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1 of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2010
2 of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2010 Links to the current specifications AQA3.4.8 Amino acids: acid and base properties; proteins. EdexcelTopic 5.4 – Organic chemistry 5.4.2a Give examples of: i. molecules that contain amine and amide functional groups. ii. amino acids h Comment on the physical properties of polyamides in terms of hydrogen bonding i Describe and carry out, where appropriate, experiments to investigate the characteristic behaviour of amino acids. This is limited to: i. acidity and basicity and the formation of zwitterions. iv. formation of peptide groups in proteins by condensation polymerization. OCR4.2.1 Amino acids and chirality: amino acids; peptide formation and hydrolysis of proteins Polyesters and polyamides: condensation polymers; hydrolysis and degradable polymers.
3 of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2010 Proteins and amino acids Proteins are a diverse group of large and complex polymer molecules, made up of long chains of amino acids. The R group, also attached to the same carbon atom, can vary. There are 22 amino acids that are used to make proteins (proteinogenic). The simplest is glycine, where R = H. Amino acids contain both amine (NH 2 ) and carboxyl (COOH) functional groups. In alpha amino acids, these groups are attached to the same carbon atom. glycine (gly)
4 of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2010 Zwitterions
5 of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2010 Acid–base properties of amino acids The presence of a carboxyl group and an amine group mean that amino acids have both acidic and basic properties. NH 2 group acts as a base COOH acid group acts as an acid When acting as an acid, the COOH group loses a H + ion: When acting as a base, the NH 2 group gains a H + ion: H 2 NCHRCOOH + OH - H 2 NCHRCOO - + H 2 OH 2 NCHRCOOH + H + H 3 N + CHRCOOH
6 of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2010 Effect of pH on amino acids
7 of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2010 Peptide formation
8 of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2010 Hydrolysis of peptide bonds A peptide bond can be split by refluxing with hydrochloric acid. During hydrolysis, the water molecule adds across the peptide bond, forming a mixture of the two amino acids. Peptide links can also be broken using a solution of alkali, such as aqueous sodium hydroxide at above 100°C.
The Structure of Proteins describe, with the aid of diagrams, the structure of an amino acid; describe, with the aid of diagrams, the formation and breakage.
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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select View.
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Chapter 4~ Carbon & The Molecular Diversity of Life Chapter 5~ The Structure & Function of Macromolecules.
End Show 2–3 Carbon Compounds Slide 1 of 37 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Macromolecules Four groups of organic compounds found in living things are:
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1 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Haggerston School Biology A-Level.
Section 1 Carbon Compounds Chapter 3 Distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds. Explain the importance of carbon bonding in biological molecules.
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