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INORGANIC INORGANIC Nomenclature Nomenclature - Humor “Ferrous Wheel” Fe = iron (Latin = ferrum) Fe 2+ = lower oxidation state = ferrous Fe 3+ = higher.

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Presentation on theme: "INORGANIC INORGANIC Nomenclature Nomenclature - Humor “Ferrous Wheel” Fe = iron (Latin = ferrum) Fe 2+ = lower oxidation state = ferrous Fe 3+ = higher."— Presentation transcript:

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2 INORGANIC INORGANIC Nomenclature

3 Nomenclature - Humor “Ferrous Wheel” Fe = iron (Latin = ferrum) Fe 2+ = lower oxidation state = ferrous Fe 3+ = higher oxidation state = ferric BaNa 2 “BaNaNa” Fe 2+ What weapon can you make from the elements nickel, potassium and iron? A KNiFe

4 Teacher: What is the formula for water? Student: H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O Teacher: That’s not what I taught you. Student: But you said the formula for water was…H to O. Website: Dihydrogen monoxide Information Campaign mis “Little Johnny took a drink, Now he shall drink no more. For what he thought was H 2 O, Was H 2 SO 4.” Under aged Pb walks into a bar and the bartender turns to the gold Bouncer and says, “Au, get the lead out!” "H-O-H"?! WHAT'S THAT SPELL?! WATER?

5 Table of Contents ‘Nomenclature’ Binary Compounds - Metal (fixed oxidation) + Nonmetal Criss-Cross Rule Binary Compounds - Metal (variable oxidation) + Nonmetal Binary Compounds - Nonmetal + Nonmetal Ternary Compounds Binary Hydrogen Compounds Meaning of Suffixes Empirical Formulas Subscripts, Superscripts, and Coefficients Centrum Multivitamin Polyatomic Ions

6 Lecture Outline – Nomenclature Keys Lecture Outline – Nomenclature and Bonding Lecture Outline – Nomenclature and Bonding student notes outline textbook questions textbook questions text

7 Four Types of Naming Binary compounds Ternary compounds Coordination compounds Organic compounds Contain only two types of elements We will cover these in a separate unit These will not be covered Contain more than two types of elements

8 Binary Compounds Metals (fixed oxidation) + Nonmetals

9 ine ur ine Binary Compounds Binary compounds that contain a metal of fixed oxidation number (group 1, group 2, Al, Zn, Ag, etc.), and a non-metal. To name these compounds, give the name of metal followed by the name of the non-metal, with the ending replaced by the suffix –ide. Examples: NaCl CaS AlI 3 3 sodium chlor calcium sulf aluminum iod (Na 1+ Cl 1- ) (Ca 2+ S 2- ) (Al 3+ I 1- ) ide He 2 C6C6 N7N7 O8O8 F9F9 Ne 10 B5B5 H1H1 Al 13 Si 14 P 15 S 16 Cl 17 Ar 18 Sc 21 Ti 22 V 23 Cr 24 Mn 25 Fe 26 Co 27 Ni 28 Cu 29 Zn 30 Ga 31 Ge 32 As 33 Se 34 Br 35 Kr 36 Y 39 Zr 40 Nb 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 Rh 45 Pd 46 Ag 47 Cd 48 In 49 Sn 50 Sb 51 Te 52 I 53 Xe 54 Hf 72 Ta 73 W 74 Re 75 Os 76 Ir 77 Pt 78 Au 79 Hg 80 Tl 81 Pb 82 Bi 83 Po 84 At 85 Rn 86 Li 3 Na 11 K 19 Rb 37 Cs 55 Fr 87 Rf 104 Db 105 Sg 106 Bh 107 Hs 108 Mt 109 Be 4 Ca 20 Sr 38 Ba 56 Ra 88 Mg  

10 ine ur ine Binary Compounds Binary compounds that contain a metal of fixed oxidation number (group 1, group 2, Al, Zn, Ag, etc.), and a non-metal. To name these compounds, give the name of metal followed by the name of the non-metal, with the ending replaced by the suffix –ide. Examples: NaCl CaS AlI 3 3 sodium chlor calcium sulf aluminum iod (Na 1+ Cl 1- ) (Ca 2+ S 2- ) (Al 3+ I 1- ) ide

11 Cations and Anions Common Simple Cations and Anions CationName AnionName* H 1+ hydrogen H 1- hydride Li 1+ lithium F 1- fluoride Na 1+ sodium Cl 1- chloride K 1+ potassium Br 1- bromide Cs 1+ cesium I 1- iodide Be 2+ beryllium O 2- oxide Mg 2+ magnesium S 2- sulfide Al 3+ aluminum Ag 1+ silver * The root is given in color. Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry  2002, page 86

12 Ionic Binary Compounds: Single-Charge Cations Keys Ionic Binary Compounds: Single-Charge Cations

13 Molecular Compound Silicon dioxide, SiO 2, is a molecular compound. It is also a mineral called quartz (left). Quartz is found in nearly every type of rock. Most sand grains (center) are bits of quartz. Glass is made from sand. A compound containing atoms of two or more elements that are bonded together by sharing electrons.

14 Criss-Cross Rule

15 “Perhaps one of you gentlemen would mind telling me just what is outside the window that you find so attractive..?” Image courtesy NearingZero.net

16 Example: Aluminum Chloride Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: 13 Step 4: AlCl 3 Criss-Cross Rule Al Cl write out name with space write symbols & charge of elements criss-cross charges as subsrcipts combine as formula unit (“1” is never shown) Aluminum Chloride

17 Example: Aluminum Chloride Step 1: AluminumChloride Step 2: Al 3+ Cl 1- Step 3: Al Cl 13 Step 4: AlCl 3 Criss-Cross Rule

18 Example: Aluminum Oxide Step 1: Aluminum Oxide Step 2: Al 3+ O 2- Step 3: Al O 23 Step 4: Al 2 O 3 Criss-Cross Rule

19 Example: Magnesium Oxide Step 1: Magnesium Oxide Step 2: Mg 2+ O 2- Step 3: Mg O 22 Step 4: Mg 2 O 2 Step 5: MgO Criss-Cross Rule

