Presentation on theme: "Every Child Ready to your library®"— Presentation transcript:
1Every Child Ready to Read @ your library® Early Literacy Workshop For Two- and Three-Year OldsIntroduction/Welcome: Self/participantsThis workshop is on emergent literacy and what you can do to help young children to become aware of and comfortable with books and with language. We’ll be emphasizing narrative skills and ways you can support them through books and in the way you talk with your children.This workshop is based on research by the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health and was developed in partnership with the Public Library Association and the Association for Library Service to Children of the American Library Association.
2For the PresenterThis powerpoint presentation has been developed to serve two purposes:To help you, the presenter in developing your presentation, to see how it flowsTo use with participants in your workshop if you feel it is appropriate.In some settings a powerpoint presentation can be overwhelming oroff-putting. Know your group; use your judgment.You are encouraged to change examples of books and rhymes to ones that illustrate the point and are comfortable to you.[ ] = note to presenter“Supplemental Information” noted in the Notes Area of the presentation. You’ll find additional ideas and information which you may include if you have time, or if the participants show particular interest in that area.Supplemental slides can be hidden. Then they will not be seen during the presentation, but remain in the file.
3Materials Needed Materials [You may use your own examples] New Road by GibbonsJesse Bear What Will You Wear? by CarlstromJump, Frog, Jump by KalanChugga-Chugga Choo-Choo by Kevin LewisBam Bam Bam by MerriamThree Little Kittens by GaldoneFlower Garden by BuntingHush! A Thai Lullaby by HoMainly Mother Goose (Sharon Lois Bram) tape/cdHead and Shoulders from Wee Sing for Babies by Pamela Beall Flannel board for Too Much Noise (S)Too Much Noise by McGovern (S)How Are You Peeling? by Freymann (S)Farm Alphabet Book by Miller (S)Kipper’s A to Z by Inkpen (S)Benny Bakes a Cake by Rice (S)Your choice of books for Choosing Books for 2and 3 Year OldsEquipmentFlip chart or something to record responsesComputer and Projector (optional)VCR playerTape player and/or CD playerOverhead (optional)Flannel board/stand (S)Posters/PowerpointDefinition of Early LiteracyDefinition of each skillVideo:“Hear and Say Reading” videoOrder from: Rotary Club of Bainbridge IslandPO Box 11286Bainbridge Island, WA 98110Handouts:Every Child Ready to Read: Parent Guide to Early Literacy--Talkers, Two and Three Year OldsHear and Say/Dialogic Reading bookmarkDialogic Reading handouts (optional)Bibliography on Early Literacy (optional)
4Five Little Ducks Five little ducks went out one day, Over the hills and far away.Mother Duck said,“Quack, quack, quack, quack."But only 4 little ducks came back.Four little ducks . . .Three little ducks . . .Two little ducks . . .One little duck . . .Well, sad Mother Duck went out one day,Over the hills and far away,Mother Duck said, "Quack, quack, quack."And all of the 5 little ducks came back.QUACK! QUACK! QUACK! QUACK!Let's start with a rhyme that young children enjoy. Keeping books and language fun will keep them coming back for more. [Use any rhyme a 2-3 year old would enjoy.] Example: Five Little Ducks
5YOU are your child’s first teacher Children begin to get ready to read long before they start school.You know your children best.Children learn best by doing things, and love to do things with YOU.Young children often have short attention spans and enjoy repeating favorite activities.YOU know your children well and can take advantage of times when the child is “in the mood,” ready to learn.At beginning of slide say:There are so many things you can do with young children to help them enjoy language, books and reading.You, their parents/caregivers, are in the best position to help them be ready to learn to read. Why is this?Children begin to get ready to read long before they start school.You know your children best and can help them learn in the ways that are easiest for them.Children learn best by doing things, and love to do things with YOU.Young children often have short attention spans and enjoy repeating favorite activities. Parents and caregivers can share these activities often and for short amounts of time throughout the day.YOU know your children well and can take advantage of times when the child is “in the mood,” ready to learn. [If you want you can talk about what the child is like when he is “in the mood”, not too active, not too sleepy, quietly alert]When children see their parents reading they are more likely to become readers themselves. Seeing you reading is very powerful!
