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Module A2: Upper Airway Anatomy & Physiology. Objectives u Classify epithelial tissue based on cell type and tissue layers. u Identify location of tissue.

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Presentation on theme: "Module A2: Upper Airway Anatomy & Physiology. Objectives u Classify epithelial tissue based on cell type and tissue layers. u Identify location of tissue."— Presentation transcript:

1 Module A2: Upper Airway Anatomy & Physiology

2 Objectives u Classify epithelial tissue based on cell type and tissue layers. u Identify location of tissue epithelium in the respiratory system. u Describe the major structures and functions of the upper and lower airways. u Contrast and compare mouth and nose breathing. u Explain how placing an endotracheal tube in the airway will affect the humidification and filtering process.

3 The lung is for gas exchange. John B. West Respiratory Physiology: The Essentials

4 Function of the Lungs/Heart u Provide Ventilation u Provide Respiration u Exchange of Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen u Humidify and Protect u Pump oxygen to vital organs u Cellular metabolism

5 Failure of the Lungs/Heart u Hypoxemia – low oxygen level in the blood u Decreased P a O 2 u Hypoxia - low oxygen level at the tissue level u Decreased oxygen at the cellular level can cause death of the tissue u Presence of anaerobic respiration

6 Ventilation u Brain u Muscles u Lungs u Inability of the lungs to remove carbon dioxide leads to hypercarbia, which is an elevated amount of carbon dioxide in the blood stream (P a CO 2 )

7 ARTIFICIAL AIRWAYS INTUBATION

8 ARTIFICIAL AIRWAYS INTUBATION Tracheotomy with tracheostomy tube: 1 - Vocal cords 2 - Thyroid cartilage 3 - Cricoid cartilage 4 - Tracheal cartilages 5 - Balloon cuff

9 Intubation – Insertion of an Endotracheal Tube Extubation – Removal of the Endotracheal Tube

10 Anatomy of the Respiratory System u Tissue Epithelium u Upper Airway u Lower Airway u Site of Gas Exchange u Pulmonary Vascular System u Neural Control u Lungs u Mediastinum u Thorax u Muscles of Ventilation

11 Four Tissue Types u Epithelial Tissue u Connective Tissue u Bone, Cartilage, Blood, Fibrous u Muscle Tissue u Nervous Tissue u Neurons conduct electrical impulses

12 Epithelial Tissue u Epithelium u Covers and protects the body surface u Lines body cavities u Forms many glands u Specializes in moving substances into and out of the blood

13 Epithelial Cell Type u Squamous Cells u Cuboidal Cells u Columnar Cells

14 Lots of Surface Area aka Pavement, Sunny- side up egg Great for Diffusion of Gases Lots of Volume Volume = Cytoplasm Cytoplasm means metabolism Less diffusion Height is 2x Width Usually associated with secretion or absorption of material Very little diffusion HISTOLOGY 101

15 Classification of Epithelium by Layers u Simple Epithelium – Single Layer u Simple squamous u Simple cuboidal u Simple columnar u Stratified Epithelium – Multiple Layers u Pseudostratified – Single Layer but appears stratified u Pseudo means “false”

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17 Goblet Cells Nose to Large Bronchioles Secrete mucus

18 Stratified Squamous Epithelium u Associated with PROTECTION u Anterior portion of nasal cavity u Oral cavity u Oropharynx u Laryngopharynx

19 Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium u SECRETION OF AND SWEEPING OF MUCUS u Posterior 2/3 of nose u Tracheobronchial tree u Function of cilia

20 Simple Cuboidal Epithelium u PRIMARY FUNCTION IS SECRETION, FILTRATION & ABSORPTION u Bronchioles u Clara Cells u Non-ciliated cells that secrete “surface- active agents” which prevent collapse. u Simple Cuboidal also found in alveoli (Type II cells that secrete surfactant)

21 Simple Squamous Epithelium u PRIMARY FUNCTION – GAS EXCHANGE u Alveoli (Type I pneumocytes) u Pulmonary capillaries

22 Upper Airway u Anatomy u Nose u Oral Cavity u Pharynx u Throat

23 Upper Airway u Function of the Upper Airway u Conduct Air u To prevent foreign materials from entering the lower airway u Smell/Speech

24 Nose u Function u Heat, Humidify and Filter the incoming gas u Smell u Speech

25 Anatomy of the Nose u Bone and Cartilage u Partition in the nose is called the nasal septum u Air enters through the nostrils or nares u Two nasal passages are called choanae u Vibrissae filter the incoming gas u Whiskers u First 1/3 is stratified squamous epithelium (PROTECTION) u Posterior 2/3 is pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium (MUCUS SECRETION)

26 Anatomy of the Nose u Mucous secreting glands are found in the posterior 2/3 of nose u Bony Protrusions on the lateral wall are called nasal turbinates or conchae u Separate incoming gas into turbulent airstreams – more contact u Extensive capillary network u Constrict or dilate to change blood flow

27 Nasal Conchae

28 Deviated Septum u The nasal septum can be deviated to the right or left u More often to the left

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30 Rhinitis: Inflammation of the nasal membrane 20% of Population $5.3 Billion/Year

31 Physiology of the Nose  Nose can filter particles down to 5   microns  in diameter u Two factors which decrease the humidification and filtering ability of the nose is: u Mouth Breathing u Placement of an ET (endotracheal) tube

32 Paranasal Sinuses u Empty air spaces found in the bones of the skull; Paired u Frontal u Ethmoid u Sphenoid u Maxillary u They contain mucous secreting goblet cells which drain into the nasal cavity

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34 Nose and Nasal Cavities

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36 Anatomy of the Oral Cavity u Roof of the mouth is formed by the hard and soft palate u Hard – Bony portion u Soft – Fleshy portion u Uvula is the soft fleshy structure u Epithelium is stratified squamous epithelium which is non-ciliated. u Palatine (faucial) tonsils are located on each side of the oral cavity.

37 TONSILS

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39 Pharynx - Throat u Nasopharynx u Oropharynx u Laryngopharynx

40 Nasopharynx u Located posterior to nasal cavity u Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium u Includes pharyngeal tonsils or adenoids u Eustachian Tubes (auditory tubes) u Connects the middle ear and nasopharynx u Middle ear infection is called otitis media u Complication of ET tubes

41 Oropharynx u Lies behind the oral cavity u Lingual tonsils lie at the root of the tongue u Statified squamous epithelium

42 Laryngopharynx u Lies between the base of the tongue and the entrance to the esophagus u Lies posterior to the epiglottis u Stratified squamous epithelium u aka Hypopharynx

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