Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

A Journey into the Chinese Mind Adapted from Jeffrey G. Brown 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用 CC 「姓名標示 -非商業性-相同方式分享」台灣 3.0 版授權釋出】 The “Work” under the Creative Commons.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "A Journey into the Chinese Mind Adapted from Jeffrey G. Brown 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用 CC 「姓名標示 -非商業性-相同方式分享」台灣 3.0 版授權釋出】 The “Work” under the Creative Commons."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Journey into the Chinese Mind Adapted from Jeffrey G. Brown 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用 CC 「姓名標示 -非商業性-相同方式分享」台灣 3.0 版授權釋出】 The “Work” under the Creative Commons Taiwan 3.0 License of “BY-NC-SA”. 授課老師:蘇以文 I-wen Su

2  The Chinese character and the Chinese language are key to understanding the Chinese culture  The unique organization of the Chinese language forms the psychological basis for thinking in Chinese  The organization of the Chinese characters is what guides the organization of the other entities as well ◦ Cooking, medicine, history and society

3  Adolf Trendelenburg ◦ If Aristotle had spoken Chinese, the categories of Aristotelian logic would have been entirely different  Alfred Bloom ◦ Chinese lacking counterfactuals makes it impossible to express certain thoughts Trendelenburg, Adolf. Geschichte der Kategorienlehre. Berlin: Bethge, Bloom, Alfred. The Linguistic Shaping of Thought: A Study in the Impact of Language on Thinking in China and the West. Hillsdale, NJ : L. Erlbaum, 1981.

4  Bloom observed that Chinese lacks syntactic, semantic or intonational cue that distinctly signals a shift to the counterfactual mode.  (1) “ If I had gone to the movies that evening, I could not have had dinner with my mom.”  (2 ) Ruguo wo na tian wanshang If I that day evening qu kan- le dianying, wo jiu bu neng go watch movie, I then not able gen wo ma qu chi wanfan with my mom go eat dinner If that night I go watch (past particle) a movie, I then cannot accompany my mom to go eat dinner. Bloom, Alfred. (1984). Caution—The words you use may affect what you say: A response to Terry Kit-fong Au’s “Chinese and English counterfactuals: The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis revisited”

5  Au (1984) argued more specifically that Bloom had misused two crucial Chinese adverbs of contingency that occur in counterfactuals—jiu (“then”) and cai (“then and only then”)—such that the counterfactual intention of Bloom’s assertions was not properly signaled. Au, T. K. (1984). Counterfactuals: In reply to Alfred Bloom.

6  Although overall comprehension accuracy of the Chinese speakers was equal to that of English speakers, they showed a specific difficulty with counterfactuals concerning non- transparent topic areas -- with counterfactual statements not readily identifiable by drawing from world knowledge.  For these counterfactuals, English-speaking subjects could take advantage of the presence of a clear syntactic marker.  However, Chinese-speaking participants had to match the sentence with contextual information to discover that it was counterfactual. Yeh, D. & Gentner, D. (2005). Reasoning Counterfactually in Chinese: Picking up the Pieces.

7  Chinese indicative characters represent the meaning directly. They are simple ideographs  上 下 凸 凹 末 本  S hang4 Xia4 Tu1 Ao1 Mo4 Ben3 Up Down Protrusion Indention End Root NTU 王維新

8 The pictographic writing makes Chinese thinking more ‘concrete’ 日, 月, 雨, 龍 (Sun) (Moon) (Rain ) (Dragon) (Elephant) 日 Oracle Bone Script Bronze Script Seal Script Regular Script(Traditional) 月 雨 龍 象

9  Chinese characters, with their breadth of meaning and overall ambiguity, make Chinese naturally suited for writing poetry.  Ex: The art of Chinese poetry by James J. Y. Liu  Speaking of disyllabic compounds, Liu gives an example xiansheng (“sir, gentleman, teacher), with the standard explanation that the combination of xian (“first) and sheng (“to be born”) produces the sense of “first born” hence “senior to be respected” James J. Y. Liu. (1962). The art of Chinese poetry.