6What Do Two- and Three-Year-Olds Do? [You are trying to help them see that everything their child does or that they do with their child contributes or is part of early literacy.]Think of children who are two or three years old.What are some of the things they do? What are some of the things you do with them?[Write down on flipchart or blackboard. Be accepting of all responses.]Some responses have included:They know how to talkThey know some wordsThey can scribbleColorsShapesThey sing songsCan turn pages of a bookTalk about picturesPretend to readAll of these are part of early literacy!
7WHAT IS EARLY LITERACY? WHAT IS EARLY LITERACY? You may have heard this term used. [Let them think a moment.]
8EARLY LITERACYEarly literacy is what children know about reading and writing before they can actually read or write.The definition we will use is this:Early literacy is what children learn about reading and writing before they can actually read or write. [Repeat definition; write on flipchart and/or have up on board]Children learn these skills beginning from birth.Children who are exposed to books early in life have better language skills than those who wait till later.[Adam Payne, Grover Whitehurst, and Andrea Angell. “The Role of Home Literacy Environment in the Development of Language Ability in Preschool Children for Low-Income Families”. Early Childhood Research Quarterly v. 9 issues 3-4 (1994) p ]The development of early literacy skills through early experiences with books and stories is critically linked to a child’s success in learning to read. [Catherine Snow. “The Contacts of Literacy: What Children Learn from Learning to Read Books” in W. H. Teale Emergent Literacy: Writing and Reading, Norwood (as cited in Reach Out and Read Program Manual.]Reading or sharing books with children is one way to talk with them and it helps them understand their world.
9SIX SKILLS TO GET READY TO READ Print MotivationPhonological AwarenessVocabularyNarrative SkillsPrint AwarenessLetter Knowledge[refer to posters if you have put up on the walls][Handout: Parents’ Guide to Early Literacy: Talkers, Two- and Three-Year-Olds]
10Print Motivation child’s interest in and enjoyment of books Children who enjoy booksand reading will read more. Children become goodreaders by practicing.Print Motivation is a child's interest in and enjoyment of books.[Show rhyming book—read it through and show the FUN of it.Three Little Kittens or Jesse Bear, What Will You Wear Choose one you like for this age]Why is this important?Children who enjoy books and reading will be curious about how to read. They will read more. Children become good readers by practicing.Studies show that when the interaction around a book is negative (sit still; listen; harsh language), then the young child likes reading and books less. He associates the negative interaction with the BOOK!When the experience of sharing a book is pleasurable for both the parent and the child, it is easier to talk about the pictures and the child will be more attentive and responsive.The more pleasurable book sharing is, the more regular and frequent an activity it will become.What can we do?Let children see reading is funIt’s ok to do short periods of timeSchedule is not as important as moods and attitude of the child and the adult too!
11Phonological Awareness the ability to hear andplay with the smallersounds in wordshelps children sound outwords as they begin toreadPhonological Awareness is the ability to hear and play with the smaller sounds in words.Why is this important?Helps children sound out words as they begin to readSongs have different note for each syllableHelps children break down words in a fun way [Use your own examples]Head and Shoulders song from Wee Sing for Baby by BeallUse rhymes, books, and songs for sounds[Possible examples:]Demonstrate song/nursery rhyme such as Miss Muffet or Eensy Weensy Spider (from Mainly Mother Goose tape by Sharon, Lois and Bram (do with actions)Demonstrate rhyming book such as Flower Garden by Eve Bunting (excerpt) Sounds: excerpt from Hush! A Thai Lullaby by Ho (different animal sounds in different cultures) [or other book with animal sounds]What can we do?Sing songs, repeat rhymesOne of the best ways to introduce this skill in a fun way is to sing and to say nursery rhymes.Hearing words that rhyme helps your child learn that words are made up of smaller parts.Songs have different note for each syllable, helps children break down words.