20 Naming Binary Compounds FormulaName 1 BaO____________________ 2________________ sodium bromide 3 MgI 2 ____________________ 4 KCl____________________ 5________________ strontium fluoride 6________________ cesium fluoride barium oxide NaBr magnesium iodide potassium chloride SrF 2 CsF

21 Rules for Parentheses Parentheses are used only when the following two condition are met: 1.There is a radical (polyatomic ion) present and… 2.There are two or more of that radical in the formula. Examples: NaNO 3 NO 3 1- is a radical, but there is only one of it. Co(NO 3 ) 2 NO 3 1- is a radical and there are two of them (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 NH 4 1+ is a radical and there are two of them; SO 4 2- is a radical but there is only one of it. Co(OH) 2 OH 1- is a radical and there are two of it. Al 2 (CO 3 ) 3 CO 3 2- is a radical and there are three of them. NaOHOH 1- is a radical but there is only one of it.

22 Ions in Chemical Formulas Keys Ions in Chemical Formulas Ions in Chemical Compounds - Grid Ions in Chemical Compounds - Grid

23 Hungry for Tater Tots? Mr. C at 7 years old.

24 Ions in Chemical Compounds - Grid Ions in Chemical Compounds Keys Ions in Chemical Compounds - Grid

25 Chemical Bonding & Nomenclature General Chemistry Notes

26 Chemical Bonding …atoms share electrons to get a full valence shell Covalent Bonds C 2s 2 2p 2 (4 v.e – ) F 2s 2 2p 5 (7 v.e – ) both need 8 valence electrons for a full outer shell (octet rule) 1s 2

27 Covalent bonding FF Fluorine has seven valence electrons A second F atom also has seven By sharing electrons Both end with full orbitals (stable octets) 8 Valence electrons

28 Chemical Bonding Ionic Bonds: aatoms give up or gain electrons and are attracted tto each other by coulombic attraction Na loses an e – Na  Na 1+ + e – Cl gains an e – Cl + e –  Cl 1– ionic compounds = saltsNa 1+ + Cl 1–  NaCl K 1+ + NO 3 1–  KNO 3 where NO 3 1– is a polyatomic ion: a charged group of atoms that stay together

29 Formation of Cation 11p + sodium atom Na e-e- loss of one valence electron e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- sodium ion Na + 11p + e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e-

30 Formation of Anion 17p + chlorine atom Cl e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- gain of one valence electron chloride ion Cl 1- 17p + e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e-

31 Formation of Ionic Bond chloride ion Cl 1- sodium ion Na + 11p + e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- 17p + e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e-

32 Ionic Bonding n = 2 Na [Ne]3s 1 n = Cl [Ne]3s 2 3p 5 Na + [Ne] Cl - [Ne]3s 2 3p 6 NaCl Transfer of electrons to achieve a stable octet (8 electrons in valence shell).

33 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved. Na + Cl 2 NaCl sodium metal and chlorine gas react to form sodium chloride 22

34 Covalent Bonding n = 1 O [He]2s 2 2p 4 n = O2O2 Sharing of electrons to achieve a stable octet (8 electrons in valence shell) O [He]2s 2 2p 4

35 Properties of Salts VERY HARD each ion is bonded to several oppositely- charged ions HIGH MELTING POINTS many bonds must be broken BRITTLE with sufficient force, like atoms are brought next to each other and repel

36 Vocabulary lClChemical Bond –a–attractive force between atoms or ions that binds them together as a unit –b–bonds form in order to… decrease potential energy (PE) increase stability Courtesy Christy Johannesson

37 Vocabulary CHEMICAL FORMULA molecular formula unit IONICCOVALENT CO 2 NaCl Courtesy Christy Johannesson

38 Vocabulary COMPOUND ternary compound binary compound 2 elements more than 2 elements NaNO 3 NaCl Courtesy Christy Johannesson

39 Vocabulary ION polyatomic Ion monatomic Ion 1 atom 2 or more atoms NO 3 - Na + Courtesy Christy Johannesson

40 IONIC COVALENT Bond Formation Type of Structure Solubility in Water Electrical Conductivity Other Properties e - are transferred from metal to nonmetal high yes (solution or liquid) yes e - are shared between two nonmetals low no usually not Melting Point crystal lattice true molecules Types of Bonds Physical State solid liquid or gas odorous Courtesy Christy Johannesson

41 “electron sea” METALLIC bond formation type of structure solubility in water conductivity other properties melting point Types of Bonds physical state electrons are delocalized among metal atoms very high yes (any form) no malleable, ductile, lustrous solid Courtesy Christy Johannesson

42 Ionic Bonding - Crystal Lattice Types of Bonds Table salt

43 Ionic Bonding - Crystal Lattice Types of Bonds Table salt

44 Covalent Bonding - True Molecules Types of Bonds Diatomic Molecule Ammonia Nitrogen Water

45 Covalent Bonding - True Molecules Types of Bonds Diatomic Molecule Courtesy Christy Johannesson Ammonia Chlorine Water

46 Lewis Structure Lewis structure: a model of a covalent molecule that shows all of the valence electrons 1. Two shared electrons make a single covalent bond, four make a double bond, etc. 2. unshared pairs: pairs of un-bonded valence electrons 3. Each atom needs a full outer shell, i.e., 8 electrons. Exception: H needs 2 electrons

47 carbon tetrafluoride (CF 4 ) o C o o ox xx x xx F x o C o o ox xx x xx F x x x x x xx F x x xx x x F x x x xx xx F x x C x xx x xx F x x x xx F x x xx x F x x xx xx F x x covalent compounds = molecular compounds (have lower melting points than do ionic compounds)

48 Lewis Structure o C o o o x H o C o o o H x x H x H x HCH H H H x xx x xx I x o N o o o oo N o o ox xx x xx I x x x x x xx I x x xx xx I x x o o N x xx x xx I x x x xx I x xx xx I x x o o C o o ox xx x x O x x xx x x O x x xx x x O x o C o o o O = C = O x x methane (CH 4 ) carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) nitrogen triiodide (NI 3 )

