Making a GR series Issues: Which genres? Fiction / non-fiction Number of levels / titles per level Book length by level Word lists and grammar syllabus Ensure a good spread of general, technical and academic vocab How do we integrate it with other GR series and core texts? Who writes them? What are the ‘exciter’ features?
Foundations Reading Library Page Turners Reading Library Footprint Reading Library Very easy entry, narrow levels, focused only on early reading Core graded readers, ‘real pageturners’, high interest, well-written stories Reader, audio and video, non-fiction National Geographic content 75-350 headwords200-2600 headwords800-3000 headwords 7 levels12 levels8 levels 42 books - 6 books per level30 books available (30 coming soon)100 books - 10 or 15 per level Beginners to elementary Elementary to late intermediate Late Elementary to Advanced Junior and Senior High Senior high to adults School to adults Drama, adventure, mystery, romance, Thrillers, crime, detective, and murder mysteries, romance, fantasy, science fiction, horror, drama and human- interest, adventure historical fiction Incredible Animals, Fascinating Places, Remarkable People, Exciting Activities and Amazing Science Easiest graded readers on the market Free downloadable audio Three editors Video, Non-fiction Covers all of the AWL
Course work and graded readers work together Level 1 books Level 2 books Level 3 books …. Unit 1 Be verb Simple adjectives Unit 2 Simple present Daily routines Unit 3 Present continuous Sporting activities Unit 4 can Abilities Unit 5 …. …..
How do Intensive and Extensive Reading fit together? Slow Reading speed High % of known vocabulary 100% Low Comprehension High 90% 98% Reading Pain (too hard, poor comprehension, high effort, de-motivating) Intensive reading (Instructional level, can learn new words and grammar) Speed reading practice (very fast, fluent, high comprehension, natural reading, enjoyable) Extensive reading (fast, fluent, adequate comprehension, enjoyable)
How do the series fit the scale? Beginner Entry Starter Elementary Intermediate Upper Intermediate Advanced AlphEarlyMidHighEarlyMidHigh EarlyMidHighEarlyMidHighEarlyMidHigh 1-50100200300400600800100012501500180021002400300036004500 Foundations 1212 3434 5656 7 Footprints 8001000 1300160019002200 2600 3000 Page Turners 123456789101112
The number of words a learner will probably learn from course work plus graded readers Probably knownPartially KnownProbably unknown 50+30-4920-2910-195-91-4Total Course book only 5232102294725801,2613,275 Data from Sequences, Foundations, Page Turners and Footprints by Heinle Cengage 225,000 60,800 570,000 174,000 (=1,029,000) Add Foundations/ Page Turners 1,0232832505395701,3253,990 Add Footprints 1,3723803676948772,8826,572
Uptake rates When learning only from a course book (over 3 years): 962 words will be learnt well (29.4%) A further 1,052 will be partially known (32.1% ) 1,261 words are likely to be forgotten (38.5%) Adding one graded reader per week: 1,556 words (40.0%) will be learnt well, plus 1,109 words (27.8%) will be partially known and only 33.2% unknown. Adding two graded readers per week: They will know 2,119 words well, plus partially know another 1,571 words
Notes: 40 function words (in, of, the, by etc.) accounted for 41.2% of the total words Typically one’s productive vocabulary is 20-25% of the receptive Probably available Partially available Course book only 200250 Add one reader / week 325250 Add two readers / week 580380 They will also pick up many collocations, colligations, idioms, phrases, multiple meanings, lexical chunks, sentence heads… etc.
How many words do Japanese students meet in JH/ SH? TypesTokens Horizon 1, 2, 3 (Junior High)1,1249,440 Powwow I, II, Reading (Senior High)2,85727,221 Centre tests (680 types / 3000 tokens average per test) x 4 1,00012,000 College Entrance tests (590 types / 1600 tokens average per test) x4 1,0006,400 A total of approximately 55,000 running words will be met (not counting juku, self-study and Eiken preparation). A generous estimate is 100,000 words and about 3,500 types over 6 years. Listening input would be approximately 10% of this.
