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2 www.heartandstroke.ca/profed Canadian Neurological Scale: Training for Trainers Workshop An Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "2 www.heartandstroke.ca/profed Canadian Neurological Scale: Training for Trainers Workshop An Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

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2 2 Canadian Neurological Scale: Training for Trainers Workshop An Introduction

3 3 Thanks The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario gratefully acknowledges the contribution of Rhonda McNicoll, R.N., BSc.N., CNN(c), Hamilton Health Sciences, in the development of this presentation.

4 4 Canadian Neurological Scale (CNS) Performing ongoing neurological assessment provides a standardized method to detect neurological deterioration that can lead to early intervention Canadian Neurological Scale is a tool that has been recommended by the HSFO Best Practice Guidelines for Stroke Care, 2003 as a valid and reliable standardized measure for assessment of neurological deficits in the acute stroke period Developed in 1985 in Montreal Focuses on assessment of patients with acute stroke Measures impairment

5 5 Canadian Neurological Scale, cont… Glasgow Coma Scale assesses patients with acute neurological nervous system dysfunction resulting in coma CNS provides a complementary scale to assess conscious and aphasic patients Well tested for reliability and validity Suitable for prognostic stratification in trials and planning rehabilitative measures for patients Higher CNS scores (>11) tended to be associated with favourable outcome – lower risk of poor outcome at 6 months Lower CNS scores (<9) tended to be associated with increased death, morbidity

6 6 Advantages of the CNS Standardized Reliability and validity well described Sensitive to relevant changes in patients Can be done repeatedly at bedside for acute patients Uses simple and non-ambiguous definitions for each modality tested Uses a minimum number of grades per modality Addresses issue of aphasia

7 7 Frequency of Neurological Assessment Using CNS The Heart and Stroke Best Practice Guidelines for Stroke Care outlines the frequency of assessing neurological status based on different clinical situations to assist organizations to set individual protocols based on specific patient needs: Individuals with acute ischemic stroke receiving t-PA (pg 76, ) – Monitor vital signs and CNS q15 minutes during drug administration Post infusion care (24 hours) – Monitor CNS q1hour for 24hours OR – More frequently as ordered, e.g. q15 minutes for 2 hours, q30 minutes for 6 hours, q1hour for 16 hours

8 8 Frequency of Assessment Using CNS cont… Based on Heart and Stroke Best Practice Guidelines for Stroke Care: Individuals with acute ischemic stroke not receiving t-PA (pg 78) – Monitor vital signs and CNS q1hour for 24 hours or more frequently if ordered Definitive or Suspected TIA Care Pathway and Plan (pg 114) – Monitor vital signs and CNS q2hours and prn Acute Care Guides: First 24 hours (pg 82) – Follow t-PA protocol if indicated – Assess vital signs and CNS q4hours

9 9 Frequency of Assessment Using CNS cont… Based on Heart and Stroke Best Practice Guidelines for Stroke Care: Acute Care Guide: Day 2 (pg 84) – Assess vital signs and CNS q4hours Acute Care Guide: Day 3 (pg 86), Day 4-6 (pg 88) – Assess vital signs and CNS as required due to patient status These care guides that are meant to provide recommendations based on the best evidence, however, always follow physician orders or clinical pathway guidelines for your organization

10 10 Canadian Neurological Scale 11.5 point scale that has three components: Section A Mentation (LOC, Orientation, Speech) Section A1Motor function -- no comprehension deficit Section A2Motor function -- with comprehension deficit

11 11 Getting Started Assess Pupils Size and light reaction Vital Signs (BP, T, P, R, Oximetry) Assess Level of Consciousness Alert or drowsy  CNS Stuporous/comatose  GCS Assess Orientation Assess Speech Assess Motor No receptive deficit With receptive deficit

12 12 Definition of Terms Alert: awake and alert, normal level of consciousness Drowsy: rouses when stimulated verbally, remains awake and alert for short periods but tends to doze Stuporous: responds to loud verbal stimuli and/or strong touch; may vocalize, but does not completely wake up Comatose: responds to deep pain: purposeful movement, non-purposeful movement, no response

13 13 Section A: Mentation Level of Consciousness Alert or drowsy: – If patient is Alert – score 3.0 – If patient is Drowsy – score 1.5 Orientation Where are you (city and hospital)? What is the month and year? Patient can write answers to questions of orientation If the patient cannot state both place and time – score Disoriented or not applicable – score - 0.0

14 14 Section A: Speech Assess for Receptive Deficit Ask patient to close eyes Point to ceiling Does a stone sink in water? If patient does not complete all three, score receptive deficit 0.0, do not assess Expressive Deficit and go to Section A2: Motor Response – Receptive Deficit Present If no receptive deficit – Assess for Expressive Deficit