12Supplemental Information Phonological Awareness:For more examples:Five Little Monkeys rhyme/book--pass out instruments to emphasize rhythm, as you sing togetherOther favorites include Wheels on the Bus, Old Macdonald Had a Farm, If You’re Happy and You Know It
13Language of Literacy Phoneme Phonemic Awareness Phonological Awareness The smallest part of spoken language that makes a difference in the meaning of words. English has about 41 phonemes. The word “if” has two phonemes (/i/ /f/).The word “check” has three phonemes (/ch/ /e/ /ck/). Sometimes one phoneme is represented by more than one letter.Phonemic AwarenessThe ability to hear, identify, and manipulate the individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words.Phonological AwarenessThe understanding that spoken language is made up of individual and separate sounds. A broad term that includes phonemic awareness in addition to work with rhymes, words, syllables, and beginning sounds.GraphemeThe smallest part of written language that represents a phoneme in the spelling of a word.A grapheme may be just one letter, such as b, f, p, s, or several letters such as ch, sh, ea, igh.PhonicsThe understanding that there is a predictable relationship between phonemes (the sounds of the spoken language) and graphemes (the letters and spellings that represent those sounds in written language).SyllableA word part that contains a vowel or, in spoken language, a vowel sound.From Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read, U.S. Department of Education, Downloadable at National Institute for LiteracyS5Supplemental Information:Phonological Awareness: Some definitions: (Use handout if you like)Phoneme is the smallest part of spoken language that makes a difference in the meaning of words. English has about 41 phonemes. The word if has two phonemes /i/ and /f/. Check has three phonemes, /ch/ /e/ /ck/.Phonemic Awareness is the ability to hear, identify and manipulate the individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words.Phonological Awareness is a broad term that includes phonemic awareness. In addition to phonemes, phonological awareness activities can involve work with rhymes, words, syllable, and starting sounds.Phonics is the understanding that there is a predictable relationship between phonemes (the sounds of spoken language) and graphemes (the letters and spellings that represent those sounds in written language). This skill develops after phonological awareness.Most children who have difficulty reading have trouble with phonological awareness. This includes the ability to say whether or not two words rhyme, to say words with sound or word chunks left out (hot/dog, b/at) and the ability to put two word chunks together to make a word (cow + boy).Understanding that words are made up of smaller sounds helps children “break the code” between written language (letters) and spoken language (sounds).Children's phonological awareness begins to develop during the preschool years. Unless children are given help from teachers, parents, or other adults, those with low levels of phonological awareness will continue to be delayed in this skill from the late preschool period forward.One of the best ways to introduce this skill in a fun way is to sing and to say nursery rhymes.Hearing words that rhyme helps your child learn that words are made up of smaller parts.Songs have different note for each syllable, helps children break down words.Eensy Weensy Spider –demonstrate actions for different ages (baby, toddler, preschool)Sing throughout the day, as you do routines such as diapering, bathing, etc.Make up your own songs too.[When you are using tapes/cds be sure to choose versions of songs that repeat and that are a little slower in pacing than those for older preschool children.]Example: Little Flea (from Wee Sing for Baby by Pamela Beall)Repetition is important. This is how children learn.
14Vocabulary knowing the names of things helps children understand what they readhelps children recognizewords when they try tosound them out? ? ?? ? ?Vocabulary is knowing the names of thingsWhy is it important to give children a wide range of vocabulary, to expose them to many words?Need to know meaning of words to understand what you are readingWhen you think about it, you know if you are reading a word correctly if you have heard it before. You are sounding it out. The more words children hear, the more ready they will be to make connections when they read. [Give example of sounding out carrot]Label more than just things. Label feelings—yours and your child’s. This will help your child express how he feels and become less frustrated.Books offer words that we do not usually use in conversation. [Use your own examples]Bam Bam Bam by Eve Merriam uses “demolition”New Road—use of non-fiction good way to talk about what is familiar to a childSome children respond better to true books than to story booksIf you are fluent in a language other than English, research shows that it is best for you to speak toyour child in the language you know best. This allows your child to hear language spoken fluently and allows you to explain many things to the child that you might not be able to do in English.By learning concepts and discussing thoughts and ideas, the child is exercising his mind. Then he will be able to translate what he knows when he gets to school, rather than having to learn both the concept and the English word at the same time. [Patton O. Tabors. One Child, Two Languages. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes, 1997.]What can we do?Use many wordsExplain unfamiliar words,Read books—different vocabulary from conversation.
