3 Presented by Charley Shults 12 Harley Street London, England, U.K. W1G 9PG
4 The floggings will continue Until morale improves
5 Experiences in Close Relationships 18 items for each scaleTwo scales: Anxiety & Avoidance36 items total
6 Chris Fraley’s website: Self-Report Measures of Adult Attachment Phillip R. Shaver University of California, Davis R. Chris Fraley University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
7 The Original Hazan & Shaver self report measure: The Revised Hazan & Shaver (1987) Three-Category MeasureThese questions are concerned with your experiences in romantic love relationships. Take a moment to think about these experiences and answer the following questions with them in mind.Read each of the three self-descriptions below (A, B, and C) and then place a checkmark next to the single alternative that best describes how you feel in romantic relationships or is nearest to the way you feel. (Note: The terms "close" and "intimate" refer to psychological or emotional closeness, not necessarily to sexual intimacy.)______A. I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others; I find it difficult to trust them completely, difficult to allow myself to depend on them. I am nervous when anyone gets too close, and often, others want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being.______B. I find it relatively easy to get close to others and am comfortable depending on them and having them depend on me. I don't worry about being abandoned or about someone getting too close to me.______C. I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, and this sometimes scares people away.Now please rate each of the relationship styles above to indicate how well or poorly each description corresponds to your general relationship style.
8 The Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991) These questions are similar to the previous ones, but they have been changed in various ways. A fourth relationship style has been added and the other three descriptions are now worded differently and are presented in a new order. Following are four general relationship styles that people often report. Place a checkmark next to the letter corresponding to the style that best describes you or is closest to the way you are.____ A. It is easy for me to become emotionally close to others. I am comfortable depending on them and having them depend on me. I don’t worry about being alone or having others not accept me.____ B. I am uncomfortable getting close to others. I want emotionally close relationships, but I find it difficult to trust others completely, or to depend on them. I worry that I will be hurt if I allow myself to become too close to others.____ C. I want to be completely emotionally intimate with others, but I often find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I am uncomfortable being without close relationships, but I sometimes worry that others don’t value me as much as I value them.____ D. I am comfortable without close emotional relationships. It is very important to me to feel independent and self-sufficient, and I prefer not to depend on others or have others depend on me.Now please rate each of the relationship styles above to indicate how well or poorly each description corresponds to your general relationship style.
16 Why a 3rd Scale? Clinical experience Gladwell’s Tipping Point 2 scales give 11,664 possibilities (108 x 108)3 scales give 1,259,712 (1083)
17 CONFUSION“They didn’t like it when two or three people would be talking at once. That’s the producers’ natural instinct, to hype a scene by creating confusion. It’s supposed to tell you that this is exciting. The fact is that our kids turned away from that kind of situation. Instead of picking up on the signal that something exciting is going on, they picked up on the signal that something confusing is going on. And they’d lose interest.”Malcolm Gladwell, The Tipping Pointp. 104, Abacus paper back edition, 2000
20 Adult Attachment Interview George, Kaplan & Main, 1986Used extensivelyModified by Crittenden using the DMM Method
21 Adult Attachment Interview Permits fine-grained observation of mental and interpersonal processesThat often [and I would say almost always] are not in the respondents’ conscious awarenessAs with more objective measures it permits specification of:what is being assessedwhy it is importanthow it contributes to the summary result
22 Adult Attachment Interview Together, these foster the generation of sound information about mental processing relevant to human relationships and interpersonal adaptation. Further, with a few modifications to the interview itself, the AAI can provide both evidence of inner psychological processes that effect normal behavior and development and also a new type of diagnostic information in cases of maladaptation. Finally, the AAI provides historical information about the childhood experience of adults.
39 Why don’t Harinam and Lucy get coded as A5? Question:Why don’t Harinam and Lucy get coded as A5?
40 A5 - Promiscuous “Overview This subpattern is based on theory (Crittenden, 1995, 1997a), clinical case material, and clinical observations from Adult Attachment Interviews . Because the description has been drawn from fewer examples than other subpatterns, it may require revision and elaboration.”From Crittenden, DRAFT- March, 2004: Patterns of Attachment in Adulthood: A Dynamic-Maturation Approach to Analyzing The Adult Attachment Interview
41 The self-protective strategy: The A5 pattern refers to distance from appropriately intimate and protective figures, i.e., attachment figures and sexual partners, and intimacy (both sexual and non-sexual) with regard to distant, inappropriate, or dangerous figures, i.e., “indiscriminate” attachment and masochistic attachment. That is, A5 individuals give up any form of idealization or even exoneration of family members, but retain the idealizing process which is applied to unknown persons.