15 15 Section A: Speech If no receptive deficit – Assess for Expressive Deficit Assess for Expressive Deficit Name 3 objects and the use of each: key, pencil, watch If cannot name all 3 objects and the use of each – Score Expressive Deficit – 0.5 If the patient writes the responses, this is NOT acceptable as speech is being assessed If the patient is slurred but intelligible, that is acceptable for normal speech. Indicate “SL” when scoring normal speech If no Expressive Deficit, score Normal Speech – 1.0 If the patient has an Expressive Deficit or Normal Speech go to Section A1 - Motor Response (No Receptive Deficit)

16 16 Section A1: Motor Response (No Receptive Deficit) Complete this section if patient has an Expressive Speech Deficit or Normal Speech Face: Ask patient to smile or show teeth or gums Note asymmetry of mouth and nasal labial folds Scores for Face: No weakness – score None – 0.5 Weakness – score Present – 0.0 Note: Record the side exhibiting the WORST deficit, using “R” or “L”

17 17 Section A1, Proximal Arms Note: Submit both arms to the same testing. Record the side exhibiting the WORST deficit, using “R” or “L” Arm (proximal) If patient is sitting: lift arms to shoulder level (90 º ) and apply resistance just above elbows bilaterally If patient is in lying in bed: elevate arms to 90 º and apply resistance above elbows bilaterally

18 18 Section A1, Proximal Arms Scores for Arms (proximal) None= no weakness Mild= movement to 90 º, unable to oppose pressure Significant= movement <90 º Total= absence of motion

19 19 Section A1, Distal Arms Arms (distal): Patient sitting or lying Submit both arms to the same testing. Record the side exhibiting the WORST deficit, using “R” or “L” Arms outstretched with wrists “cocked-back”(dorsiflex hands) Support patient’s arms while applying pressure between wrist and knuckles

20 20 Section A1, Distal Arms Scores for Arms (distal) None= no weakness Mild= can “cock-back” wrist, unable to oppose pressure Significant= some movement of fingers Total= absence of movement

21 21 Section A1, Proximal Legs Legs (proximal): Patient lying in bed Submit both arms to the same testing. Record the side exhibiting the WORST deficit, using “R” or “L” Thighs brought toward body Keeping knees flexed to 90 º Push down on each thigh one at a time Scores for Legs (proximal) None= no weakness Mild= can lift leg, unable to oppose pressure Significant= lateral movement but no power to lift leg Total= absence of movement

22 22 Section A1, Distal Legs Legs (distal): Patient lying in bed Submit both arms to the same testing. Record the side exhibiting the WORST deficit, using “R” or “L” Toes and feet pointed upward Push down on each foot, one at a time Scores for Legs (distal) None=1.5 - no weakness Mild=1.0 - can point foot & toes upward, unable to oppose pressure Significant=0.5 - some movement of toes, but cannot lift toes or foot Total=0.0 - absence of movement

23 23 Section A2: Motor Response (Receptive Deficit Present) Complete this section if patient has a Receptive Speech Deficit only Face: Have patient mimic your own grin, show his teeth or gums Note asymmetry of mouth and nasal labial folds If patient is unable to cooperate, observe facial response when pressure is applied to sternum Note: Record the side exhibiting the WORST deficit, using “R” or “L” Scores for Face Symmetrical = 0.5 Asymmetrical = 0.0

24 24 Section A2, Arms Arms: Demonstrate and/or place patient’s arms outstretched in front of patient at 90 º If patient is unable to cooperate, apply finger nail bed pressure bilaterally and compare response Note: Submit both limbs to the same testing. Record the side exhibiting the WORST deficit, using “R” or “L” Scores for Arms Equal= equal motor response Unequal= unequal motor response

25 25 Section A2, Legs Legs : thighs toward trunk with knees flexed to 90º If patient is unable to cooperate, apply toenail bed pressure bilaterally and compare response Note: Submit both limbs to the same testing. Record the side exhibiting the WORST deficit, using “R” or “L” Scores for Legs Equal= maintain position or withdraw equally Unequal= cannot maintain position or unequal withdrawing

26 26 Scoring the CNS Score Mentation Section -Section A for all patients Score Section A1 OR Section A2 Do not score both A1 & A2 Add Section A + A1 OR A + A2 Maximum Score = 11.5 Decrease of more than 1 point from previous CNS scores is indicative of a change in patient status and requires notification of the physician. Changes in vitals signs and pupil size and reaction would also warrant a change in status and also require notification of the physician.


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