15Supplemental Information Vocabulary:Use specific vocabulary when you talk with children. Don’t underestimate them.For example, for things that move, be specific—car, SUV, pickup truck, van, etc.For animals, use the name for the adult and the babies, like cow and calf.Language addressed to young children needs to be simple, clear and positive in tone in order to be best understood.Use lots and lots of repetition. Children NEED repetition to learn. The quantity of language is critical. The more words a child hears, the larger his vocabulary will be, which will help with reading.Giving children words about feelings will help them feel less frustrated. Happy and sad are common ones. Try embarrassed, shy, frustrated, angry, surprised, scared, worried.Try to put into words what your child is feeling if he cannot express it himself. Talk about your own feelings.Show How Are You Peeling? Foods With Moods by Saxton FreymannWhat do you do if you are reading a book and you don’t know what a word means? [get their input]--Look it up in the dictionary--Call the library and ask!This is an excellent opportunity for you to show children how we find out things when we don’t know.
16Print Awareness noticing print everywhere knowing how we follow the wordson a page, knowing how tohandle a bookhelps children feel comfortable with books so they canconcentrate on readingPrint Awareness is noticing print everywhere; knowing how to handle a book; knowing how we follow thewords on a page.Why is it important?Helps children feel comfortable with books so they can concentrate on readingEnglish: open book right to left, read left to right and top to bottom [demonstrate with any book]What can we do?Let your child turn the pagesPoint to the words from time to time as you read, so the child learns you are reading the text,not the picturesHold book up-side-down and see if the child knows it has to be turnedRecognize signs—STOP signs, McDonalds, etc. (environmental print)Use every opportunity to talk about environmental print: as you are driving, walking, at the grocery store. Print is all around!
17Letter Knowledge knowing that letters are different from each other, that they havedifferent names and soundshelps children understand thatwords are made of smaller parts,and to know the names of thosepartsLetter Knowledge is knowing that letters are different from each other, that they have different names andsounds.Why is it important?Children understand that the written word is made up of smaller parts and can name them.What is the most important word to the child? [His/her NAME]Start with the first letter and sound of the child’s name rather than doing letters in order.For example if the child’s name is Tamika. What does a T look like? Or, Tamika startswith the sound /t/. What else starts with /t/?What is the child interested in? Dinosaurs? Volcanoes? Use these initial letters!Drilling is NOT fun, keep it fun by using what is interesting to the childUse playdough to make letters, learning through play is importantPoint out letters using alphabet books; sing the alphabet songUse what we call environmental print—the arches on Mcdonalds are the shape of an M, a STOP sign, etc.What can we do?Point out how things are alike and differentFeel different shapes, and talk about shapesUse ABC booksLet child see his name writtenPlay with magnet letters
18Supplemental Information Letter KnowledgeAlphabet books are of varying levelsAsk the library staff to help you choose some.Show some examples:Farm Alphabet Book by Jane MillerKipper’s A to Z by Inkpen
19Narrative Skills the ability to describe things and events, and to tell storieshelps children understandwhat they readNarrative skills include being able to understand and tell stories and being able to describe things.Why is it important?Helps children understand what they readThey are important for children in order for them to be able to understand what they are learning to readWhat can we do?Name things (both real and pictures in books)Add descriptionListen as child tries to talkBe patientTell children storiesLet children tell you what is happening or something that happened (two or tree things in a row)Narrate your lifeRead a story several times and let the child tell you what happens and what happens next.Let your child retell a story with props or with dolls or puppetsLet you child draw and tell you what is happening in the pictureLater I will be demonstrating Dialogic Reading and you’ll have a chance to try it yourselves. This helps with vocabulary and narrative skills.