10  象形、指事是「造字法」 ◦ 象形 : iconic, 日月 ◦ 指事 : 字形、結構看起來認得,但須經過考察才能知道它 所體現的字義, non-iconic 上下  會意、形聲是「組字法」 ◦ 會意 : 由兩個或多個字合併組成表達意, 武信 ◦ 形聲 : 按照事物的性質和叫法,挑選可相比譬的聲符和義符 組成文字,江河  轉注、假借是「用字法」 ◦ 轉注 : 「形轉」,「義轉」,「音轉」 / 考老 ◦ 假借 : 找一個同音字表示無書面文字之口語, 「自」本來是 「鼻」的象形字,後來借作「自己」的「自」

11  Context-dependent for part of speech distinction: zero derivation  English looks for the difference between things?  Chinese looks for the connection? ◦ e.g. 中醫

12  5000 to read a Chinese newspaper  The “3,000 characters to read a newspaper” is a myth. A lot of Chinese “words” are compounds. You might know that the character 東 means "east" and 西 means "west", and you'd know how to pronounce the two of them together, but you wouldn't know that 東西 means "thing" unless you learned that separately. Within those first 3,000 characters, there are a vast number of compounds that you won't know if you just learn the characters singly.

13 目 and 虎 Wiki user Kowloonese

14

15 Wiki WikiCantona Wiki zh:User:Mosesofmason

16  Shuowen Jiezi 說文解字 : 9353  Yu-Pian dictionary (AD 543, Tang):  Guang-Yun dictionary (AD 1011, Song):  Zui-Hui Dictionary (AD1375, Ming):  Kangxi Dictionary 康熙字典 (Qing): 47035

17 台灣《中文大字典》: 中國《漢語大字典》: 中國《中華字海》: 台灣《辭海》: 22,000,000 台灣《大辭海》: 50,000,000 The number of Chinese Characters

18  non-inflectional  汽車 (qi4che1)  馬車 (ma3che1)  火車 (huo3che1)  自行車 (zi4xing2che1)  手推車 (shou3tui1che1)  Different types of vehicles are variations of che 車 in Chinese

19  汽車 (qi4che1)  馬車 (ma3che1)  火車 (huo3che1) Flickr Easa Shamih (eEko) | P.h.o.t.o.g.r.a.p.h.y Geograph Britain and Ireland: R lee Flickr Happy Sleepy

20  自行車 (zi4xing2che1)  手推車 (shou3tui1che1) Flickr Richard Masoner / Cyclelicious Soil-Net

21  鯊魚 (sha1yu2)  鯨魚 (jing1yu2)  章魚 (zhang1yu2)  魷魚 (you2yu2) Flickr WIlly Volk Flickr Jess*Lo Flickr kqedquest Flickr pingnews.com

22  甲魚 (jia3yu2)  鱷魚 (e4yu2)  鮑魚 (bao4yu2)  木魚 (mu4yu2) Flickr Fayes4Art Flickr EOL Turtle Curator Flickr Vincent Ma Flickr Formosa Wandering

23  Non-inflectional  Tense via adverbials

24  Poetry, painting, literature  Cooking: stir-fry: combination of ingredients ◦ Flavor, aroma, texture, shape ◦ Examples?  Meal served in ‘family’ style  # of dishes vs. # of people eating  One instrument with different applications ◦ Cleaver for cutting and crushing ◦ Wok for boiling and stir-frying

25  Zhishengji 直升機 ‘helicopter’  Gecao-ji 割草機 ‘lawn mower’  Duka-ji 讀卡機 ‘card reader’  Shouyin-ji 收銀機 ‘cash register’  Ji1qi4 機器 ‘machine’

