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WJEC A2 Geology BGS Mapwork I.G.Kenyon Recognising Geological Structures.

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Presentation on theme: "WJEC A2 Geology BGS Mapwork I.G.Kenyon Recognising Geological Structures."— Presentation transcript:

1 WJEC A2 Geology BGS Mapwork I.G.Kenyon Recognising Geological Structures

2 Moreton-in-Marsh 1:50,000 Sheet Horizontal beds Evidence + symbols Bed outcrops run parallel to contour lines Outcrop pattern controlled by relief/topography Youngest bed Oldest bed LLi No strike and dip values can be given

3 Moreton-in-Marsh 1:50,000 Sheet 217 Graben Horst Ticks on faults indicate downthrown side Graben

4 Moreton-in-Marsh 1:50,000 Sheet 217 Outliers-areas of younger rock completely surrounded by older rock

5 Cheddar 1:25,000 Sheet ST 45 Older Carboniferous Limestone Younger Triassic red mudstone Inlier-an area of older rock completely surrounded by younger rocks Unusually this inlier also forms a hill

6 Anticlinal Axis N South side dips more gently (dips 25-30°) Outcrops wider North side dips more steeply (dips 42-60°) Outcrops narrower Slight plunge to the east as core bed gets narrower in outcrop Cheddar 1:25,000 Sheet ST 45 Asymmetrical Anticline Oldest bed in the core of the fold Repeated outcrop pattern, only core bed is not repeated

7 Cheddar 1:25,000 Sheet ST 45 DCg is a basal conglomerate and is unconformable on the older carboniferous rocks DCg shows angular overstep here as it extends over several older rocks + + Upper younger series are horizontal Lower older series dip North 60-80° and strike East-West MMG overlaps DCg here +

8 Monmouth 1:50,000 Sheet 233 C3 quartz conglomerate forms a parallel unconformity between the upper and lower old red sandstone Beds above and below unconformity have parallel outcrop patterns and the same dip and strike values Angular overstep unconformity here between the carboniferous limestone and the upper coal measures

9 Craven Arms 1:25,000 Sheet SO48 Solid & Drift Account for the V shaped pattern of outcrop of bed b7b here

10 Malmesbury One inch Sheet 251 Solid & Drift Describe the strike and dip of the Carboniferous beds here Identify the relationship between beds d 5 and f 6 here

11 Malmesbury One inch Sheet 251, Solid & Drift Describe the main fold structure here, refer to strike and dip values, symmetry and plunge Name this feature

12 Haverfordwest 1:50,000 Sheet 228 Describe the main fold structure here, refer to strike and dip values, symmetry and plunge

13 Chepstow 1:50,000 Sheet 250 Describe the main fold structure here, refer to strike and dip values, symmetry and plunge Approximate position of fold axis

14 Chepstow 1:50,000 Sheet 250 This fault dips east at 79°, identify the fault type Identify this deposit and account for its distribution on this map extract

15 Haverfordwest 1:50,000 Sheet 228 Describe and identify the main fold structure in the map extract above. Refer to dip and strike values, symmetry and plunge where appropriate Identify this feature

16 Haverfordwest 1:50,000 Sheet 228 Identify the relationship between beds (b 4 and d 4) and (d 2 and d 4 ) in this box Describe and identify the main fold structure in the map extract above. Refer to dip and strike values, symmetry and plunge where appropriate

17 Hawes 1:50,000 Solid & Drift Describe the evidence on the map for the Carboniferous beds GL and DBL being horizontal Describe the fold structures in the InG beds within this box

18 Chepstow 1:50,000 Sheet 250 Describe the strike and dip of the Carboniferous beds BRL, BRD, GuO and CDLin this box Identify an angular unconformity on the map extract and locate examples of overstep and overlap

19 Cockermouth 1:50,000 Sheet 23 Identify an area of Step-Faulting and a Horst Block on the map extract If the Crummock and Waverbank Faults dip North East, what type of faults are they?

20 Ayr 1:50,000 Sheet 14(W) If this fault dips steeply to the SSW, what is the type of fault?

21 Ayr 1:50,000 Sheet 14(W) Describe the main fault trends on the extract above. Identify 2 Grabens, 2 Horst Wedges and an area of Step Faulting

22 Carmarthen 1:50,000 Sheet 229 Solid This fault plane dips steeply to the South East. Identify the type of fault

23 Carmarthen 1:50,000 Sheet 229 Solid Name the types of faults F1 and F2 on the cross section above F1 F2

24 Alloa 1:50,000 Sheet 13 Solid Account for the repeated outcrop of bed dc 2 on the map extract above

25 Alloa 1:50,000 Sheet 13 Solid Describe and identify the major fold structure on the map extract above. Refer to dips and strikes, symmetry and plunge where appropriate.

26 Alloa 1:50,000 Sheet 13 Solid The Ochil Fault dips at a high angle to the South. Which is the downthrown side? What type of fault is the Ochil Fault ? Account for the variation in width of the metamorphic aureole Metamorphic Aureole

27 Brough-under-Stainmore 1:50,000 Sheet 31 Solid Describe the outcrop of the quartz dolerite qD and outline the likely nature of this igneous intrusion

28 Chapel en le Frith 1:50,000 Sheet 99 Solid Identify 2 major fold structures on the map extract above Refer to dip and strike, symmetry and plunge where appropriate

29 Chapel en le Frith 1:50,000 Sheet 99 Solid Describe the relationship between geological structure and topography on the cross section above. Comment on the areas highlighted by the boxes.

30 Winchester 1:50,000 Solid & Drift Identify the major fold structure on the map extract above Cross section shown on next slide a b

31 a b Winchester 1:50,000 Solid & Drift Describe and explain the relationship between topography and structure on the cross section above

32 Grampound Grit Falmouth Series Mylor Series Portscatho Series Falmouth 1:50,000 Sheet 352 Solid & Drift Truro School Inliers-outcrops of older rock completely surrounded by younger rocks Quartz Porphyry Dykes River Allen River Kenwyn Mica-rich dykes (Minette) Sediments are Devonian Ma

33 The End Ash deposits of the Las Canadas Volcano, Tenerife, Canary Islands


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