Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

27.3 Acid-Base Behavior of Amino Acids. Recall While their name implies that amino acids are compounds that contain an —NH 2 group and a —CO 2 H group,

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "27.3 Acid-Base Behavior of Amino Acids. Recall While their name implies that amino acids are compounds that contain an —NH 2 group and a —CO 2 H group,"— Presentation transcript:

1 27.3 Acid-Base Behavior of Amino Acids

2 Recall While their name implies that amino acids are compounds that contain an —NH 2 group and a —CO 2 H group, these groups are actually present as —NH 3 + and —CO 2 – respectively. How do we know this?

3 Properties of Glycine OOH H 2 NCH 2 C – OO H 3 NCH 2 C + The properties of glycine: high melting point (when heated to 233°C it decomposes before it melts) solubility: soluble in water; not soluble in nonpolar solvent more consistent with this than this

4 Properties of Glycine – OO H 3 NCH 2 C + The properties of glycine: high melting point (when heated to 233°C it decomposes before it melts) solubility: soluble in water; not soluble in nonpolar solvent more consistent with this called a zwitterion or dipolar ion

5 Acid-Base Properties of Glycine The zwitterionic structure of glycine also follows from considering its acid-base properties. A good way to think about this is to start with the structure of glycine in strongly acidic solution, say pH = 1. At pH = 1, glycine exists in its protonated form (a monocation).

6 Acid-Base Properties of Glycine The zwitterionic structure of glycine also follows from considering its acid-base properties. A good way to think about this is to start with the structure of glycine in strongly acidic solution, say pH = 1. At pH = 1, glycine exists in its protonated form (a monocation). OOH H 3 NCH 2 C +

7 Acid-Base Properties of Glycine Now ask yourself "As the pH is raised, which is the first proton to be removed? Is it the proton attached to the positively charged nitrogen, or is it the proton of the carboxyl group?" You can choose between them by estimating their respective pK a s. OOH H 3 NCH 2 C +

8 Acid-Base Properties of Glycine Now ask yourself "As the pH is raised, which is the first proton to be removed? Is it the proton attached to the positively charged nitrogen, or is it the proton of the carboxyl group?" You can choose between them by estimating their respective pK a s. OOH H 3 NCH 2 C + typical ammonium ion: pK a ~9 typical carboxylic acid: pK a ~5

9 Acid-Base Properties of Glycine The more acidic proton belongs to the CO 2 H group. It is the first one removed as the pH is raised. OOH H 3 NCH 2 C + typical carboxylic acid: pK a ~5

10 Acid-Base Properties of Glycine Therefore, the more stable neutral form of glycine is the zwitterion. OOH H 3 NCH 2 C + typical carboxylic acid: pK a ~5 – OO H 3 NCH 2 C +

11 The measured pK a of glycine is Glycine is stronger than a typical carboxylic acid because the positively charged N acts as an electron-withdrawing, acid-strengthening substituent on the  carbon. Acid-Base Properties of Glycine OOH H 3 NCH 2 C + typical carboxylic acid: pK a ~5

12 Acid-Base Properties of Glycine – OO H 3 NCH 2 C + The pK a for removal of this proton is This value is about the same as that for NH 4 + (9.3). HO– – OO H 2 NCH 2 C A proton attached to N in the zwitterionic form of nitrogen can be removed as the pH is increased further.

13 Isoelectric Point pI – OO H 3 NCH 2 C + – OO H 2 NCH 2 C OOH H 3 NCH 2 C + pK a = 2.34 pK a = 9.60 The pH at which the concentration of the zwitterion is a maximum is called the isoelectric point. Its numerical value is the average of the two pK a s. The pI of glycine is 5.97.

14 Acid-Base Properties of Amino Acids One way in which amino acids differ is in respect to their acid-base properties. This is the basis for certain experimental methods for separating and identifying them. Just as important, the difference in acid-base properties among various side chains affects the properties of the proteins that contain them. Table 27.2 gives pK a and pI values for amino acids with neutral side chains.