49 Properties of Metals conduct heat and electricity; ductile; malleable  Other Types of Bonds dipole-dipole forces hydrogen bonds London dispersion forces ion-dipole forces (solutions)

50 Writing Formulas of Ionic Compounds chemical formula: has neutral charge; shows types of atoms and how many of each To write an ionic compound’s formula, we need: 1. the two types of ions 2. the charge on each ion Na 1+ and F 1– Ba 2+ and O 2– Na 1+ and O 2– Ba 2+ and F 1– NaF BaO Na 2 O BaF 2 sodium fluoride barium oxide sodium oxide barium fluoride

51 Ca 3 P 2 Formula Unit Ca 2+ P 3- Ca 2+ P 3- Ca 2+ P 3- Ca 2+ Ca 2+ and P 3– Ca 3 P 2 calcium phosphide

52 InBr 3 BaS Criss-Cross Rule criss-cross rule: charge on cation / anion “becomes” subscript of anion / cation ** Warning: Reduce to lowest terms. Al 2 O 3 Al 3+ and O 2– Al 2 O 3 Ba 2+ and S 2– Ba 2 S 2 In 3+ and Br 1– In 1 Br 3 aluminum oxidebarium sulfideindium bromide

53 (NH 4 ) 3 N Fe 2 (Cr 2 O 7 ) 3 Sn(SO 4 ) 2 NH 4 ClO 3 Mg(NO 2 ) 2 BaSO 4 Writing Formulas w /Polyatomic Ions Parentheses are required only when you need more than one “bunch” of a particular polyatomic ion. Ba 2+ and SO 4 2– Mg 2+ and NO 2 1– NH 4 1+ andClO 3 1– Sn 4+ andSO 4 2– Fe 3+ andCr 2 O 7 2– NH 4 1+ andN 3– barium sulfate magnesium nitrite ammonium chlorate tin (IV) sulfate iron (III) dichromate ammonium nitride ?

54 Multiple Oxidation States “tin fluoride” tin (II) fluoridetin (IV) fluoride Tin is either 2+ or 4+ oxidation state. Sn 2+ F 1- SnF 2 Sn 4+ F 1- SnF 4 tin (II) sulfide Sn 2+ S 2- Sn 2 S 2 SnS tin (II) sulfate Sn 2+ SO 4 2- SnSO 4 tin (II) sulfite Sn 2+ SO 3 2- SnSO 3 tin (IV) sulfate Sn 4+ SO 4 2- Sn 2 (SO 4 ) 4 Sn(SO 4 ) 2

55 Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions Insert name of ion where it should go in the compound’s name. Write formulas: iron (III) nitrate ammonium phosphide ammonium chlorite zinc phosphate lead (II) permanganate Fe(NO 3 ) 3 (NH 4 ) 3 P NH 4 ClO 2 Zn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 Pb(MnO 4 ) 2 Fe 3+ NO 3 1– NH 4 1+ P 3– NH 4 1+ ClO 2 1– Zn 2+ PO 4 3– Pb 2+ MnO 4 1–

56 Write names: (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 AgBrO 3 (NH 4 ) 3 N U(CrO 4 ) 3 Cr 2 (SO 3 ) 3 Writing Formulas of Ionic Compounds ammonium thiosulfate silver bromate ammonium nitride uranium (VI) chromate chromium (III) sulfite CrO 4 2– SO 3 2– 3 32 Cr U ? ? 6+ 3+

57 Writing Formulas of Covalent Molecules CCovalent Molecules contain two types of nonmetals Key: FORGET CHARGES What to do: Use Greek prefixes to indicate how many atoms of each element, but don’t use “mono” on first element. 1 – mono 6 – hexa 2 – di7 – hepta 3 – tri8 – octa 4 – tetra9 – nona 5 – penta10 – deca

58 Writing Formulas of Covalent Molecules EXAMPLES: carbon dioxide CO dinitrogen trioxide N2O5N2O5 carbon tetrachloride NI 3 CO 2 carbon monoxide N2O3N2O3 dinitrogen pentoxide CCl 4 nitrogen triiodide

59 Cu 2 Br 1– Cu Br 1– 2 Fe 3 O 2– Fe O 2– Stock System of nomenclature 4. Write name of anion. FeO Fe 2 O 3 CuBr CuBr 2 iron (II) oxide iron (III) oxide copper (I) bromide copper (II) bromide ? ? ? ? A. To name, given the formula: 1. Figure out charge on cation. 2. Write name of cation. 3. Write Roman numerals in ( ) to show cation’s charge. Pb 2+ /Pb 4+, Sn 2+ /Sn 4+, transition elements(not Ag or Zn) Multiple-Charge Cations with Elemental Anions

60 B. To find the formula, given the name: 2. Balance charges to write formula. cobalt (III) chlorideCo 3+ Cl 1– CoCl 3 tin (IV) oxideSn 4+ O 2– SnO 2 tin (II) oxideSn 2+ O 2– SnO 1. Write symbols for the two types of ions.

61 Element Latin root -ic -ous gold, Auaur- Au 3+ Au 1+ lead, Pbplumb- Pb 4+ Pb 2+ tin, Snstann- Sn 4+ Sn 2+ copper, Cucupr- Cu 2+ Cu 1+ iron, Feferr- Fe 3+ Fe 2+ Traditional (OLD) System of Nomenclature …used historically (and still some today) to name compounds w /multiple-charge cations To use: 1. Use Latin root of cation. 2. Use -ic ending for higher charge “ -ous “ “ lower “ 3. Then say name of anion, as usual. ; (“icky” food is good for you!) ; (“delicious” food is not good for you!)

