Presentation on theme: "A Journey into the Chinese Mind Adapted from Jeffrey G. Brown 【本著作除另有註明外，採取創用 CC 「姓名標示 －非商業性－相同方式分享」台灣 3.0 版授權釋出】 The “Work” under the Creative Commons."— Presentation transcript:
A Journey into the Chinese Mind Adapted from Jeffrey G. Brown 【本著作除另有註明外，採取創用 CC 「姓名標示 －非商業性－相同方式分享」台灣 3.0 版授權釋出】 The “Work” under the Creative Commons Taiwan 3.0 License of “BY-NC-SA”. 授課老師：蘇以文 I-wen Su
The Chinese character and the Chinese language are key to understanding the Chinese culture The unique organization of the Chinese language forms the psychological basis for thinking in Chinese The organization of the Chinese characters is what guides the organization of the other entities as well ◦ Cooking, medicine, history and society
Adolf Trendelenburg ◦ If Aristotle had spoken Chinese, the categories of Aristotelian logic would have been entirely different Alfred Bloom ◦ Chinese lacking counterfactuals makes it impossible to express certain thoughts Trendelenburg, Adolf. Geschichte der Kategorienlehre. Berlin: Bethge, Bloom, Alfred. The Linguistic Shaping of Thought: A Study in the Impact of Language on Thinking in China and the West. Hillsdale, NJ : L. Erlbaum, 1981.
Bloom observed that Chinese lacks syntactic, semantic or intonational cue that distinctly signals a shift to the counterfactual mode. (1) “ If I had gone to the movies that evening, I could not have had dinner with my mom.” (2 ) Ruguo wo na tian wanshang If I that day evening qu kan- le dianying, wo jiu bu neng go watch movie, I then not able gen wo ma qu chi wanfan with my mom go eat dinner If that night I go watch (past particle) a movie, I then cannot accompany my mom to go eat dinner. Bloom, Alfred. (1984). Caution—The words you use may affect what you say: A response to Terry Kit-fong Au’s “Chinese and English counterfactuals: The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis revisited”
Au (1984) argued more specifically that Bloom had misused two crucial Chinese adverbs of contingency that occur in counterfactuals—jiu (“then”) and cai (“then and only then”)—such that the counterfactual intention of Bloom’s assertions was not properly signaled. Au, T. K. (1984). Counterfactuals: In reply to Alfred Bloom.
Although overall comprehension accuracy of the Chinese speakers was equal to that of English speakers, they showed a specific difficulty with counterfactuals concerning non- transparent topic areas -- with counterfactual statements not readily identifiable by drawing from world knowledge. For these counterfactuals, English-speaking subjects could take advantage of the presence of a clear syntactic marker. However, Chinese-speaking participants had to match the sentence with contextual information to discover that it was counterfactual. Yeh, D. & Gentner, D. (2005). Reasoning Counterfactually in Chinese: Picking up the Pieces.
Chinese indicative characters represent the meaning directly. They are simple ideographs 上 下 凸 凹 末 本 S hang4 Xia4 Tu1 Ao1 Mo4 Ben3 Up Down Protrusion Indention End Root NTU 王維新
The pictographic writing makes Chinese thinking more ‘concrete’ 日, 月, 雨, 龍 (Sun) (Moon) (Rain ) (Dragon) (Elephant) 日 Oracle Bone Script Bronze Script Seal Script Regular Script(Traditional) 月 雨 龍 象
Chinese characters, with their breadth of meaning and overall ambiguity, make Chinese naturally suited for writing poetry. Ex: The art of Chinese poetry by James J. Y. Liu Speaking of disyllabic compounds, Liu gives an example xiansheng (“sir, gentleman, teacher), with the standard explanation that the combination of xian (“first) and sheng (“to be born”) produces the sense of “first born” hence “senior to be respected” James J. Y. Liu. (1962). The art of Chinese poetry.