15 Table 27.2 Amino Acids with Neutral Side Chains CCOO – H H H3NH3NH3NH3N + Glycine pK a1 = 2.34 pK a2 =9.60 pI =5.97

16 Table 27.2 Amino Acids with Neutral Side Chains Alanine pK a1 = 2.34 pK a2 =9.69 pI =6.00 H3NH3NH3NH3N CCOO – CH 3 H +

17 Table 27.2 Amino Acids with Neutral Side Chains Valine pK a1 = 2.32 pK a2 =9.62 pI =5.96 H3NH3NH3NH3N CCOO – CH(CH 3 ) 2 H +

18 Table 27.2 Amino Acids with Neutral Side Chains Leucine pK a1 = 2.36 pK a2 =9.60 pI =5.98 H3NH3NH3NH3N CCOO – CH 2 CH(CH 3 ) 2 H +

19 Table 27.2 Amino Acids with Neutral Side Chains Isoleucine pK a1 = 2.36 pK a2 =9.60 pI =5.98 H3NH3NH3NH3N CC O O – CH 3 CHCH 2 CH 3 H +

20 Table 27.2 Amino Acids with Neutral Side Chains Methionine pK a1 = 2.28 pK a2 =9.21 pI =5.74 H3NH3NH3NH3N CC O O – CH 3 SCH 2 CH 2 H +

21 Table 27.2 Amino Acids with Neutral Side Chains Proline pK a1 = 1.99 pK a2 =10.60 pI =6.30 H2NH2NH2NH2N CCOO – H + CH 2 H2CH2CH2CH2C CH2CH2CH2CH2

22 Table 27.2 Amino Acids with Neutral Side Chains Phenylalanine pK a1 = 1.83 pK a2 =9.13 pI =5.48 H3NH3NH3NH3N CCOO – H + CH 2

23 Table 27.2 Amino Acids with Neutral Side Chains Tryptophan pK a1 = 2.83 pK a2 =9.39 pI =5.89 H3NH3NH3NH3N CCOO – H + CH 2 H N

24 Table 27.2 Amino Acids with Neutral Side Chains Asparagine pK a1 = 2.02 pK a2 =8.80 pI =5.41 H3NH3NH3NH3N CC O O – H + H 2 NCCH 2 O

25 Table 27.2 Amino Acids with Neutral Side Chains Glutamine pK a1 = 2.17 pK a2 =9.13 pI =5.65 H3NH3NH3NH3N CCOO – H + H 2 NCCH 2 CH 2 O

26 Table 27.2 Amino Acids with Neutral Side Chains Serine pK a1 = 2.21 pK a2 =9.15 pI =5.68 H3NH3NH3NH3N CCOO – CH 2 OH H +

27 Table 27.2 Amino Acids with Neutral Side Chains Threonine pK a1 = 2.09 pK a2 =9.10 pI =5.60 H3NH3NH3NH3N CC O O – CH 3 CHOH H +

28 Table 27.3 Amino Acids with Ionizable Side Chains Aspartic acid pK a1 = 1.88 pK a2 =3.65 pK a3 =9.60 pI =2.77 H3NH3NH3NH3N CC O O – H + OCCH 2 O– For amino acids with acidic side chains, pI is the average of pK a1 and pK a2.

29 Table 27.3 Amino Acids with Ionizable Side Chains Glutamic acid pK a1 = 2.19 pK a2 =4.25 pK a3 =9.67 pI =3.22 H3NH3NH3NH3N CC O O – H + O OCCH 2 CH 2 –

30 Table 27.3 Amino Acids with Ionizable Side Chains Tyrosine pK a1 = 2.20 pK a2 =9.11 pK a3 =10.07 pI =5.66 H3NH3NH3NH3N CCOO – H + CH 2 OH

31 Table 27.3 Amino Acids with Ionizable Side Chains Cysteine H3NH3NH3NH3N CCOO – CH 2 SH H + pK a1 = 1.96 pK a2 =8.18 pK a3 =10.28 pI =5.07

32 Table 27.3 Amino Acids with Ionizable Side Chains Lysine pK a1 = 2.18 pK a2 =8.95 pK a3 =10.53 pI =9.74 H3NH3NH3NH3N CCOO – H + CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 NH 3 + For amino acids with basic side chains, pI is the average of pK a2 and pK a3.

33 Table 27.3 Amino Acids with Ionizable Side Chains Arginine pK a1 = 2.17 pK a2 =9.04 pK a3 =12.48 pI =10.76 H3NH3NH3NH3N CCOO – H + CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 NHCNH 2 + NH2NH2NH2NH2

34 Table 27.3 Amino Acids with Ionizable Side Chains Histidine pK a1 = 1.82 pK a2 =6.00 pK a3 =9.17 pI =7.59 H3NH3NH3NH3N CCOO – H + CH 2 NH N


Download ppt "27.3 Acid-Base Behavior of Amino Acids. Recall While their name implies that amino acids are compounds that contain an —NH 2 group and a —CO 2 H group,"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google