26  Subordinative compounds: zhi2sheng1-ji1  Antonym compound: da4xiao3 ‘size’  Synonym compounds: qing1chu3 ‘clear’  Subject-predicate: 兵變 bing1bian4  Verb-object: 保險 bao3xian3 ‘insurance’  Prefixes and suffixes: 貴姓 gui4 xing4 “your name” 作者 zuo4zhe3 “author”  Reduplication: 謝謝 xie4xie4 A Grammar of Spoken Chinese (Y.R. Chao 1968) Chao, Y. R. (1968). A Grammar of Spoken Chinese

27  Subortinative >> hierarchical  West: ‘unique’ and ‘different’  China: ◦ The role of Family ◦ People play prescribed roles passed down from generation to generation ◦ Solidarity and power ◦ generation

28  Junjun chenchen fufu zizi 君君臣臣父父子子 ◦ The ruler be a ruler, the father be a father and the son be a son  Family as the focus  Highly organized system of kinship relations  Five cardinal relationships: Wu-lun 五倫  Li3 禮 ‘propriety; good manners’ ◦ act in a manner suitable to one’s social position, a complex code of etiquette and ceremony ◦ Central concept of Confucius philosophy

29  The meaning of the combination is greater than the meaning of the parts  Chinese characters change their meaning depending on the combination???

30  Unique organization of Chinese medical thought  Theory 1  yin 陰 & yang 陽 darklight coldhot wetdry ◦ Consuming-increasing ◦ Mutual transforming

31 陽 Yang 陰 Yin Light, hot, active, increase Dark, cold, passive, decrease

32  Theory 2 – Theory of Five Basic Elements  Network describing the inter-relationship among various qualities of the universe  Over-arching categories of nature  Five colors ◦ Green to wood, red to fire, yellow to earth, white to metal and black to water  Five flavors ◦ Wood generates fire, fire>earth, earth>metal, metal>water, water>wood

33 木 水火 金土 Water Wood Fire EarthMetal Sour, Green, Liver, Gallbladder, Xia Dynasty Bitter, Red, Heart, Small Intestine, Zhou Dynasty Sweet, Yellow, Spleen, Stomach, Pre-Dynasty Pungent/Acrid, White, Lung, Large Intestine, Shang Dynasty Salty, Black, Kidney, Bladder, Qin Dynasty Mutual Subjugation Mutual Generation NTU 蘇以文

34 Qi, translated as “Energy” or “Life Force,” is a central concept in Chinese medicine. NTU 謝承諭

35  The bodily essence whose proper transformation is required for good health  Disease seen as a deficiency or excess in the normal balance of Qi  Qi4gong1 氣功 – a physical activity to manipulqte the flow and function of Qi

36  organs  Wu3-Zang4 五臟 ‘five storage facilities’ ◦ Heart, lung, spleen, liver, kidney ◦ Manufacture and store the bodily essence: qi, blood, and bodily fluid  liu4-fu3 六腑 ‘six grain collection centers’ ◦ Gall bladder, stomach, large intestine, small intestine, urinary bladder, triple burner ◦ Digest food, absorb nutrients, and transmit waste

37  Western thinking: ◦ breaking things down into their fundamental components, and then develop principles or ‘rules’ that describe how the components interact ◦ Physics, chemistry, biology  Chinese thinking ◦ Trying to incorporate everything into a single, unified whole

38  Limited monosyllables in Chinese  Approximate 400 syllables  400 x4= 1600  Only 1200 are used  Clear demarcation from one syllable to the next: sounds not blended together