62 Cu 2 S AuN FeF 2 plumbic phosphide plumbous phosphide stannic chloride Fe 2+ Write formulas:Write names: cuprous sulfide auric nitride ferrous fluoride Pb 3 P 4 3 Pb ? 4 P 3– Cu 1+ Pb 3 P 2 3 Pb ? 2 P 3– Au 3+ SnCl 4 Sn ? 4 Cl 1– S 2– N 3– F 1– copper (I) sulfide gold (III) nitride iron (II) fluoride lead (IV) phosphide lead (II) phosphide tin (IV) chloride

63 Bonding Activity

64 O 2- K 1+ Mg 2+ Br 1- K Br potassium atom bromine atom e-e- e-e- Br 1- K 1+ potassium ion bromide ion potassium bromide K Br potassium atom bromine atom e-e- Br 1- K 1+ potassium ionbromide ion KBr MgBr 2 K2OK2O magnesium bromidepotassium oxide

65 Ca 2+ Al 3+ K 1+ Pb 4+ Br 1- O 2- N 3- K 1+ Mg 2+ Br 1- PO 4 3- S 2- Cu 2+ OH 1- NH 4 1+ NO 3 1- ?

66 Chemical Bonding Activity Ca 2+ Al 3+ Na 1+ Pb 4+ OH 1- N 2- N 3- M 1+ Mg 2+ OH 1- N 3- Pb 4+ N 3- Pb 4+ N 3- Pb 4+ N 3- ? (nonmetal) M 1+ (metal) Pb 4+ N 3- M 2+ (metal) Pb 3 N 4 lead (IV) nitride or plumbic nitride

67 Chemical Bonding Activity Keys Chemical Bonding Activity (pink/blue) Chemical Bonding Activity Pieces Chemical Bonding Activity (pink/blue) Chemical Bonding Activity Pieces Power Point

68 Key Cu 2+ Al 3+ K 1+ Pb 4+ Br 1- O 2- N 3- K 1+ Mg 2+ Br 1- N 3- Pb 4+ N 3- Pb 4+ N OH 1- NH 4 1+ NO KBr K2OK2O MgBr 2 AlN Cu(OH) 2 NH 4 NO 3 Pb 3 N 4

69 Key Fe Ca 2+ PO 4 3- NH 4 1+ O 2- Al 3+ O Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 FeO Al 2 O 3

70 Key O 2- Fe 3+ O Pb 4+ S 2- Pb 4+ S 2- Pb 2+ S Cu 2+ Cu Fe 2 O 3 Pb 2 S 3 PbS CuO Cu 2 O Pb 2 S 4 PbS 2

71 Binary Compounds Metals (variable oxidation) + Nonmetals

72 Binary Compounds Containing a Metal of Variable Oxidation Number To name these compounds, give the name of the metal (Type II cations) followed by Roman numerals in parentheses to indicate the oxidation number of the metal, followed by the name of the nonmetal, with its ending replaced by the suffix –ide. ExamplesStock System FeCl 2 (“ic” ending = higher oxidation state; “ous” is lower oxidation state) SnOTin oxide SnO 2 Tin oxide (II) (III) (II) (IV) Traditional (OLD) System Ferrous chloride Ferric chloride Stannous oxide Stannic oxide Iron chloride FeCl 3

73 Type II Cations Common Type II Cations IonStock System Traditional System Fe 3+ iron (III)ferric Fe 2+ iron (II)ferrous Cu 2+ copper (II)cupric Cu 1+ copper (I)cuprous Co 3+ cobalt (III)cobaltic Co 2+ cobalt (II)cobaltous Sn 4+ tin (IV)stannic Sn 2+ tin (II)stannous Pb 4+ lead (IV)plumbic Pb 2+ lead (II)plumbous Hg 2+ mercury (II)mercuric Hg 2 2+ mercury (I)mercurous * Mercury (I) ions are always bound together in pairs to form Hg 2 2+ Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry  2002, page 90

74 Naming Binary Compounds FormulaName 1 Hg 2 O____________________ 2 HgO____________________ 3________________ copper (II) fluoride 4________________ copper (I) sulfide 5 Cr 2 O 3 ____________________ 6________________ lead (IV) oxide mercury (I) oxide PbO 2 mercury (II) oxide CuF 2 Cu 2 S chromium (III) oxide

75 Li 3 H1H1 He 2 C6C6 N7N7 O8O8 F9F9 Ne 10 Na 11 B5B5 Be 4 H1H1 Al 13 Si 14 P 15 S 16 Cl 17 Ar 18 K 19 Ca 20 Sc 21 Ti 22 V 23 Cr 24 Mn 25 Fe 26 Co 27 Ni 28 Cu 29 Zn 30 Ga 31 Ge 32 As 33 Se 34 Br 35 Kr 36 Rb 37 Sr 38 Y 39 Zr 40 Nb 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 Rh 45 Pd 46 Ag 47 Cd 48 In 49 Sn 50 Sb 51 Te 52 I 53 Xe 54 Cs 55 Ba 56 Hf 72 Ta 73 W 74 Re 75 Os 76 Ir 77 Pt 78 Au 79 Hg 80 Tl 81 Pb 82 Bi 83 Po 84 At 85 Rn 86 Fr 87 Ra 88 Rf 104 Db 105 Sg 106 Bh 107 Hs 108 Mt 109 Mg 12 Ce 58 Pr 59 Nd 60 Pm 61 Sm 62 Eu 63 Gd 64 Tb 65 Dy 66 Ho 67 Er 68 Tm 69 Yb 70 Lu 71 Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 Am 95 Cm 96 Bk 97 Cf 98 Es 99 Fm 100 Md 101 No 102 Lr 103 La 57 Ac   Single-charge cations Multiple-charge cations Elemental anions Periodic Table with charges Periodic Table with charges

76 Ionic Compounds: Polyatomic Ions with Multiple-Charge Cations Keys Ionic Compounds: Polyatomic Ions with Multiple-Charge Cations Polyatomic Ions Grid to Memorize Chart of the Ions and Polyatomic Ions Ionic Compounds: Polyatomic Ions with Multiple-Charge Cations

77 Ionic Formulas (Binary, Polyatomic, Transition Metals) Keys Ionic Formula (Binary, Polyatomic, Transition Metals) Formulas of Ionic Compounds

78 Ionic Compounds: Traditional System of Nomenclature Keys Ionic Compounds: Traditional System of Nomenclature

79 Binary Molecular Compounds Nonmetal + Nonmetal

80 Binary Compounds Containing Two Nonmetals To name these compounds, give the name of the less electronegative element first with the Greek prefix indicating the number of atoms of that element present, followed by the name of the more electronegative non- metal with the Greek prefix indicating the number of atoms of that element present and with its ending replaced by the suffix –ide. Prefixes you should know: Mono Di Tri Tetra Penta Hexa Hepta Octa Nona Deca