Directions More publishers More series More EFL kids series More non-fiction titles Non-fiction elements added to fiction texts Culling of older series / titles Amalgamation of series under one publisher Newer publishers tend to write original fiction not classics Emerging IR/ER blended books – Black cat, CUP Discovery readers Digital readers emerge / multi-media content More online graded reading
Predictions for 2021 ER will still be growing in importance / awareness There will be a backlash against ER, but ER will survive it Increase in awareness for the need for EL (but less than ER) Courageous governments will require ER/EL in their curriculums More local publishers / localized series / versions Specialty series will emerge – e.g. business, technical 40% of graded reader sales will be digital Courageous test makers will be using fiction reading materials ‘Proof’ of ER’s effectiveness will still be hard to pin down We will still not have clear data on the effect of ER on the learning of lexical chunks and collocations
How many ER organizations can you name? JALT ER Sig The Extensive Reading Foundation The Japan Extensive Reading Association ( 日本多読学会 ) Korean English Extensive Reading Association KOTESOL ER Sig Jeju Extensive Reading Association Taiwan Extensive Reading Association
How many graded reader publishers are there? a)20 b)42 c)18 d)32
How many graded reader publishers are there? ABAX Addison Wesley AMES Burlington Cassell Collins Publishers Compass Publishing Cambridge University Press Cideb publishing Dorling Kindersley Edward Arnold Egmont Eichosha ELI Express Publishing Faeron/Janus Harper Collins Heinle Cengage Helbling Hodder Houghton Mifflin Huebler Lekturen IBC Iran Institute for Languages Kodansha Macmillan Publishing Marshall Cavendish McGraw Hill MM Publications MPI Nelson Oxford University Press Penguin Random House Regents R.I.C Publications Richmond Readers Scholastic ELT Saddleback Walker Books Witman Readers World Wide Readers
How many graded readers are currently in print (major publishers)? a)1800 b)2600 c)8000 d)3300
Put these in order in terms of number of titles a)Oxford University Press b)Penguin c)Heinle Cengage d)CambridgeUniversity Press e)Macmillan f)Scholastic g)Compass media
Pearson628 Oxford618 Heinle Cengage305 Macmillan289 Cideb (Black Cat)237 Burlington169 IBC145 Compass Media126 Egmont125 Cambridge108 Scholastic ELT92 European Language Institute (ELI)88 Express Publishing68 MM Publications68 MPI & SEG65 Hueber Lektüren56 Helbling Languages48 Richmond Publishing41 McGraw-Hill31 Abax1 3308
How many different series are used for ER (adults and kids)? a)About 60 b)About 80 c)About 100 d)About 160
Which story has been made in to a graded reader the most times (and is still in print)? Jane Eyre The Little Red Riding Hood Huckleberry Finn Tom Sawyer Alice in Wonderland Anne of Green Gables Around the world in 80 days The Call of the Wild The Canterville Ghost A Christmas Carol David Copperfield Dracula Frankenstein Great Expectations The Jungle Book Little Women Oliver Twist Pride and Prejudice Robinson Crusoe Romeo and Juliet The Secret garden Treasure Island
Which story has been made in to a graded reader the most times? Jane Eyre11 The Little Red Riding Hood5 Huckleberry Finn8 Tom Sawyer 10 Alice in Wonderland9 Anne of Green Gables6 Around the world in 80 days6 The Call of the Wild9 The Canterville Ghost 10 A Christmas Carol 10 David Copperfield8 Dracula11 Frankenstein14 Great Expectations9 The Jungle Book8 Little Women9 Oliver Twist12 Pride and Prejudice10 Robinson Crusoe9 Romeo and Juliet9 The Secret garden10 Treasure Island12
What do these acronyms for ER stand for? DEAR – Drop Everything and Read ZYLAR BEARS USSR OTTER DIRT RABBIT ERIC SURF
What do these acronyms for ER stand for? DEAR – Drop Everything and Read ZYLAR- Zip Your Lips and Read BEARS – Be Excited About Reading Stories USSR- Uninterrupted Sustained Silent Reading OTTER- Our Time To Enjoy Reading DIRT – Daily Independent Reading Time RABBIT – Read a Book Because It’s There! ERIC – Everybody Reads in Class SURF – Silent Uninterrupted Reading for Fun
Finally… You can review this presentation by downloading the article from the following website. www.robwaring.org/presentations/ More information about Graded Reading (Extensive Reading) at… www.extensivereading.net The First Extensive Reading World Congress, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto. Sept 3-6, 2011 http://erfoundation.org/erwc1/