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Aggression “An act carried out with the intention to harm another person” Instrumental aggression – a means to an end Instrumental aggression – a means.

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Presentation on theme: "Aggression “An act carried out with the intention to harm another person” Instrumental aggression – a means to an end Instrumental aggression – a means."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aggression “An act carried out with the intention to harm another person” Instrumental aggression – a means to an end Instrumental aggression – a means to an end Hostile aggression – an end in itself Hostile aggression – an end in itself

2 Aggression What causes people to behave aggressively? What causes people to behave aggressively? Social learning Social learning Deindividuation Deindividuation How does our environment affect the likelihood of aggressive behaviour? How does our environment affect the likelihood of aggressive behaviour? Heat, noise, crowding Heat, noise, crowding

3 Social Learning Theory (SLT) Environment Environment Observation Observation Model Model Imitation Imitation Observed consequences Observed consequences Vicarious reinforcement and punishment Vicarious reinforcement and punishment

4 Social Learning Theory Bandura (1965) Bandura (1965) Observational learning of aggression Observational learning of aggression Mead (1965) Mead (1965) Cultural transmission of aggression Cultural transmission of aggression Patterson et al (1989) Patterson et al (1989) Learning of aggression within family Learning of aggression within family

5 Deindividuation Normal constraints on behaviour are weakened when a person loses their sense of individuality Normal constraints on behaviour are weakened when a person loses their sense of individuality Crowds, uniforms, drugs & alcohol Crowds, uniforms, drugs & alcohol Less likely to be identified & held responsible for aggressive behaviour Less likely to be identified & held responsible for aggressive behaviour Anonymity  deindividuation  aggression Anonymity  deindividuation  aggression

6 Deindividuation

7 Deindividuation

8 Deindividuation

9 Deindividuation Zimbardo (1969) Zimbardo (1969) Hooded PPs were more aggressive Hooded PPs were more aggressive Zimbardo (1973; Stanford Experiment) Zimbardo (1973; Stanford Experiment) Guards’ aggression increased by uniforms, sunglasses, night-time Guards’ aggression increased by uniforms, sunglasses, night-time Mullen (1985) Mullen (1985) Violence of mob lynching a function of crowd size Violence of mob lynching a function of crowd size

10 Environmental Stressors Heat Heat Noise Noise Crowding Crowding

11 Environmental Stressors Stress  Arousal  Aggression Stress  Arousal  Aggression As arousal increases it becomes easier to trigger an aggressive response (up to a point) As arousal increases it becomes easier to trigger an aggressive response (up to a point)

12 Environmental Stressors Level of stress Likelihood of aggressive behaviour Aggressive responses most likely at moderately high levels of stress


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