81 Binary Compounds Containing Two Nonmetals (Type III Compounds) 1.________________ diarsenic trisulfide 2.________________sulfur dioxide 3. P 2 O 5 ____________________ 4.________________ carbon dioxide 5. N 2 O 5 ____________________ 6. H 2 O____________________ As 2 S 3 SO 2 diphosphorus pentoxide CO 2 dinitrogen pentoxide dihydrogen monoxide

82 Prefixes – Binary Molecular Compounds Greek Prefixes for Two Nonmetals Number Indicated Prefixes 1mono- 2di- 3tri- 4tetra- 5penta- 6hexa- 7hepta- 8octa- 9nona- 10deca-

83 Binary Molecular Compounds N 2 O dinitrogen monoxide N 2 O 3 dinitrogen trioxide N 2 O 5 dinitrogen pentoxide ICl iodine monochloride ICl 3 iodine trichloride SO 2 sulfur dioxide SO 3 sulfur trioxide

84 Naming Binary Compounds Binary Compound? Metal Present? Does the metal form more than one cation? Type III Use Greek Prefixes Type I Use the element name for the cation. Type II Determine the charge of the cation; use a Roman numeral after the cation name. Yes No Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry  2002, page 98

85 Covalent Binary Compounds: Nonmetal-Nonmetal Combinations Keys Covalent Binary Compounds: Nonmetal-Nonmetal Combinations

86 Ternary Compounds

87 Ternary compounds are those containing three different elements. (NaNO 3, NH 4 Cl, etc.). The naming of ternary compounds involves the memorization of several positive and negative polyatomic ions, (two or more atoms per ion), and adding these names to the element with which they combine. i.e., Sodium ion, Na 1+ added to the nitrate ion, NO 3 1-, to give the compound, NaNO 3, sodium nitrate. Binary rules for indicating the oxidation number of metals and for indicating the numbers of atoms present are followed. The polyatomic ions that should be learned are listed in a separate handout.

88 (PO 4 ) 3- Phosphate PO P 4 2- = 3- = = oxygen Fluorine and oxygen are highly electronegative and will attract electrons very strongly. Generally, phosphorus will be 3- oxidation state: however, when combining with oxygen, phosphorus will lose five electrons and take on a 5+ oxidation charge.

89 phosphate sulfate carbonate chlorate nitrate Polyatomic Ions - Memorize phosphATE sulfATE carbonATE chlorATE nitrATE PO 4 3- …………… SO 4 2- …………… CO 3 2- ………….. ClO 3 1- ………….. NO 3 1- ………..…. Eight “-ATE’s” Exceptions: ammonium hydroxide cyanide NH 4 1+ …………… OH 1- …………… CN 1- …………..

90 Pattern to Memorizing Nomenclature XY “-ide” XYO 3 “-ate” XYO 2 “-ite” XYO “hypo___-ite” XYO 4 “per___-ate” normal1 less oxygen2 less oxygen1 more oxygen

91 Polyatomic Ion: a group of atoms that stay together and have a single, overall charge. BrO 4 1- Perbromate ion BrO 3 1- Bromate ion BrO 2 1- Bromite ion BrO 1- Hypobromite ion CO 4 2- CO 3 2- Carbonate ion CO 2 2- CO 2- ClO 4 1- ClO 3 1- Chlorate ion ClO 2 1- ClO 1- IO 4 1- IO 3 1- Iodate ion IO 2 1- IO 1- NO 4 1- NO 3 1- Nitrate ion NO 2 1- NO 1- PO 5 3- PO 4 3- Phosphate ion PO 3 3- PO 2 3- SO 5 2- SO 4 2- Sulfate ion SO 3 2- SO more oxygen“normal”1 less oxygen2 less oxygen

92 Polyatomic Ion: a group of atoms that stay together and have a single, overall charge. BrO 4 1- Perbromate ion BrO 3 1- Bromate ion BrO 2 1- Bromite ion BrO 1- Hypobromite ion CO 4 2- CO 3 2- Carbonate ion CO 2 2- CO 2- ClO 4 1- ClO 3 1- Chlorate ion ClO 2 1- ClO 1- IO 4 1- IO 3 1- Iodate ion IO 2 1- IO 1- NO 4 1- NO 3 1- Nitrate ion NO 2 1- NO 1- PO 5 3- PO 4 3- Phosphate ion PO 3 3- PO 2 3- SO 5 2- SO 4 2- Sulfate ion SO 3 2- SO more oxygen“normal”1 less oxygen2 less oxygen

93 Ternary Compounds NaNO 2 sodium nitrite KClO 3 potassium chlorate Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 calcium phosphate Fe(OH) 3 iron (III) hydroxide NaHCO 3 sodium bicarbonate ‘sodium hydrogen carbonate’

94 ide Calcium hydrox ide Ca 2+ OH 1- CaOH 2 Ca(OH) 2 Ca - O H H HO - Ca - OH vs.

95 Common Polyatomic Ions Names of Common Polyatomic Ions Ion Name Ion Name NH 4 1+ ammoniumCO 3 2- carbonate NO 2 1- nitriteHCO 3 1- hydrogen carbonate NO 3 1- nitrate (“bicarbonate” is a widely SO 3 2- sulfite used common name) SO 4 2- sulfateClO 1- hypochlorite HSO 4 1- hydrogen sulfateClO 2 1- chlorite (“bisulfate” is a widelyClO 3 1- chlorate used common name)ClO 4 1- perchlorate OH 1- hydroxideC 2 H 3 O 2 2- acetate CN 1- cyanideMnO 4 1- permanganate PO 4 3- phosphateCr 2 O 7 2- dichromate HPO 4 2- hydrogen phosphateCrO 4 2- chromate H 2 PO 4 1- dihydrogen phosphateO 2 2- peroxide Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry  2002, page 100 Print Version