20Supplemental Information Narrative skills—after saying: Listen patiently as child speaks[Use graphic on parts of brain used in conversation “PET Scans of a Brain”]A PET scan, or positron emission tomography, measures brain activity by scanning the body’s use of glucose. The greater the use of glucose (a sugar and brain nutrient), the higher the activity.When you see this illustration of the parts of brain that are used in conversation, you can see it is quite a complicated process and that different parts of the brain are used for different aspects of speech.This series of images show how different parts of the brain are connected, becoming engaged and work together to develop language: [Dr. Marc Raichle, Washington University in St. Louis]Prefontal cortex: Planning what to say, generating words, and sequential thought, as it connects to the temporal lobe.Frontal lobe: Generating sounds and movement of the mouth and tongueTemporal lobe: Hearing and attaching meaning to wordsOccipital lobe: Seeing and visual processionYoung children are still making the pathways that will make thinking and speaking easier and quicker. The only way these pathways can be made is through repetition and practice.
21needs to learn to read-- Six skills your childneeds to learn to read--starting from birth![Now refer to the list of things that they say two- and three-year-olds do, or that they do with their children. For each activity they mentioned, see what early literacy skill it relates to. If you have the skills and their definitions written on posters on the wall, it helps them make the connections.]
22Supplemental Information Narrative Skills—ideas for retelling stories, allowing child time to narrate/talkRetelling stories using props:Benny Bakes a Cake—sequencing, then bake!Read Too Much Noise; then demonstrate retelling it using the flannel boardCreative dramatics/acting out using Mr. Gumpy’s OutingProvide dress up clothes or props from around the house for pretend play. Play together!At bedtime, have your child remember specific things during the day that made him happy and sad. As your child gets older, add other feelings like funny, angry, embarrassed, shy, surprised. Talk about your feelings too.From the Kaiser Family Foundation Report: Zero to Six: Electronic Media in the Lives of Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers by Victoria Rideout, Elizabeth Vandewater and Ellen Wartella, Fall 2003.Four- to six-year-olds who are “heavy” TV users spend less time reading or playing outside than other children their age.The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended that children two and under not watch television at all, and that those over two be limited to one to two hours a day of educational screen media.Despite these recommendations, in a typical day, 68% of all children under two use screen media (59% watch TV, 42% watch a video or DVD, 5% use a computer and 3% play video games), and these youngsters will spend an average of two hours and five minutes in front of a screen. Indeed, according to their parents, 43% of all children under two watch TV every day, and one-quarter (26%) have a TV in their bedroom. Seventy-four percent of all infants and toddlers have watched TV before age two.For parents who are concerned that their children spend too much time with electronic media, there is good news: there appear to be concrete steps parents can take that will impact the amount of time their children spend with media. Turning off the TV in their home when no one is watching, getting televisions out of children’s bedrooms, and setting rules about how much time their children can spend with media all appear to make a significant difference in the amount of time children spend in front of a screen.
