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2 of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2010 Links to the current specifications AQA3.4.8 Amino acids: acid and base properties; proteins. EdexcelTopic 5.4 – Organic chemistry 5.4.2a Give examples of: i. molecules that contain amine and amide functional groups. ii. amino acids h Comment on the physical properties of polyamides in terms of hydrogen bonding i Describe and carry out, where appropriate, experiments to investigate the characteristic behaviour of amino acids. This is limited to: i. acidity and basicity and the formation of zwitterions. iv. formation of peptide groups in proteins by condensation polymerization. OCR4.2.1 Amino acids and chirality: amino acids; peptide formation and hydrolysis of proteins Polyesters and polyamides: condensation polymers; hydrolysis and degradable polymers.
3 of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2010 Proteins and amino acids Proteins are a diverse group of large and complex polymer molecules, made up of long chains of amino acids. The R group, also attached to the same carbon atom, can vary. There are 22 amino acids that are used to make proteins (proteinogenic). The simplest is glycine, where R = H. Amino acids contain both amine (NH 2 ) and carboxyl (COOH) functional groups. In alpha amino acids, these groups are attached to the same carbon atom. glycine (gly)
4 of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2010 Zwitterions
5 of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2010 Acid–base properties of amino acids The presence of a carboxyl group and an amine group mean that amino acids have both acidic and basic properties. NH 2 group acts as a base COOH acid group acts as an acid When acting as an acid, the COOH group loses a H + ion: When acting as a base, the NH 2 group gains a H + ion: H 2 NCHRCOOH + OH - H 2 NCHRCOO - + H 2 OH 2 NCHRCOOH + H + H 3 N + CHRCOOH
6 of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2010 Effect of pH on amino acids
7 of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2010 Peptide formation
8 of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2010 Hydrolysis of peptide bonds A peptide bond can be split by refluxing with hydrochloric acid. During hydrolysis, the water molecule adds across the peptide bond, forming a mixture of the two amino acids. Peptide links can also be broken using a solution of alkali, such as aqueous sodium hydroxide at above 100°C.
1 of 13© Boardworks Ltd of 13© Boardworks Ltd 2010 Proteins and amino acids Proteins are a diverse group of large and complex polymer molecules,
4.8 Amides 1. Amides 2 Amide functional group Amides Possible under high temp for extended time to prepare amide from a carboxylic acid and an amine.
General method for synthesis of azo dyes Add a cold aqueous solution of sodium nitrite slowly (with cooling and stirring) to a cold solution of the amine.
Condensation Polymerisation. When condensation polymerisation takes place, the monomer molecules join to make the polymer molecule and water. Condensation.
Amino Acids, Isomerism and Condensation Polymers.
Amino Acids Organic compounds containing both the amine -NH 2 and carboxyl -COOH functional groups. Amine e.g. CH 3 CH 2 NH 2 ethylamine Carboxylic acid.
AMIDES AND AMINO ACIDS AMIDES AND AMINO ACIDS. AMIDES Structurederivatives of carboxylic acids amide group is -CONH 2 NomenclatureWhite crystalline solids.
Week 7 © Pearson Education Ltd 2009 This document may have been altered from the original State the general formula for an α-amino acid as RCH(NH 2 )COOH.
Polypetides and proteins L.O.: Explain the formation of a peptide (amide) linkage between α-amino acids to form polypeptides and proteins. Describe the.
CONTENTS Prior knowledge Structure and classification Nomenclature Physical properties Basic properties Nucleophilic properties Amino acids Peptides and.
Nitrogen Compounds Ammonia derivatives. Specification from OCR Properties of primary amines Properties of primary amines Amino acids; peptide formation.
Proteins!. Proteins Proteins account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells Monomer: amino acids 20 amino acids used in cells Central carbon.
The Structure of Proteins describe, with the aid of diagrams, the structure of an amino acid; describe, with the aid of diagrams, the formation and breakage.
Key area: Proteins Overview In this section, study the structure and function of proteins. Learn about how they are formed from amino acids in condensation.
Enzymes In Depth With pH!. pH Enzymes Globular proteins Built from amino acids that have acidic and basic characteristics – Amino acids have both.
ProteiN proteiN – “N” stands for nitrogen. There is an “N” in the word proteiN The element Nitrogen is always present in proteiNs.