96 Ternary Compounds 1.________________ calcium phosphate 2.________________ ammonium carbonate 3.________________ aluminum sulfate 4. Na 2 SO 4 ____________________ 5. LiCN____________________ 6. Ba(ClO 3 ) 2 ____________________ 7.________________ copper (II) hydroxide Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 sodium sulfate lithium cyanide barium chlorate Cu(OH) 2

97 Magnesium Phosphate Step 1: MagnesiumPhosphate Step 2: Mg 2+ PO 4 3- Step 3: Mg (PO 4 ) 32 Step 4: Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2

98 fluoride sulfide chloride bromide phosphide fluoride iodide chloride oxide phosphide iridium (III) calcium titanium (IV) platinum (II) barium strontium potassium zinc manganese (IV) gold (III) sodium dichromate hydroxide chromate acetate bromate sulfate cyanide nitrite chlorate phosphate nitrate 2 (Cr 2 O 7 ) 3 (OH) 2 (CrO 4 ) 2 (CH 3 COO) 2 (BrO 3 ) 2 SO 4 CN (NO 2 ) 2 (ClO 3 ) 4 PO 4 NO 3 Ir Ca Ti Pt Ba Sr K Zn Mn Au Na F3F3 S S 2 Cl 2 Br 2 3 P 2 F I 2 Cl 4 2 O 3 3 P Ir 2+,3+,4+,6+ Ca 2+ Ti 3+,4+ Pt 2+,4+ Ba 2+ Sr 2+ K 1+ Zn 2+ Mn 2,3,4,6,7+ Au 1+,3+ Na 1+ variable fixed variable fixed variable fixed

99 fluoride sulfide chloride bromide phosphide fluoride iodide chloride oxide phosphide iridium (III) calcium titanium (IV) platinum (II) barium strontium potassium zinc manganese (IV) gold (III) sodium Ir Ca Ti Pt Ba Sr K Zn Mn Au Na F3F3 S S 2 Cl 2 Br 2 3 P 2 F I 2 Cl 4 2 O 3 3 P Ir 2+,3+,4+,6+ Ca 2+ Ti 3+,4+ Pt 2+,4+ Ba 2+ Sr 2+ K 1+ Zn 2+ Mn 2,3,4,6,7+ Au 1+,3+ Na 1+ variable fixed variable fixed variable fixed

100 dichromate hydroxide chromate acetate bromate sulfate cyanide nitrite chlorate phosphate nitrate iridium (III) calcium titanium (IV) platinum (II) barium strontium potassium zinc manganese (IV) gold (III) sodium 2 (Cr 2 O 7 ) 3 (OH) 2 (CrO 4 ) 2 (CH 3 COO) 2 (BrO 3 ) 2 3 SO 4 CN (NO 2 ) 2 (ClO 3 ) 4 PO 4 NO 3 Ir Ca Ti Pt Ba Sr K Zn Mn Au Na Ir 2+,3+,4+,6+ Ca 2+ Ti 3+,4+ Pt 2+,4+ Ba 2+ Sr 2+ K 1+ Zn 2+ Mn 2,3,4,6,7+ Au 1+,3+ Na 1+ variable fixed variable fixed variable fixed

101 Two nonmetalsMultiple-charge cationEverything else Roman numeral Polyatomic ions OK Roman numeral for name only Polyatomic ions Greek prefixes Charge Criss- Cross Rule Roman numeral OK Where would you file this? VCrO 4 BaO CBr 4 Nb(ClO 4 ) 5 SCl 2 Rb 2 SO 4 dinitrogen pentoxide platinum (IV) iodate ammonium chlorate potassium iodide nitrogen trichloride manganese (V) sulfide vanadium (II) chromate VCrO 4 N2O5N2O5 dinitrogen pentoxide barium oxide BaO Pt(IO 3 ) 4 platinum (IV) iodate carbon tetrabromide CBr 4 NH 4 ClO 3 ammonium chlorate niobium (V) perchlorate Nb(ClO 4 ) 5 KI potassium iodide sulfur dichloride SCl 2 NCl 3 nitrogen trichloride rubidium sulfate Rb 2 SO 4 Mn 2 S 5 manganese (V) sulfide

102 Two nonmetalsMultiple-charge cationEverything else Roman numeral Polyatomic ions Roman numeral for name only Polyatomic ions Greek prefixes Charge Criss- Cross Rule Roman numeral OK Where would you file this? VCrO 4 dinitrogen pentoxide BaO platinum (IV) iodate CBr 4 ammonium chlorate Nb(ClO 4 ) 5 potassium iodide SCl 2 nitrogen trichloride Rb 2 SO 4 manganese (V) sulfide

103 Write the total number of atoms that make up each compound. Write the compound formed by the following ions: 1) Al 3+ S 2- 2) Mg 2+ PO 4 3- When a formula is given…write the proper name. When a name is given…write the proper formula. 3) BaO 4) lithium bromide 5) Ni 2 S 3 6) triphosphorus heptoxide 7) N 2 O 5 8) molybdenum (VI) nitride 9) trinitrotoluene (TNT)… CH 3 C 6 H 2 (NO 2 ) 3 10) phosphoric acid H 3 PO 4 Extra credit: What is the formula for plumbic iodide? (Hint: lead is Pb 2+ or Pb 4+ )

104 Write the total number of atoms that make up each compound. Write the compound formed by the following ions: 1) Al 3+ S 2- 2) Mg 2+ PO 4 3- When a formula is given…write the proper name. When a name is given…write the proper formula. 3) BaO 4) lithium bromide 5) Ni 2 S 3 6) triphosphorus heptoxide 7) N 2 O 5 8) molybdenum (VI) nitride 9) trinitrotoluene (TNT)… CH 3 C 6 H 2 (NO 2 ) 3 10) phosphoric acid H 3 PO 4 Extra credit: What is the formula for plumbic iodide? (Hint: lead is Pb 2+ or Pb 4+ ) POP QUIZ

105 Write the total number of atoms that make up each compound. Write the compound formed by the following ions: 1) Al 3+ S 2- 2) Mg 2+ PO 4 3- When a formula is given…write the proper name. When a name is given…write the proper formula. 3) BaO 4) lithium bromide 5) Ni 2 S 3 6) triphosphorus heptoxide 7) N 2 O 5 8) molybdenum (VI) nitride 9) trinitrotoluene (TNT)… CH 3 C 6 H 2 (NO 2 ) 3 10) phosphoric acid H 3 PO 4 Extra credit: What is the formula for plumbic iodide? (Hint: lead is Pb 2+ or Pb 4+ ) Answer Key Al 2 S 3 Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 barium oxide nickel (III) sulfide LiBr dinitrogen pentoxide MoN PbI 4 P3O7P3O7 aluminum sulfide magnesium phosphate

106 Polyatomic Ions - Quiz oxalate chromate dichromate permanganate acetate C 2 O 4 2- …………… CrO 4 2- …………… Cr 2 O 7 2- ………….. MnO 4 1- ………….. CH 3 COO 1- …….

