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Part Three 1 st Controversy Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792? www.historytl.com.

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Presentation on theme: "Part Three 1 st Controversy Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792? www.historytl.com."— Presentation transcript:

1 Part Three 1 st Controversy Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792? www.historytl.com

2 Assessment: Written examination: 2 hours. Each option paper will be divided into Sections A and B. Candidates will be required to answer the following from their chosen topic: one question in Section A out of a choice of two (30 marks). The essay questions will have an analytical focus that will require candidates to reach a substantiated judgement on a historical issue or problem one question in Section B out of a choice of two (40 marks). The question will require candidates to compare the provided source material while exploring an issue of historical debate, and to reach substantiated judgements in the light of their own knowledge and understanding of the issues of interpretation and controversy. www.historytl.com

3 In Section B, candidates will be provided with five or six unseen secondary sources totalling approximately 350-400 words per question. These sources will be made available with the examination paper. The question will require candidates to compare the provided source material while exploring an issue of historical debate, and to reach substantiated judgements in the light of their own knowledge and understanding of the issues of interpretation and controversy. a) Why did constitutional monarchy fail in the years 1789-92? www.historytl.com

4 The French Revolution-Controversy Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792? Topic Outline  Introduction to the controversy  How far reaching were the reforms of the National Assembly  Why was there a struggle over the Civil Constitution of the Clergy?  How important was the rise of the Political clubs of the 1790s?  Was the Flight to Varennes significant?  Why did France go to war?  How did the monarchy come to an end?  What was central to the breakdown of the constitutional monarchy of Louis XVI between October 1789 and January 1793  What happened at Louis’ trial and execution? Assessment Document It was the coming of war which destroyed the French Monarchy in 1792? Do you agree? The deteriorating economic climate brought about the downfall of the constitutional monarchy in France in 1792 Explain how far this is accurate How far do you agree with the view that the downfall of the monarchy in August 1792 was brought about by the Jacobin minority? (June 2012) www.historytl.com

5 Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792 How far reaching were the reforms of the National Assembly? www.historytl.com The French Revolution-Controversy A Meritocracy ? Discuss with the person next to you  Should people only get things such as jobs based on merit?  Do we live in a society that only rewards merit

6 Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792 How far reaching were the reforms of the National Assembly? www.historytl.com Objectives  To understand the principles that under pin the reforms  To research and prepare a presentation on a given area of reform  To make a judgement as to how far reaching these reforms were The French Revolution-Controversy Proclamation of the Constitution of 1791

7 How far reaching were the reforms of the National Assembly? Common Principles The principle of election The principle of meritocracy The principle of equality The principle of wealth www.historytl.com The French Revolution-Controversy Areas Reformed Local Government Tax and finance Economy Legal System The Constitution The Church (to be looked at separately) www.historytl.com

8 The principle of election Local government officials elected Under the constitution active citizens were elected Magistrates and judges were elected Clergy were to be elected The principle of wealth Voting qualifications were based on wealth Only the very rich bourgeoisie could become Deputies to the Assembly. Wealth ensured that the bourgeoisie and the peasants could “buy in” to the Revolution through the purchase of Church lands. The Declaration of Rights which underpinned the reforms stated The principle of meritocracy Officials were elected to local government based on merit Judges were to be elected based on their merits – their amount of experience The principle of equality There was to be equality before the law with the abolition of ecclesiastical and seigneural courts. There was to be equality of taxation with the introduction of the new land tax that was to be paid by all and based on land values. There was to be equality in the payment of salaries to the clergy as great discrepancies of wealth were evened out. www.historytl.com The French Revolution-Controversy Principles of reform? www.historytl.com

9 How far reaching were the reforms of the National Assembly? www.historytl.com The French Revolution-Controversy In groups you will need to investigate one area of the reforms You will need to provide a presentation and handout that includes  An outline of the reforms of your area  An explanation of where and how they reflect the principles behind the reforms  A conclusion as to how far reaching the reforms were in your area based on differences before reform Areas Reformed Local Government – Leigh & Mark Tax and finance – Adam & Reece Economy- Andrew & Dillion Legal System –Darina & Harison The Constitution – Matthew & James

10 How far reaching were the reforms of the National Assembly? www.historytl.com The French Revolution-Controversy In pairs sort the cards under three headings Political Social and Religious change Then prioritise the comments Which area of France do you think saw the most significant reforms? www.historytl.com