23Supplemental Information [If you want to give more expand information on toddlers (18-36 month olds) and language, use the video noted below.]Let’s see how different people interact with toddlers, books and language. This is about children from about 1 ½ to 3 years old. See how much more they can do and understand and do than a baby can!Show video: Ready to Learn (8:00 – 16:15) Toddler section (18-36 months)
24Dialogic or “Hear and Say” Reading Dialogic or “Hear and Say” Method of reading together:[Model the full reading of a book such as Chugga Chugga Choo Choo by Kevin Lewis or Jump, Frog, Jump by Robert Kalan [Choose one with clear pictures and things going on in the pictures that a two or three year old can relate to.]This is the way we usually read a book with children and we would still do this. However, I’d like to introduce you to the Dialogic or Hear and Say Method of reading.Researchers have found that Dialogic Reading (Hear and Say Method) of reading helps young children develop narrative skills and vocabulary. Dialogic reading works. On tests of language development, children who have been read to dialogically are substantially ahead of children who have been read to traditionally. Children can jump ahead by several months in just a few weeks of dialogic reading. [Grover Whitehurst, et al. “A Picture Book Reading Intervention in Day Care and Home for Children from Low-Income Families.” Developmental Psychology v.30 no.5 (1994) p ]How we read to children is as important as how often we read to them. The most common way is for the adult to read and the child listens. With dialogic reading, the adult helps the child become the teller of the story. The adult becomes the questioner, the listener, and the audience for the child.One of the things that researchers have found is how important an EXPRESSIVE vocabulary is as children learn how to read. Good readers actually DO sound out words they don’t know in order to figure them out. You don’t REALLY know if a word is a word unless you have heard it. It is even easier to recognize if you can SAY it.Receptive language (receiving information) and expressive language (active, talking, writing) use different parts of the brain. Children need lots of repetition using both. They are more likely to get receptive language. They need to work at using expressive language. YOU can help.
25Picture Book Reading Picture book reading provides children with many of the skills necessary for school readiness.How we read to children is as important ashow often we read to them.Children learn more from books whenthey are actively involved.Dialogic Reading is a method that helps youngchildren become involved in the story.You can help your child become an active partnerin reading picture books together.Why is reading picture books important?Picture book reading provides children with many of the skills necessary for school readiness, such as vocabulary, sound structure, knowledge of the meaning of print, and knowledge of the structure of stories and languagePicture book reading also helps children develop skills to keep their attention, enjoyment of reading, and a motivation for learningIt is important to read with your child every dayChildren learn the most from books when they are actively involved in the story tellingLet’s see how Hear and Say Reading works[Show Part I of Hear and Say video(from first voice, start at 2:27 “Let’s compare two reading styles,” and stop atend of Part I, after review points are made)][Pass out Hear and Say bookmarks or use Hear and Say column of Early Literacy handout]
26Supplemental Information Dialogic/Hear and Say ReadingWhat kinds of books work best?Books thatHave a simple storyHave clear picturesAre not too longHave pictures about things that are familiar to your childShow action and detail in the picturesAre interesting to your child
27Dialogic Reading: “What” Questions Ask “what” questionsFollow answers with questionsRepeat what your child saysHelp your child as neededPraise and encourageFollow your child’s interestsDemonstrate “what questions” with one page of book you just read through:[Cut and paste the information below onto a document if you want to make it into a handout; or just talk through it.]Dialogic Reading:“What” QuestionsReading picture books with your child is a great way to teach vocabulary and help your child give more complete descriptions about what they see. Look through a book before you read it with your child for the first time. The first time you read a book together, you should do most of the talking yourself, making sure that you point out the names of things your child may not know. The next time you read the same book, do the following for each of the pictures/objects you named when you and your child read the book the first time:Ask “what” questionsPoint to the item in the book and say, “What’s this?” or “What’s this called?” Avoid questions that your child can answer with a ‘yes’ or ‘no,’ or by pointing.Follow answers with questionsWhen your child names an object, ask a question about it. For example: “What color is the truck?”, “What is this part of the truck called?”, “What is the dog doing?”, or “What do we use the bowl for?”Repeat what your child saysLet your child know his or her answer is correct by repeating it back: “Yes, that’s a cow. ”Help your child as neededIf your child isn’t able to answer your question, give the correct answer and ask him or her to repeat what you have said.Praise and encourageTell your child when he or she is doing well by saying things like: “Good talking!” or “That’s right. Good job!”Follow your child’s interestsIf your child shows an interest in a picture either by talking or pointing to it, follow it up immediately by asking questions to let your child talk.Have fun!Try to keep your reading times fun and like a game. One way to do this is to switch between asking questions and just plain reading. For example, you could read one page and then have your child tell you about the next page. Keep your child’s mood and attention span in mind. Keep it fun._________________________________________________[Demonstrate with one page of book you just read through. Let participants ask and answer questions as you hold up the book.Remember:What questionsNot questions that can be answered yes/noNot questions where child can just pointAcknowledge child’s replyAdd some description to itLet child repeat][Show Part II of Hear and Say video]