107 K2OK2O Exceptions! Two exceptions to the simple –ide ending are the diatomic oxide ions, O 2 2- and O O 2 2- is called peroxide O 2 1- is called superoxide. Note the differences. barium oxide __________ barium peroxide __________ sodium oxide __________ sodium peroxide __________ potassium oxide __________ potassium superoxide __________ BaO Na 2 O Do Not Reduce to lowest terms! KO 2 Ba 2+ Na 1+ K 1+ BaO 2 Na 2 O 2

108 Ionic Compounds: Polyatomic Ions Keys Ionic Compounds: Polyatomic Ions Chart of the Ions and Polyatomic Ions Polyatomic Ions Grid to Memorize Ionic Compounds: Polyatomic Ions

109 Ionic Binary Compounds: Multiple-Charge Cations Keys Ionic Binary Compounds: Multiple-Charge Cations

110 Naming Chemical Compounds Binary Compound? Use the strategy summarized earlier Polyatomic ions present? This is a compound for which naming procedures have not yet been considered. Name the compound using procedures similar to those for naming binary ionic compounds. Yes No Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry  2002, page 102

111 Nomenclature Review Flow Chart

112 Metal + Nonmetal? Formula  Name? Ionic Covalent Two Nonmetals? Multiple Single Use Prefixes!!! *Mono* Hexa Di Hepta Tri Octa Tetra Nona Penta Deca 1.Write name of cation (metal) 2.Determine the charge on the metal by balancing the (-) charge from the anion 3.Write the charge of the metal in Roman Numerals and put in parentheses 4.Write name of anion (Individual anions need –ide ending!) Steps 1 & 4 ONLY d,f-block Pb,Sn Columns 1, 2, 13 Ag +, Zn 2+ (Except: NH 4 + )

113 Name  Formula? No Prefixes? Prefixes? 1.Determine the ions present and the charge on each (Roman Numeral = cation charge, otherwise use PT) 2.Balance formula (criss-cross) 3.Reduce subscripts (if needed) 1.FORGET CHARGES!!! 2.Use prefixes to determine subscripts 3.Do NOT reduce subscripts! Ionic Covalent

114 Oxidation Numbers and Ionic Compounds Keys Oxidation Numbers and Ionic Compounds

115 Names and Formulas of Compounds Keys Names and Formulas of Compounds

116 Binary Hydrogen Compounds Oxysalts + H 2 O  Oxyacids

117 Binary Hydrogen Compounds of Nonmetals When Dissolved in Water (These compounds are commonly called acids.) The prefix hydro- is used to represent hydrogen, followed by the name of the nonmetal with its ending replaced by the suffix –ic and the word acid added. Examples: *HCl HBr *The name of this compound would be hydrogen chloride if it was NOT dissolved in water. Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid

118 Naming Simple Chemical Compounds Ionic (metal and nonmetal)Covalent (2 nonmetals) Metal Forms only one positive ion Forms more than one positive ion Nonmetal Use the name of element Use element name followed by a Roman numeral to show the charge First nonmetal Second nonmetal Before element name use a prefix to match subscript Use a prefix before element name and end with ide Single Negative Ion Polyatomic Ion Use the name of the element, but end with ide Use the name of polyatomic ion (ate or Ite)

119 Naming Ternary Compounds from Oxyacids The following table lists the most common families of oxy acids. one more oxygen atom most “common” one less oxygen two less oxygen HClO 4 perchloric acid HClO 3 chloric acid HClO 2 chlorous acid HClO hypochlorous acid H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid H 2 SO 3 sulfurous acid H 3 PO 4 phosphoric acid H 3 PO 3 phosphorous acid H 3 PO 2 hypophosphorous acid HNO 3 nitric acid HNO 2 nitrous acid (HNO) 2 hyponitrous acid

120 An acid with a name ending in A salt with a name ending in -ic -ous -ate -ite forms Hill, Petrucci, General Chemistry An Integrated Approach  1999, page 60

121 Oxyacids  Oxysalts If you replace hydrogen with a metal, you have formed an oxysalt. A salt is a compound consisting of a metal and a non-metal. If the salt consists of a metal, a nonmetal, and oxygen it is called an oxysalt. NaClO 4, sodium perchlorate, is an oxysalt. HClO 4 perchloric acid HClO 3 chloric acid HClO 2 chlorous acid HClO hypochlorous acid NaClO 4 sodium perchlorate NaClO 3 sodium chlorate NaClO 2 sodium chlorite NaClO sodium hypochlorite OXYACID OXYSALT

122 ACID SALT per stem ic changes to per stem ate stem ic changes to stem ate stem ous changes to stem ite hyper stem ous changes to hypo stem ite HClO 3 + Na 1+ NaClO 3 + H 1+ acid cation salt

123 Meaning of Suffixes

124 Suffixes have meaning ““-ide”binary compound sodium chloride (NaCl) ““-ite” or “-ate”polyatomic compound sulfite(SO 3 2- ) sulfate (SO 4 2- )“-ate” means one more oxygen than “-ite” ““-ol”alcohol methyl alcohol (methanol) ““-ose”sugar sucrose ““-ase”enzyme sucrase