Context-dependent for part of speech distinction: zero derivation English looks for the difference between things? Chinese looks for the connection? ◦ e.g. 中醫
5000 to read a Chinese newspaper The “3,000 characters to read a newspaper” is a myth. A lot of Chinese “words” are compounds. You might know that the character 東 means "east" and 西 means "west", and you'd know how to pronounce the two of them together, but you wouldn't know that 東西 means "thing" unless you learned that separately. Within those first 3,000 characters, there are a vast number of compounds that you won't know if you just learn the characters singly.
Poetry, painting, literature Cooking: stir-fry: combination of ingredients ◦ Flavor, aroma, texture, shape ◦ Examples? Meal served in ‘family’ style # of dishes vs. # of people eating One instrument with different applications ◦ Cleaver for cutting and crushing ◦ Wok for boiling and stir-frying
Subordinative compounds: zhi2sheng1-ji1 Antonym compound: da4xiao3 ‘size’ Synonym compounds: qing1chu3 ‘clear’ Subject-predicate: 兵變 bing1bian4 Verb-object: 保險 bao3xian3 ‘insurance’ Prefixes and suffixes: 貴姓 gui4 xing4 “your name” 作者 zuo4zhe3 “author” Reduplication: 謝謝 xie4xie4 A Grammar of Spoken Chinese (Y.R. Chao 1968) Chao, Y. R. (1968). A Grammar of Spoken Chinese
Subortinative >> hierarchical West: ‘unique’ and ‘different’ China: ◦ The role of Family ◦ People play prescribed roles passed down from generation to generation ◦ Solidarity and power ◦ generation
Junjun chenchen fufu zizi 君君臣臣父父子子 ◦ The ruler be a ruler, the father be a father and the son be a son Family as the focus Highly organized system of kinship relations Five cardinal relationships: Wu-lun 五倫 Li3 禮 ‘propriety; good manners’ ◦ act in a manner suitable to one’s social position, a complex code of etiquette and ceremony ◦ Central concept of Confucius philosophy
The meaning of the combination is greater than the meaning of the parts Chinese characters change their meaning depending on the combination???
Unique organization of Chinese medical thought Theory 1 yin 陰 & yang 陽 darklight coldhot wetdry ◦ Consuming-increasing ◦ Mutual transforming
Theory 2 – Theory of Five Basic Elements Network describing the inter-relationship among various qualities of the universe Over-arching categories of nature Five colors ◦ Green to wood, red to fire, yellow to earth, white to metal and black to water Five flavors ◦ Wood generates fire, fire>earth, earth>metal, metal>water, water>wood
Qi, translated as “Energy” or “Life Force,” is a central concept in Chinese medicine. NTU 謝承諭
The bodily essence whose proper transformation is required for good health Disease seen as a deficiency or excess in the normal balance of Qi Qi4gong1 氣功 – a physical activity to manipulqte the flow and function of Qi
organs Wu3-Zang4 五臟 ‘five storage facilities’ ◦ Heart, lung, spleen, liver, kidney ◦ Manufacture and store the bodily essence: qi, blood, and bodily fluid liu4-fu3 六腑 ‘six grain collection centers’ ◦ Gall bladder, stomach, large intestine, small intestine, urinary bladder, triple burner ◦ Digest food, absorb nutrients, and transmit waste
Western thinking: ◦ breaking things down into their fundamental components, and then develop principles or ‘rules’ that describe how the components interact ◦ Physics, chemistry, biology Chinese thinking ◦ Trying to incorporate everything into a single, unified whole
Limited monosyllables in Chinese Approximate 400 syllables 400 x4= 1600 Only 1200 are used Clear demarcation from one syllable to the next: sounds not blended together
The Syllables of Mandarin Chinese The number of syllables in Mandarin Chinese is large, however, it is not unlimited. pa po pai pei pao pou pa pen pang peng pi pie piao pian pin ping pu ba bo bai bei bao ban ben bang beng bi bie biao bian bin bing bu ma mo me mai mei mao mou man men mang meng mi mie miao miu mian min ming mu chi cha chai chao chou chan chen chang cheng chu chua chuo chuai chui chan chun chuang chong da de dai dei dao dou dan dang deng di die diao diu dian ding du duo dui duan dun dong ta te tai tao tou tan tang teng ti tie tiao tian ting tu tuo tui tuan tun tong ji jia jie jiao jiu jian jin jiang jing ju jue juan jun jiong ga ge gai gei gao gou gan gen gang geng gu gua guo guai gui guan gun guang gong ka ke kai kao kou kan ken kang keng ku kua kuo kuai kui kuan kun kuang kong ha he hai hei hao hou han hen hang heng hu hua huo