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A Systematic Study of the Mobile App Ecosystem Thanasis Petsas, Antonis Papadogiannakis, Evangelos P. Markatos Michalis PolychronakisThomas Karagiannis.

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Presentation on theme: "A Systematic Study of the Mobile App Ecosystem Thanasis Petsas, Antonis Papadogiannakis, Evangelos P. Markatos Michalis PolychronakisThomas Karagiannis."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Systematic Study of the Mobile App Ecosystem Thanasis Petsas, Antonis Papadogiannakis, Evangelos P. Markatos Michalis PolychronakisThomas Karagiannis

2 Smartphone Adoption Explodes Smartphone adoption: – 10x faster than 80s PC revolution – 2x faster than 90s Internet Boom – 3x faster than social networks 1.4 B smartphones will be in use by 2013! Source: 2

3 Mobile Apps are Getting Popular 50B+ downloads 1M+ apps 50B+ downloads 900K+ apps Windows Store 2B+ downloads 100K+ apps 3

4 A Plethora of Marketplaces In addition to the official marketplaces... Many alternative markets 4

5 Motivation App popularity – How does app popularity distribution look like? – Is it similar with other domains? WWW, P2P, UGC – Can we model app popularity? App pricing – How does price affect app popularity? – What is the developers’ income? – Which are the common pricing strategies? 5

6 Crawler Hosts Data Collection Marketplaces PlanetLab Proxies App stats APKs Database 6

7 Datasets * Last Day ~ 300K apps Paid apps: less downloads fewer uploads 7

8 App Popularity Is There a Pareto Effect? Downloads (%) CDF Normalized App Ranking (%) 10% of the apps account for 90% of the downloads 8

9 App Popularity Is There a Power-law Behavior? Let’s focus on one appstore 9

10 App Popularity Deviations from ZIPF WWW INFOCOM‘99 P2P SOSP’03 UGC IMC’07 10

11 Truncation for small x values: Fetch-at-most-once Also observed in P2P workloads Users appear to download an application at most once P2P SOSP’03 simulations 11

12 Truncation for large x values: clustering effect Other studies attribute this truncation to information filtering Our suggestion: the clustering effect UGC IMC’07 12

13 App Clustering Games Reader Social Tool Apps are grouped into clusters App clusters can be formed by – App categories – Recommendation systems – User communities – Other grouping forces 13

14 Clustering Hypothesis Users tend to download apps from the same clusters I like Games! I like Social apps! 14

15 Validating Clustering Effect in User Downloads Dataset: 361,282 user comment streams, 60,196 apps in 34 categories 53% of users commented on apps from a single category 94% of users commented on apps from up to 5 categories 15

16 User Temporal Affinity a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 User downloads sequence a1, a2, a3, a4, a5 x Aff 1 = 0 ✔ Aff 2 = 1 ✔ Aff 3 = 1 x Aff 4 = 0 Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 Pair 4 16

17 Users Exhibit a Strong Temporal Affinity to Categories 0.55 0.14 3.9 x 17

18 Modeling Appstore Workloads... Top bottom App populatiry Reader GamesSocialProductivity APP-CLUSTERING model 1. Download the 1 st app – overall app ranking 2. Download another app 2.1 with prob. p from a previous app cluster c – cluster app ranking 2.2 with prob. 1-p – overall app ranking 3. If user’s downloads < d go to 2. 1 2 2.1 p 2.2 If downloaded apps < user downloads  go to 2. 3 1-p 18

19 Model Parameters SymbolParameter Description A Number of apps D Total downloads d Downloads per user (average) C Number of clusters U Number of users zrzr Zipf exponent for overall app ranking ZGZG Overall Zipf distribution of all apps P Percentage of downloads based on clustering effect zczc Zipf exponent for cluster’s app ranking ZcZc Zipf distribution of apps in cluster c D(I,j) Predicted downloads for app with total rank i and rank j in its cluster  Number of downloads of the most popular app 19

20 Results AppChina Model Distance from measured data ZIPF 0.77 ZIPF-at-most-once 0.71 APP-CLUSTERING 0.15 20

21 App Pricing Main Questions: – Which are the differences between paid & free apps? – What is the developers’ income range? – Which are the common developer strategies How do they affect revenue? 21

22 The influence of cost Clear power-law Free Paid Users are more selective when downloading paid apps 22

23 Developers’ Income Median: < 10 $ 80% < 100 $ 95% < 1500 $ Quality is more important than quantity 23 (USD)

24 Developers Create a Few Apps A large portion of developers create only 1 app 95% of developers create < 10 apps 10% of developers offer free & paid apps 24

25 Can Free Apps Generate Higher Income Than Paid Apps? Necessary ad income (USD) Day Average: 0.21 $ An average free app needs about 0.21 $/download to match the income of a paid app 25

26 Conclusions App popularity: Zipf with truncated ends – Fetch-at-most-once – Clustering effect Practical implications – New replacement policies for app caching – Effective prefetching – Better recommendation systems – Increase income 26

27 Thank you! 27

28 Backup Slides 28

29 Modeling Appstore Workloads Each user downloads d apps randomly – Fetch-at-most-once: a user downloads an app only once – Clustering effect: user downloads a percentage of the apps based on previous selections Each app has two rankings – an overall ranking – a ranking in its cluster 29

30 Developers Focus on Few Categories 80% of developers focus on 1 category ~99% of developers focus on 1-5 categories 30

31 Choosing the Right Number of Users Minimum distance 31

32 Distance From Actual Data APP-CLUSTERING: up to 7.2 times closer than ZIPF up to 6.4 times closer than ZIPF-at-most-once 32

33 Apps Are Not Updated Often 33 Apps (CDF) Number of Updated

34 Temporal Affinity for Different Depth Levels 34 Apps (CDF) Number of Updated

35 Clustering-based User Behavior Affects LRU Cache Performance Negatively 35 Cache Hit Ratio (%) Cache Size (% of total apps)

36 User affinity to app categories - Equations Depth 1: Depth d:

37 User Temporal Affinity a1 a2 a1 a2 a1 x Aff 1 = 1 ✔ 37 x Aff 2 = 1 ✔ x Aff 3 = 1 ✔ Depth = 2

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