Presentation on theme: "1850s England Farrell Tatum THE 271 Borton. Movements England in the 1850s was a time of many contrasting elements. It is a time marked by conflicts such."— Presentation transcript:
Movements England in the 1850s was a time of many contrasting elements. It is a time marked by conflicts such as the Crimean War, fought between the Russians and the British, French, and Ottoman empires. Another conflict of the time was the rising debate between religion and science, as the church’s role in society became questioned as scientific discovery was becoming rampant. However, this is a time marked also by prosperity and stability. The industrial revolution of the previous decades had brought incredible economic success for Great Britain. Under the reign of long-time queen Victoria, it flourished industrially; being a leader in coal, iron, steel, and commercial cotton production. Literature was another prominent feature of 1850s English society. Writers of the day such as Charles Dickens, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Herman Melville were publishing highly successful novels, most of which are still read and analyzed to this day. This decade was also home to great discoveries- the Great Exhibition at Hyde Park was held in 1851, displaying accomplishments in both culture and industry. Meanwhile, Charles Darwin published his landmark On the Origin of Species in 1859, proposing the ideas of evolution and natural selection. In conclusion, while 1850s England flourished in many ways, it was a time of significant contrasts. This balance is reflected not only in its society, but in architecture, furnishings, fashion, and art.
Works Consulted "Crimean War (Eurasian History 1853-56)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2014. "Darwin's Evidence for Evolution." Evoltuion at NYU. New York University, n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2014. Luscombe, S. "The British Empire." Nineteeth Century Timeline. Britishempire.co.uk, n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2014.
Architecture Neo-Classical/Neo-Grec Gothic Revival Italianate Beginnings of arts-and-crafts movement
Architecture Cont. Terraced homes popular among working class citizens. Still seen in England today
Works Consulted Baguette, Stefan. U of Leeds Terraces, Mid-Victorian. 29 Sep 2014, Web. Burn, William. Lynford Hall, 1856-61. ARTstor, 29 Sep 2014. Denison, Edward. Queen’s Gate Terrace, Kensington, Longon (circa 1850s). Edension.zenfolio.com, 27 Sep 2014. McCallum, Antony. Osborne House, Isle of Wight, England, 1845-51. Wyrdlight.com, 29 Sep 2014. Webb, Philip. The Red House, 1859-60. ARTstor, 28 Sep 2014.
Interiors Ornate and somewhat cramped, mid-Victorian English homes were often dark and held a lot of furniture and personal effects. Much of this was to do with the architecture at the time, as many historical English homes are much more compartmentalized than modern, open- concept living.
Works Consulted Chicaco Post Card Museum. Double Parlor, ca. 1850. Chicagopostcardmuseum.org, web. 29 Sep 2014. Turner, Benjamin Brecknell. Portrait of the photographer’s wife Agnes Turner her brother Humphrey Chamberlain, ca. 1850s. Victoria & Albert Museum, 28 Sep 2014. Thomas, Pauline. Victorian Home Life Changes. Fashion-era.com, 28 Sep 2014. Yurov, Grigory Vasilievich. Interior of Bykov’s House, ca. 1850s. Bridgemansimages.com, 28 Sep 2014. < http://images.cdn.bridgemanimages.com/api/ 1.0/image/600wm.BAL.7769910.7055475/196498.jpg>
Furniture Highly ornate and fashionable furniture was a must-do in 1850s English society. Remarkable craftsmanship and attention to detail was highly common in furniture found in middle to upper class homes.
Works Consulted Burges, William & Sir Edward John Poynter. Cabinet, 1858. ARTstor, web. 28 Sep 2014. English Drawing Room of the Victorian Period. Mid-Victorian. Art Institute of Chicago, web. 29 Sep 2014. Jennens & Bettridge. Chair, ca. 1850. ARTstor, web. 29 Sep 2014. Pugin, Augustus & John Webb. Table, mid-Victorian. ARTstor, web. 28 Sep 2014. Webb, Philip. The Red House, 1859-60. ARTstor, 28 Sep 2014.
Fashion Mid-Victorian fashion was highly ornate and decorative. “In the 1850s, women's skirts were domed and bell-shaped, supported by crinoline petticoats. They often featured deep flounces or tiers. Long bloomers and pantaloons trimmed with lace were popular. Tiered cape- jackets were fashionable, as were paisley patterned shawls. Deep bonnets were worn and hair was swept into buns or side coils from a centre parting.” “Men wore matching coats, waistcoats and trousers, with hairstyles characterised by large mutton-chop side-burns and moustaches, after the style set by Prince Albert.Shirts had high upstanding collars and were tied at the neck with large bow-ties.High fastening and tight fitting frock coats were also very fashionable; though a new style called the sack coat (a thigh-length, loosely fitted jacket) became popular.The bowler hat was invented around 1850, but was generally seen as a working class hat, while top-hats were favoured by the upper classes.” (Albert and Victoria Museum)
Works Consulted Chaise, Pierre-Jules. Bracelet with portrait miniatures. Great Britain, ca. 1850. Victoria & Albert Museum, web. 28 Sep 2014 < http://www.vam.ac.uk/users/sites/ default/files/album_images/55003-large.jpg> Day dress, 1858-60, Great Britain. Victoria & Albert Museum, web. 28 Sep 2014. Day dress of moire silk, 1858. Great Britain. Victoria & Albert Museum, web. 28 Sep 2014. Two Young Men. Daguerreotype, ca. 1850. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, web. 28 Sep 2014. Wool coat, 1845-1853. Great Britain. Victoria & Albert Museum, web. 28 Sep 2014.
Art Perhaps the most significant artists of this time period was the Pre- Raphaelite Brotherhood. An English society of artists and creators, they denied the teachings of mannerisms and believed art had reached its peak prior to Michelangelo and Raphael coming into prominence. They wanted to relive the bright, intense colors, abundant details, realism, and religious content of Renaissance artists.
Works Consulted Meagher, Jennifer. "The Pre-Raphaelites". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. (October 2004) "Pre-Raphaelite." Tate.org.uk. Tate Britain, n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2014.