42 In addition, both functionally and in terms of the processing of information, there is a confusion of danger and pain with safety and comfort. Because obtaining comfort may incur danger, perception of discomfort or pain may be treated as irrelevant to the self.
43 The compulsively promiscuous subpattern usually develops in conjunction with A6 and often has fragments of other compulsive subpatterns from childhood. For example, the A5-6 speaker may have been (or be now) role reversing or compliant with regard to one of the parents. These strategies, however, failed to protect the child adequately and have been replaced in adulthood by a preference for intimacy with idealized, but unknown, others.
45 Risk for psychopathology: The subpattern can exist in a mild, compulsively social form in which non-sexual, non-intimate relationships appear to (promiscuously) replace truly intimate sexual relationships as well as in a more severe, sexually promiscuous form (typified by incest, prostitutes, pedophiles, even some serial killers, etc.).
46 What is missing from the description given on the previous slide? Another QuestionWhat is missing from the description given on the previous slide?
48 We go from the mild:“The subpattern can exist in a mild, compulsively social form in which non-sexual, non-intimate relationships appear to (promiscuously) replace truly intimate sexual relationships ...
49 To the extreme:“...as well as in a more severe, sexually promiscuous form (typified by incest, prostitutes, pedophiles, even some serial killers, etc.).”
50 Without going through the middle: “...or more intrusively as flirtations, affairs, compulsive and anonymous sexuality, use of prostitutes and pornography...
51 Compulsively Self-reliant or Isolated A good fit with A6:Compulsively Self-reliant or Isolated
52 Both Lucy and Harinam fit this description: Associated patterns and modifiers.A3 and A4 are often seen in the history of A5 speakers. Lack of resolution of loss (both dismissed and preoccupying or both) is also common as is lack of resolution of trauma (particularly of sexual abuse), which may take many different forms. Depression is also a frequent state for the A5 pattern.
53 Advantages of the ECR Quick Cheap Easy (Even the 3 dimensional model) Gives a visual representationVery useful as a way to introduce attachment concepts to the clientA convenient way to think about relationships and relationship difficulties
54 Disadvantages of the ECR Can be wildly inaccurate especially ifClient is well defendedCouples in long term relationshipsClient is deceptiveMeasurement is superficial and subjectiveCan vary greatly depending on circumstancesOnline version cannot be saved for future reference (but mine can, tee hee)
55 Advantages of the AAI A superb tool For assessmentFor interventionHas the potential to be highly nuanced with regard toTraumaLoss & GriefMultiple relationshipsCan be “mined” deeper and deeper
56 AAI Advantages (continued) Valid and reliable (the more training, the more so)Well researched and documentedCan be modified or expanded (or shortened) depending on circumstancesIs stable over time and circumstancesProvides a wealth of informationIntervenes at the deepest level of how information is processedFits well with other techniques, such as
57 Other techniques NLP CBT (REBT) Gottman’s school of marriage and familyGrief workTrauma work
58 Disadvantages of the AAI Takes a lot of timeTo learnTo administerTakes a lot of moneyBut,
59 THE MOST EFFECTIVE USE OF TIME AND MONEY THAT I HAVE FOUND IT’S WORTH IT!!!Provides a framework for other therapeutic workDespite being relatively time consuming and expensive it isTHE MOST EFFECTIVE USE OF TIME AND MONEY THAT I HAVE FOUNDBY FAR
60 Caveat: What you are about to see is TOTALLY UNAUTHORIZEDNOT APPROVED OF AT ALL(BUT ON THE OTHER HAND, IT HASN’T BEEN DISAPPROVED EITHER)and, it’s easier to ask for forgiveness than permission
62 Please Consider Joining IASA International Association for the Study of AttachmentSASH Society for the Advancement of Sexual HealthIITAP International Institute for Trauma and Addiction Professionals
63 Thank you for attending Charley Shults12 Harley StreetLondon, England, U.K.W1G 9PG