Presentation on theme: "Scaling relation B (Held, 2000; Schneider, 2006) Equalize the angular momentum conserving wind and the baroclinically critical wind Scaling relation A."— Presentation transcript:
Scaling relation B (Held, 2000; Schneider, 2006) Equalize the angular momentum conserving wind and the baroclinically critical wind Scaling relation A (Held and Hou, 1980) (i)upper tropospheric wind is angular momentum conserving; (ii) the HC is energetically closed Expansion of the Hadley Cell under Global Warming Jian Lu 1,2 Gabriel A Vecchi 1 Thomas Reichler 3 1 GFDL/NOAA, Princeton, New Jersey 2 Visiting Scientist Program/University Corporation for Atmospheric Research/NOAA 3 Department of Meteorology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City Upper: the relationship between the tropical (20°S- 20°N) tropopause height (TTP, left); the extra-tropical (35°S-55°S and 35°N-55°N) tropopause height (ETH) with the meridional extent of the HC for 14 models. Plotted are the differences between 2081-2100 minus 2001-2020, normalized by the the corresponding change in the global mean temperature. The red dots denote the multi-model ensemble mean. Lower: the Correlation coefficients between the full (blue bars) and detrended (sandy bars) time series of the HC extent and TTH (left) and ETH (right) for the 14 models from the A2 scenario. Scaling relation B, in stead of A, applies to the variations of the HC width in the present-day. The GHG-induced HC expansion in the A2 scenario should, at least in part, be attributed to the increased mid-latitude bulk static stability under global warming. The ETH is strongly tied to the bulk static stability ( ) The zonal-mean mass flux streamfunction for the annual mean (left), DJF (middle) and JJA (right) seasons. The shading indicates the multi-model ensemble mean differences between 2081-2100 and 2001-2020 from A2 scenario, the contours References: Held, I. M., 2000, The general circulation of the atmosphere. Proc. Program in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Wood Hole, MA. Held, I. M. and A. Y. Hou, 1980, Nonlinear axially symmetric circulations in a nearly inviscid atmosphere, J. Atmos. Res., 37, 515-533 Schneider, T., 2006, The general circulation of the atmosphere. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., in press. Introduction The Hadley Cell (HC) plays a pivotal role in the earth’s climate by transporting energy and angular momentum poleward and by orchestrating the three dimensional tropical atmospheric circulation. Here, we investigate the response of the structure and intensity of the HC to green house gas (GHG) induced global warming by examining the A2 scenario simulations from the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). We find that there is a robust poleward expansion and weakening of the HC across all the AR4 models and try to identify possible mechanism for this behavior. Response of hydrological cycle Scaling mechanisms of the HC width Weakening of the Hadley Circulation 31 st Climate dyagnostics and Prediction Workshop, ESRL * Address of correspondence: Dr. Jian Lu, GFDL/NOAA, Princeton University Forrestal Campus, US Rout 1, Princeton, NJ 08542. Email: Jian.Lu@noaa.gov Increasing GHG forcing B1A2A1B A2 10 9 kg/s TTHETH Left: The multi-model ensemble mean P-E in the A2 scenario. Shading indicates the difference between the first and the last 20 years of the 21 st century and the black line denotes the 0-isopleths averaged from 2001 to 2020. The right sub-panel shows the zonal mean averaged over 2001-2020 (black) and 1081-2100 (red). Right: Number count out of total 15 models that simulate a moistening (i.e., (P-E)>0) at each grid point. The hydrological response to global warming is, overall a reinforcement of the global climatological background pattern. Poleward expansion of the subtropical dry zone. The edges of the dry zone displace poleward by ~1° in each hemisphere for the multi-model ensemble mean of the A2 scenario. The breakdown by models and scenarios of the displacement of the northern (red) and southern (blue) edges of the subtropical dry zone (y- axis) versus the edges of the Hadley cell (x-axis). Plotted are the changes (2081-2100 minus 2001-2020) estimated from the B1, A1B and A2 scenarios. The open circles denote the multi-model ensemble mean values. Dry zone versus the Hadley Cell Edge of the dry zone — latitude at which zonal- mean P-E crosses zeros near the subtropics Edge of the HC — the nodal latitude poleward of the extremum of the zonal-mean mass flux streamfunction at 500 hPa The poleward expansion of the subtropical dry zone is strongly tied to the poleward expansion of the HC. The magnitude of the expansion is a function of the GHG forcing. 85% (72%) of the scatter in the poleward displacement of the subtropics dry zones in the southern (northern) hemisphere can be explained by a linear relation to the displacements of the outer boundaries of the HC. contours the climatological streamfunction based on years 2001-2020. The dots indicate the fractional change in the intensity of the HC for each of the 15 models. The intensity of the HC is defined as the difference between the maximum and minimum of the streamfunction for ANN, or the maximum (minimum) of the streamfunction for DJF (JJA) season. The ensemble mean intensity of the Hadley Cell weakens for both the annual mean (by ~2.5%) and seasonal mean circulation (by ~6.5%). Poleward expansion of the Hadley cell in both hemisphere, especially the winter cell. The poleward mass transport at the upper branch of the HC tends to take a higher path than usual.