28Dialogic Reading: Open Ended Questions and Expansion Ask open-ended questions about the picturesIf your child doesn’t know what to say about a picture,say something and have your child repeat itAs your child gets used to open-ended questions,ask your child to say moreExpand what your child saysKeep the expansions short and simpleHave your child repeat your longer phrasesThese questions are harder. Let’s try this[Cut and paste the information below onto a document if you want to make it into a handout; or just talk through it.]Dialogic Reading:Open-Ended Questions and ExpansionNow that you’ve had some practice using “what” questions, start using more general questions as a way of getting your child to say more than just one word at a time. Build upon what your child says to help your child learn how to give even longer descriptions of what he or she sees in the pictures.Ask open-ended questionsContinue to use questions when you read books together as a way to get your child talking about the pictures. Now though, instead of using specific “what” questions like “What is this?”, ask more general open-ended questions that require your child to answer with more than one word. For example, “What do you see on this page?” or, “What’s happening here?”Help when neededWhen your child doesn’t know what else to say about a picture, you say something for your child. Try to get him or her to repeat it. For example: “The duck is swimming. Now you say, ‘The duck is swimming.’”Ask your child to say moreWhen your child gets used to answering open-ended questions, ask your child to say something more by asking another question, like “What else do you see?”Expand what your child saysWhen your child says something about a picture, praise him or her, and add a little to what’s been said.For example, if your child says “Doggy bark”, you might say “Yes, the doggy is barking at the kitty.”In this way, you fill in the little words and endings your child left out and provide a new piece of information. Later you might ask a question about this new information: “Who is the doggy barking at?”Keep your expansions short and simpleMake sure you build upon your child’s phrases, just a little so that your child is able to imitate what you’ve said.Have your child repeatIf you encourage your child to repeat your longer phrases, he or she will start using them more quickly._____________________________________________[Using the same book you read with them, have them ask the open-ended questions, expand on responses, add information You be the child.][Give a book to each pair of participants and let them try Dialogic Reading. One is the child and other is the adult; then switch roles. They can refer to bookmark or Parents’ Guide to Early Literacy handout for tips.]What did you find easy to do?What did you find hard?Any comments on this type of reading?This is ONE way to share a book. You should still read a book through with a child so that they get the continuity of the story.Children LOVE repetition, that’s how they learn so they often ask for the same books over and over again!Try talking this way with your child even when you are not reading a book.Asking questions and listening to them when you’re doing things together, driving places, watching television, playing together.
29Choosing Books for Two- and Three-Year-Olds Board booksBooks that appeal to sensesWordless picture booksBooks with rhyme and rhythmBooks with repetitionBright, bold, colorful picturesSimple text, familiar situationsFollow your child’s interestsSimple alphabet booksPredictable storyTwos need books about real thingsSupplemental Information:Choosing Books for Two and Three Year OldsCharacteristics: [give examples of each type]Board books: for some of the books—easy to handle and pages won’t tearBooks that appeal to senses: flap books; books that are fun to touch or smellWordless picture books, make up stories to go with picturesBooks that have rhythm, rhymeBooks with repetition—can memorize and pretend readBright, bold, colorful picturesSimple texts about familiar situationsPredictable storyFollow your child’s interestsSimple alphabet booksChoose books about what is real for two-year-olds. They have a hard time distinguishing fantasy and reality
30Have fun! Closing song or book of your choice. Have fun! Closing: End by reading a book you enjoy, preferably a new title, for this age group, and/or a closing song if you like.Give information about your library services:ProgramsCollectionBooklistsParent-Teacher areaBulletin board of local activitiesLibrary cardI would like to show you where we have the parenting books, alphabet books, tapes and cds, and other materials you and your child may enjoy.Your child grows so quickly. Ask a library staff person to help you find books your children will enjoy as they grow.Questions?