11 Some reflections on the reforms?  The change in the relationship between Church & State; the Church becomes subservient to the State.  The change in the position of the King; he becomes a constitutional monarch.  The rise of the Bourgeoisie.  The fear of the mob.  The loyalty of the peasants to the Revolution.  The crisis over the Civil Constitution of the Clergy which splits France. www.historytl.com

12 Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792 Why was there a struggle over the Civil Constitution of the Clergy? www.historytl.com Objectives  To understand what the Civil Constitution was  To investigate the arguments for and against the Civil Constitution  To assess the impact of this ‘reform’ on the king The French Revolution-Controversy cartoon representation of the confiscation of church lands

13 Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792 Why was there a struggle over the Civil Constitution of the Clergy? www.historytl.com The French Revolution-Controversy What did the Civil Constitution of the Clergy say? What were the arguments for and against it? The Key Debate Did this reform have any significance on the course of the revolution?

14 What does this suggest about how events in France are developing? www.historytl.com The French Revolution-Controversy

15 Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792 How important was the rise of the Political clubs of the 1790s? www.historytl.com Objectives  To investigate why there was an increase in discontent  To research and investigate the new clubs that have grown up in Paris  To be introduced to the groups/clubs that will dominate the next stages of the revolution The French Revolution-Controversy The Jacobin Club

16 Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792 How important was the rise of the Political clubs of the 1790s? www.historytl.com The French Revolution-Controversy What reasons can you find why France became more radical and extreme in 1791/2? Using the extra information complete your tables on the make up of the clubs How significant do you believe the clubs were in increasing revolutionary discontent?

17 www.historytl.com The French Revolution-Controversy In pairs Why might the King try to leave the country? What might he hope to achieve by doing so? Aim for three suggestions for each

18 Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792 Was the Flight to Varennes significant? www.historytl.com Objectives  To understand the events surrounding the flight to Varennes  To investigate the significance of this event  To apply documents and knowledge to our judgement on the significance of the Flight to Varennes The French Revolution-Controversy the apprehension of Louis XVI at Varennes

19 Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792 Was the Flight to Varennes significant? www.historytl.com The French Revolution-Controversy Read through the account of the flight, in 70 words explain what happened Using the documents answer questions1 and 2 Now return to the information –read the background information as to the significance of this flight Apply this knowledge in answering Document question 3

20 The flight to Varennes Major Event The Flight to Varennes Root Causes Causes Effect The French Revolution-Controversy www.historytl.com

21 Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792 Why did France go to war? www.historytl.com Objectives  To find possible reasons for war  To investigate the arguments for and against going to war The French Revolution-Controversy

22 Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792 Why did France go to war? www.historytl.com The French Revolution-Controversy Take each source in turn  Is it in favour or against the war  What is the argument used for this? Now look to find examples of further groups and individuals who were for and against the war by completing your table. Robespierre

23 Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792 Why did France go to war? And what was the impact on France of this decision? Complete a Flow Map of events from April to September 1792, giving a brief explanation of each event Use this research to complete your table on the impact of the War www.historytl.com The French Revolution-Controversy

24 20 th April 1792-21 st Sept 1792 Defeat in Austrian Netherlands Lafayette requests the Assembly to make peace Louis XVI vetoes 2 laws Journee on 20 th June The call to arms ‘La Patrie endanger…’ August 1 st The Brunswick manifesto August 10 th The Storming of the Tuilieries Suspension & imprisonment of the King September Massacres Victory at Valmy Election of a new Assembly A new Calendar The French Revolution-Controversy www.historytl.com

25 Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792 Why did France go to war? And what was the impact on France of this decision? Prepare your document answer www.historytl.com The French Revolution-Controversy

26 It was the coming of War which destroyed the French monarchy’? The Coming of Revolution 1786-9 www.historytl.com Does this source agree? Annotate the source Own knowledge to support the source Source A- Popular and fraternal Societies sprang up in great numbers during the winter of 1790-91, generally under the patronage of Marat, and as an off-shot of the Cordeliers Club. Their aim was popularise, amongst those who could not educate themselves. Rousseau and republicanism. So the new ideas spread. They would hardly have done so but for economic distress, the treachery of the king and fear of war. ‘As things are’ wrote Cabanis, the latest adviser to the court, on the 21 st April 1791, ‘and during the King’s lifetime, no party either in the assembly or out of it would dare to propose an other form of government. The republicans have different hopes; but as long as the King himself is safe, the situation can be saved.’ This safeguard Louis had now deliberately thrown away. The quite unprecedented protest of public opinion against the flight to Varennes opened the mouth of republicanism. JM Thompson The French Revolution 1943