39 The Syllables of Mandarin Chinese The number of syllables in Mandarin Chinese is large, however, it is not unlimited. pa po pai pei pao pou pa pen pang peng pi pie piao pian pin ping pu ba bo bai bei bao ban ben bang beng bi bie biao bian bin bing bu ma mo me mai mei mao mou man men mang meng mi mie miao miu mian min ming mu chi cha chai chao chou chan chen chang cheng chu chua chuo chuai chui chan chun chuang chong da de dai dei dao dou dan dang deng di die diao diu dian ding du duo dui duan dun dong ta te tai tao tou tan tang teng ti tie tiao tian ting tu tuo tui tuan tun tong ji jia jie jiao jiu jian jin jiang jing ju jue juan jun jiong ga ge gai gei gao gou gan gen gang geng gu gua guo guai gui guan gun guang gong ka ke kai kao kou kan ken kang keng ku kua kuo kuai kui kuan kun kuang kong ha he hai hei hao hou han hen hang heng hu hua huo huai hui huan hun huang hong la lo le lai lei lao lou lan lang leng li lia lie liao liu lian lin liang ling lu luo luan lun long lo loe loan lon fa fo fei fou fan fen fang feng fu na ne nai nei nao nou nan nen nang neng ni nie niao niu nian nin niang ning nu nuo nuan nong no nue zhi zha zhe zhai zhei zhao zhou zhan zhen zhang zheng zhu zhua zhuo zhuai zhui zhuan zhun zhuang zhong qi qia qie qiao qiu qian qin qiang qing qu que quan qun qiong yi ya yo ye yai yao you yan yin yang ying yu yue yuan yun yong xi xia xie xiao xiu xian xin xiang xing xu xue xuan xun xiong zi za ze zai zei zao zou zan zen zang zeng zu zuo zui zuan zun zong ci ca ce cai cao cou can cen cang ceng cu cuo cui cuan cun cong ri re rao rou ran ren rang reng ru ruo rui ruan run rong sa se sai sei sao sou san sen sang seng su suo sui suan sun song a wo e ai ei ao ou an en ang eng er shi sha she shai shei shao shou shan shen shang sheng shu shua shuo shuai shui shuan shun shuang wu wa wo wai wei wan wen wang weng

40  同音字 - 根據《國語日報辭典》所列,與「力〔 Li 〕」 同音的字 / 詞多達 51 個。

41  Qing1 清 ‘clear’  Chu3 楚 ‘clear’  Qing1chu3 清楚 ‘clear’  Hu3 虎 ‘tiger’  Lao3 老 ‘old’  Laohu 老虎 ‘tiger’

42  The Chinese character represents the whole syllable – it cannot be divided further  Chinese language does not inflect – cannot be broken down further  Chinese syllable is a fixed and irreducible unit

43  Syllables play different roles within the combination  Depending on their relation to other syllables, syllables change in meaning  Similar to the concept of QI that changes in function with its varying roles in the human body

44 ◦ Mandarin speakers tended to think about time vertically even when they were thinking for English: faster to confirm that March comes earlier than April if shown a vertical array of objects ◦ The extent to the above tendency is related to how old they were when they first began to learn English. ◦ When taught to do otherwise, English speakers showed the same bias to think about time vertically as was observed with Mandarin speakers.

45  前天 (qian2tian1)  前不見古人, 後不見來者 (qian2 bu4 jian4 gu3ren2, hou4 bu4 jian4 lai2zhe3)  上週 (shang4zhou1)  去年 (qu4nian2)  來年 (lai2nian2)

46 (1) language is a powerful tool in shaping thought about abstract domains (2) one’s native language plays an important role in shaping habitual thought (e.g., how one tends to think about time) but does not entirely determine one’s thinking

47  Linguistic determinism (strong version): one’s thought determined by the categories made available in their language  Linguistic relativity (weaker version): differences among the languages cause differences in the thoughts of their speakers

48 We are no nearer to understanding the types of logical thinking which are reflected in truly Eastern forms of scientific thought or analysis of nature. This requires linguistic research into the logics of native languages, and realization that they have equal scientific validity with our own thinking habits. -- John Bissell Carroll John Bissell Carroll. (1972). Introduction from Language, thought, and reality: Selected writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf.