Proteins Revision L.O: To recall info on proteins To identify and correct any misconceptions Starter: Q) Polypeptides such as spectrin are formed from.
Polyamides are polymers that contain many amide groups. These groups form when a carboxylic acid reacts with an amine.
Amino acids and proteins Section (pages )
POLYMER CHEMISTRY. Natural and Synthetic Polymers Polymers are made up of many (poly) repeating units (mer). Simple polymers are made up of single monomers.
The Arrhenius Theory of acids and bases The theory Acids are substances which produce hydrogen ions in solution. Acids are substances which produce hydrogen.
Answer all questions fully in your exercise books 1)What causes the colour change seen in the reducing sugars test? 2)Why is vitamin K2 important and how.
Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life Mr. Grivensky/Mr. Rutkoski.
SIMON’S GUIDE TO PROTEINS Some foods containing protein.
Cissy Gao / Irene Meng / Zero Yao. Today’s Object Identify amino acids and understand their structure Identify the peptide bonds in dipeptides and polypeptides.
1 of 11© Boardworks Ltd of 11© Boardworks Ltd 2009 Strong acids Acids can be strong or weak. Strong acids dissociate fully into solution, so that.
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins. Introduction to Amino Acids There are about 26 amino acids, many others are also known from a variety of sources.
Excerpt from Chapter 19: Proteins University of Louisiana at Lafayette CHEM 125, Leonard All images used with permission of publisher (Cengage Learning)
Functions of Proteins 20.2 Amino Acids 20.3 Amino Acids as Acids and Bases Chapter 20 Amino Acids and Proteins.
Proteins Major group of biological molecules. Proteins Monomers: amino acids ▫Always contain an amino group and carboxylic acid group Polymers: peptides.
Carbon Compounds. Learning Objectives Describe the unique qualities of carbon. Describe the structures and functions of each of the four groups of.
UNIT 4 A2 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY MECHANISMS AND REAGENTS.
Protein chemistry Lecture Amino acids are the basic structural units of proteins consisting of: - Amino group, (-NH2) - Carboxyl group(-COOH)
Resources Tab: There are 20 Amino Acids that compose proteins. Nine of them are essential to the human diet. Glycine is the simplest amino acid. You should.
Amino acids. Essential Amino Acids 10 amino acids not synthesized by the body arg, his, ile, leu, lys, met, phe, thr, trp, val Must obtain from the diet.
1 of 8© Boardworks Ltd of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2011 Introducing proteins Proteins are a diverse group of large and complex polymer molecules, made.
Welcome to class of Amino Acids Dr. Meera Kaur. Learning objectives To understand - the structural features of amino acids - the classifications of amino.
Our body is close to 20% protein and many of the foods we eat also contain protein.
Biochemistry Chapter 3. Inorganic molecules: Are not made of both C AND H Organic Molecules: Contain C AND H; may have other elements - hydrocarbons:
Option B Biochemistry Jeff Venables Northwestern High School.
© Boardworks Ltd of of 12© Boardworks Ltd 2009 What are indicators? Indicators are chemicals that change color in the presence of an acid.
PIG. describe how hydrogen bonding occurs between water molecules, and relate this, and other properties of water, to the roles of water in living organisms.
Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life! Amino acids are molecules containing both the amide group – NH 2 at one end of the molecule and carboxyl group.
Proteins Protein Basics Used in variety of cellular functions Made of smaller amino acids –Monomer: Amino acid –Polymer: Protein (often multiple polypeptides)
1 Amino Acids and Proteins Biology 12 E. McIntyre.
B- Classification according to polarity of side chain (R): 1- Polar amino acids: in which R contains polar hydrophilic group so can forms hydrogen bond.
Amines Ammonia derivatives. Specification from OCR o Explain the basicity of amines in terms of proton acceptance by the nitrogen lone pair. o Describe.
Carbon Compounds Chapter 2 Section 3 Part 2. Objectives Describe the unique qualities of carbon Describe the structures and functions of each of the.
Amine R group Alpha Carbon Carboxylic Acid. Nonpolar side chains.
Carbon and Molecular Diversity. Organic Molecules What is an organic molecule? Molecule that contains carbon What are the major elements of life? C, H,
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