27 It was the coming of War which destroyed the French monarchy’? The Coming of Revolution 1786-9 www.historytl.com Does this source agree? Annotate the source Own knowledge to support the source Source -B Yet in spite of the mistrust of the King, it seemed likely that the Constitution of 1791 would survive. What prevented this was the war with Austria, which began in April 1792. This event had more decisive and far reaching results than any other in the whole of the Revolution. Almost everything that had happened in France from that time was caused, or affected, by it. The war finally destroyed the consensus of 1789. It led directly to the fall of the monarchy, to civil war and the Terror. Duncan Townson France in Revolution 1990

28 It was the coming of War which destroyed the French monarchy’? The Coming of Revolution 1786-9 www.historytl.com Does this source agree? Annotate the source Own knowledge to support the source Source -C A second revolution had indeed occurred in the summer of 1792, ushering in universal suffrage and,in effect, a republic. But it did not have the warm and virtually unanimous support that the nation had offered in the first. Events since 1789 had brought difference and divisions: many had followed their priests. Of those who remained loyal to the Revolution, some criticised 10 August, while others stood by, fearing the day’s aftermath. Those who had actually participated in the insurrection or who unhesitatingly approved it were few in number, a minority resolved to crush counter-revolution by any means. Georges Lefebvre The French Revolution 1965

29 Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792 How did the monarchy come to an end? www.historytl.com Objectives  To identify what happened when the Hotel du Ville was attacked.  To research the September Massacres  To assess the significance of these actions The French Revolution-Controversy

30 Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792 How did the monarchy come to an end? www.historytl.com The French Revolution-Controversy The Attack on the Hotel du Ville What happened here in 1792? Significant?

31 Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792 How did the monarchy come to an end? www.historytl.com The French Revolution-Controversy The September Massacres A sign of things to come? Where does all this leave the monarchy?

32 Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792 What was central to the breakdown of the constitutional monarchy of Louis XVI between October 1789 and January 1793? Source Analysis www.historytl.com Objectives  To investigate, through sources, the factors involved  To use sources to support areas of debate  To come to a conclusion on the controversy The French Revolution-Controversy

33 Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792 What was central to the breakdown of the constitutional monarchy of Louis XVI between October 1789 and January 1793? www.historytl.com The French Revolution-Controversy Was the downfall of the Constitutional Monarchy inevitable?

34 Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792 What was central to the breakdown of the constitutional monarchy of Louis XVI between October 1789 and January 1793? www.historytl.com The French Revolution-Controversy You have five minutes In pairs What arguments can you find in the sources that it was the King’s actions that led to his downfall? What evidence can you find that the role of religion played a part? Which of these two factors do you think was the most important?

35 Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792 Why did the Constitutional Monarchy come to an end? www.historytl.com The French Revolution-Controversy Causes of the fall Civil Constitution of the Clergy The King’s own actions

36 Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792 Why did the monarchy come to an end? www.historytl.comThe French Revolution-Controversy Fall of Absolute monarchy Fall of Constitutional monarchy http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wXsZbkt0yqo

37 Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792 What was central to the breakdown of the constitutional monarchy of Louis XVI between October 1789 and January 1793? www.historytl.com The French Revolution-Controversy Some areas of debate to pursue  A consequence of Louis’ personal failings and mistakes?  A consequence of too much reform too quickly?  The result of war?  The result of deepening economic crisis?  A consequence of the machinations* of a radical minority?  A consequence of divisions amongst conservative forces?  Any other factors? Area of DebateEvidence for Indentify and quote source Evidence for Indentify and quote source

38 Why did the Constitutional Monarchy fail between October 1789 and August 1792 What was central to the breakdown of the constitutional monarchy of Louis XVI between October 1789 and January 1793? Exam practise www.historytl.com Objectives  To investigate, through sources, the factors involved  To use sources to support areas of debate  To apply these skills to exam questions The French Revolution-Controversy


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