49 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Wiki user Chanueting A5-oracle.svg 2011/10/25 visited Wiki user Micheletb A5-bronze.gif 2011/10/25 visited Wiki user Erin Silversmith A5-seal.svg 2011/10/25 visited Wiki user Chanueting 88-oracle.svg 2011/10/25 visited

50 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Wiki user Chanueting 88-bronze.svg 2011/10/25 visited Wiki user Chanueting 88-seal.svg 2011/10/25 visited Wiki user Chanueting A8-oracle.svg 2011/10/25 visited Wiki user Micheletb A8-bronze.gif 2011/10/25 visited

51 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Wiki user Erin Silversmith A8-seal.svg 2011/10/25 visited Wiki user Chanueting 8D-oracle.svg 2011/10/25 visited Wiki user Chanueting 8D-bronze.svg 2011/10/25 visited Wiki user Erin Silversmith 8D-seal.svg 2011/10/25 visited

52 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Wiki Dragonbones character_Shang_oracle_%E8%B1%A1_xiang4_eleph ant.gif 2011/10/25 visited NTU 王維新 繪製 (2011) Wiki user Kowloonese ell.JPG 2011/10/24 visited Wiki Dragonbones character_Shang_oracle_%E7%9B%AE_mu4_eye.gif 2011/10/24 visited

53 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Wiki Dragonbones character_Shang_oracle_%E8%99%8E_hu3_tiger.gif 2011/10/24 visited Wiki user Bamse _Jiezi_Takeda.jpg 2011/10/25 visited Wiki WikiCantona _Hsi_Dictionary.jpg 2011/10/24 visited Wiki zh:User:Mosesofmason _Hsi_Dict.png 2011/10/24 visited

54 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Flickr Easa Shamih (eEko) | P.h.o.t.o.g.r.a.p.h.y / 2011/10/24 visited Flickr Happy Sleepy / 2011/10/24 visited Geograph Britain and Ireland: R lee 2011/10/24 visited Flickr Richard Masoner / Cyclelicious 2011/10/24 visited

55 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Soil-Net net.com/album/Places_Objects/slides/Shopping%2 0Trolley.html 2011/10/24 visited Flickr WIlly Volk 2011/10/24 visited Flickr pingnews.com 33/ 2011/10/24 visited Flickr Jess*Lo / 2011/10/24 visited

56 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Flickr kqedquest 6320/ 2011/10/24 visited Flickr EOL Turtle Curator / 2011/10/24 visited Flickr Fayes4Art / 2011/10/24 visited Flickr Vincent Ma 0/ 2011/10/24 visited

57 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Flickr Formosa Wandering 07/ 2011/10/24 visited Wiki Kenny Shen Taijitu.svg 2011/10/4 visited NTU 蘇以文 繪製 (2011) NTU 謝承諭 繪製 (2011)

58 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source p.3 Trendelenburg, Adolf. (1846). Geschichte der Kategorienlehre. Berlin: Bethge. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.4 Bloom, Alfred. (1981). The Linguistic Shaping of Thought: A Study in the Impact of Language on Thinking in China and the West. Hillsdale, NJ : L. Erlbaum. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.5 Bloom, Alfred. (1984). Caution—The words you use may affect what you say: A response to Terry Kit-fong Au’s “Chinese and English counterfactuals: The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis revisited”, Cognition, 17, and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW

59 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source p.5 Au, T. K. (1984). Counterfactuals: In reply to Alfred Bloom. Cognition, 17, and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.6 Yeh, D. & Gentner, D. (2005). Reasoning Counterfactually in Chinese: Picking up the Pieces. Proceedings of the Twenty-seventh Annunal Meeting of the Congnitive Science Society, and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.9 James J. Y. Liu. (1962). The art of Chinese poetry. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW

60 WorkLicensingAuthor/Source p.26 Chao, Y. R. (1968). A Grammar of Spoken Chinese, Univ. California Press, Berkeley. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.48 John Bissell Carroll. (1972). Introduction from Language, thought, and reality: Selected writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. The M.I.T Press. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW


Download ppt "A Journey into the Chinese Mind Adapted from Jeffrey G. Brown 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用 CC 「姓名標示 -非商業性-相同方式分享」台灣 3.0 版授權釋出】 The “Work” under the Creative Commons."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google