huai hui huan hun huang hong la lo le lai lei lao lou lan lang leng li lia lie liao liu lian lin liang ling lu luo luan lun long lo loe loan lon fa fo fei fou fan fen fang feng fu na ne nai nei nao nou nan nen nang neng ni nie niao niu nian nin niang ning nu nuo nuan nong no nue zhi zha zhe zhai zhei zhao zhou zhan zhen zhang zheng zhu zhua zhuo zhuai zhui zhuan zhun zhuang zhong qi qia qie qiao qiu qian qin qiang qing qu que quan qun qiong yi ya yo ye yai yao you yan yin yang ying yu yue yuan yun yong xi xia xie xiao xiu xian xin xiang xing xu xue xuan xun xiong zi za ze zai zei zao zou zan zen zang zeng zu zuo zui zuan zun zong ci ca ce cai cao cou can cen cang ceng cu cuo cui cuan cun cong ri re rao rou ran ren rang reng ru ruo rui ruan run rong sa se sai sei sao sou san sen sang seng su suo sui suan sun song a wo e ai ei ao ou an en ang eng er shi sha she shai shei shao shou shan shen shang sheng shu shua shuo shuai shui shuan shun shuang wu wa wo wai wei wan wen wang weng
The Chinese character represents the whole syllable – it cannot be divided further Chinese language does not inflect – cannot be broken down further Chinese syllable is a fixed and irreducible unit
Syllables play different roles within the combination Depending on their relation to other syllables, syllables change in meaning Similar to the concept of QI that changes in function with its varying roles in the human body
◦ Mandarin speakers tended to think about time vertically even when they were thinking for English: faster to confirm that March comes earlier than April if shown a vertical array of objects ◦ The extent to the above tendency is related to how old they were when they first began to learn English. ◦ When taught to do otherwise, English speakers showed the same bias to think about time vertically as was observed with Mandarin speakers.
(1) language is a powerful tool in shaping thought about abstract domains (2) one’s native language plays an important role in shaping habitual thought (e.g., how one tends to think about time) but does not entirely determine one’s thinking
Linguistic determinism (strong version): one’s thought determined by the categories made available in their language Linguistic relativity (weaker version): differences among the languages cause differences in the thoughts of their speakers
We are no nearer to understanding the types of logical thinking which are reflected in truly Eastern forms of scientific thought or analysis of nature. This requires linguistic research into the logics of native languages, and realization that they have equal scientific validity with our own thinking habits. -- John Bissell Carroll John Bissell Carroll. (1972). Introduction from Language, thought, and reality: Selected writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf.
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WorkLicensingAuthor/Source p.3 Trendelenburg, Adolf. (1846). Geschichte der Kategorienlehre. Berlin: Bethge. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.4 Bloom, Alfred. (1981). The Linguistic Shaping of Thought: A Study in the Impact of Language on Thinking in China and the West. Hillsdale, NJ : L. Erlbaum. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.5 Bloom, Alfred. (1984). Caution—The words you use may affect what you say: A response to Terry Kit-fong Au’s “Chinese and English counterfactuals: The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis revisited”, Cognition, 17, and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW
WorkLicensingAuthor/Source p.5 Au, T. K. (1984). Counterfactuals: In reply to Alfred Bloom. Cognition, 17, and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.6 Yeh, D. & Gentner, D. (2005). Reasoning Counterfactually in Chinese: Picking up the Pieces. Proceedings of the Twenty-seventh Annunal Meeting of the Congnitive Science Society, and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.9 James J. Y. Liu. (1962). The art of Chinese poetry. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW
WorkLicensingAuthor/Source p.26 Chao, Y. R. (1968). A Grammar of Spoken Chinese, Univ. California Press, Berkeley. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.48 John Bissell Carroll. (1972). Introduction from Language, thought, and reality: Selected writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. The M.I.T Press. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW