.m. Oct 8 7:00 a.m., no news on NHK 8:00 a.m., BBC 10:00 a.m., NHK 1 st Video 12:00 a.m., CNN (NHK) 2 nd Video 17:25 a.m., ABC (NHK) 3 rd Video 9:00 a.m., Oct 9, BBC
23 The New York Times October 7, 2004 BBC News in Spanish October 8, 2004 BBC News October 8, 2004 Reading newspapers while listening….. Using “Roboword”Roboword
24 三重大 教育学部 英語科 早 瀬 HP http://www.cc.mie-u.ac.jp/http://www.cc.mie-u.ac.jp/~lq20102/
25 IV. What do we need to do now? 1.Action Plan to Cultivate “Japanese with English Abilities” ( 「英語が使える日本人」の育成の ための行動計画」 March 31, 2003 --The entire public should be able to conduct daily conversation and exchange information in English based on basic and practical communication abilities acquired at different levels of English education in junior high schools, senior high schools and universities --University graduates should be able to use English in their work (Summary by Hayase)
26 3. Finding situations where English can be used in our lives Situations for: primary school children Junior high school students Senior high school students College students Adults 4. Enrich our Japanese 2. Interest to use English outside class
27 References Books and papers Brown, H. D. (1994). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, 3rd Edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. Cook, V. (2001). Second language learning and language teaching. London: Arnold. Crystal, D. (2003). English as a Global Language, 2nd ed. Cambridge: CUP Grosjean, F. (1982). Life with Two Languages: An Introduction to Biligualism. Harvard University Press. Harmar, J. (2001). The Practice of English Language Teaching, 3rd ed. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education Limited. Rivers, W. M. (1981). Teaching Foreign-Language Skills, 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Widdowson, H. G. (1978). Teaching Language as Communication. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Willis. J. (1996). A Framework for Task-Based Learning. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education Limited.
28 池谷裕二. 2001. 『記憶力を強くする』講談社. 市田泰弘. 2003. 「ろう者のバイリングアリズム」『言語』 Vol. 32, No. 8, pp. 22-33. 白井恭弘. 2004. 『外国語学習に成功する人、しない人』岩波書店． 長島安治. 2000. 「日本の弁護士と英語」、『英語展望』 No. 107, pp. 20- 21. 千野栄一 1986. 『外国語上達』 岩波書店. 船橋洋一.2000. 『あえて英語公用語論』 文藝春秋社 Websites: Developing a strategic plan to cultivate "Japanese With English Abilities" (2002) (http://www.mext.go.jp/english/news/2002/07/020901.htm)http://www.mext.go.jp/english/news/2002/07/020901.htm Japan's Goals in the 21st Century (2000) (http://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/21century/report/pdfs/index.html)http://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/21century/report/pdfs/index.html Regarding the Establishment of an Action Plan to Cultivate “Japanese with English Abilities” (2003) (http://www.mext.go.jp/english/topics/03072801.htm)http://www.mext.go.jp/english/topics/03072801.htm Dictionary: LDLTAL Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. (2002) （ Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, 3rd ed. Pearson Education Limited.