125 Oxidation States in Formulas and Names dinitrogen monoxide N 2 O nitrogen (I) oxide dinitrogen trioxide N 2 O 3 nitrogen (III) oxide dinitrogen pentoxide N 2 O 5 nitrogen (V) oxide sulfur dioxide SO 2 sulfur (IV) oxide sulfur trioxide SO 3 sulfur (VI) oxide Traditional System Stock System (Two non-metals) stock system is NOT preferred for two non-metals

126 Empirical Formula  %  g  g  mol  mol / mol

127 % Mg = x g 95 g Percentage Composition Mg magnesium Cl chlorine Mg 2+ Cl 1- MgCl amu = amu amu = amu amu 25.52% Mg 74.48% Cl (by mass...not atoms) It is not 33% Mg and 66% Cl % = x 100 part whole

128 Empirical and Molecular Formulas A pure compound always consists of the same elements combined in the same proportions by weight. PERCENT BY WEIGHT Therefore, we can express molecular composition as PERCENT BY WEIGHT. Ethanol, C 2 H 6 O 52.13% C 13.15% H 34.72% O

129 Empirical Formula Quantitative analysis shows that a compound contains 32.38% sodium, 22.65% sulfur, and 44.99% oxygen. Find the empirical formula of this compound. = mol Na = mol S = mol O / mol = 2 Na = 1 S = 4 O Na 2 SO % Na 22.65% S 44.99% O g Na g S g O sodium sulfate Step 1) %  gStep 2) g  mol Step 3) mol mol Na 2 SO 4

130 Empirical Formula A sample weighing g is analyzed and found to contain the following: 27.38% sodium 1.19% hydrogen 14.29% carbon 57.14% oxygen Determine the empirical formula of this compound. Step 1) convert %  gram Step 2) gram  moles Step 3) mol / mol Assume sample is 100 g g Na 1.19 g H g C g O / 1.19 mol = 1 Na / 1.19 mol = 1 H / 1.19 mol = 1 C / 1.19 mol = 3 O NaHCO 3

131 Empirical & Molecular Formula A 175 g hydrocarbon sample is analyzed and found to contain ~83% carbon. The molar mass of the sample is determined to be 58 g/mol. Determine the empirical and molecular formula for this sample. Determine the empirical formula of this compound. Step 1) convert %  gram Step 2) gram  moles Step 3) mol / mol Assume sample is 100 g. / mol = 1 C / mol = 2.5 H ( H) CH 2.5 Then, 83 g carbon and 17 g hydrogen. C2H5C2H5 MM molecular = 58 g/mol 58/29 = 2 Therefore 2(C 2 H 5 ) = C 4 H 10 MM empirical = 29 g/mol 2 12 g = 24 g 5 1 g = 5 g 29 g butane (~17% hydrogen) (contains only hydrogen + carbon)

132 1 mol S 1 mol Zn Common Mistakes when Calculating Empirical Formula Given: Compound consists of 36.3 g Zn and 17.8 g S. Find: empirical formula 36.3 g Zn 65.4 g Zn = 2 Zn 17.8 g S 17.8 = 1 S Zn 2 S 36.3 g Zn 17.8 g S 32.1 g S = mol Zn = mol S Chemical formula indicates MOLE ratio, not GRAM ratio mol 1 1 Zn S ZnS zinc sulfide

133 Empirical Formula of a Hydrocarbon CxHyCxHy g H 2 O g CO 2 mol H 2 O mol CO 2 mol C mol H burn in O 2 1 mol CO g x 1 mol H 2 O g x 2 mol H 1 mol H 2 O x 2 mol C 1 mol CO 2 x Empirical formula Kotz & Treichel, Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity, 3 rd Edition, 1996, page 224

134 Empirical and Molecular Formulas Keys Empirical and Molecular Formulas Empirical & Molecular Formula Empirical and Molecular Formulas

135 Errors in Chemical Formulas and Nomenclature Keys Errors in Chemical Formulas and Nomenclature Airs n Knomenclayture

136 Find the molar mass and percentage composition of zinc acetate acetate = CH 3 COO 1- Zn 2+ CH 3 COO 1- Zn(CH 3 COO) g/mol = 65.4 g 4 12 g/mol = 48 g 6 1 g/mol = 6 g 4 16 g/mol = 64 g Zn(CH 3 COO) g / g x 100% = 35.6 % Zn / g x 100% = 26.2 % C / g x 100% = 3.3 % H / g x 100% = 34.9 % O

137 1 mol Cl 35.5 g Cl 1 mol Y 88.9 g Y A compound is found to be 45.5% Y and 54.5% Cl. Its molar mass (molecular mass) is 590 g. a) Find its empirical formula b) Find its molecular formula Assume a 100 g sample size 45.5 g Y 54.5 g Cl = mol Y = mol Cl / mol = 1 Y = 3 Cl YCl g/mol = 88.9g g/mol = g YCl g 590 / = 3 3 (YCl 3 ) Y 3 Cl 9

138 Molar Mass vs. Atomic Mass 6.02x10 23 H 2 = _______ H 2 = _____ H 2 O = ________ H 2 O = _____ MgSO 4 = ________ MgSO 4 = _____ (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 = _____ (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 = ________ Percentage Composition Empirical vs. Molecular Formula  %  g  g  mol  mol mol Empirical Formula 2 amu 18 amu 120 amu 149 amu 2 g 18 g 120 g 149 g % = x 100 % part whole (lowest ratio) (by mass)

139 Subscripts, Superscripts and Coefficients

140 Al 3 (SO 4 ) 2 coefficient subscripts superscripts ALUMINUM SULFATE SO 4 3- Al 2+ 5

141 Subscripts, Superscripts and Coefficients MgSO 4 MAGNESIUM SULFATE SO 4 2- Mg 2+ 3

142 Subscripts, Superscripts and Coefficients subscript MAGNESIUM NITRATE NO 3 1- Mg MgNO 3 Mg(NO 3 ) 2

143 Interpretation of a Chemical Formula Sulfuric Acid H 2 SO 4 Two atoms of hydrogen One atom of sulfur Four atoms of oxygen S O O O O H H

144 Chemical Formulas C 8 H 18 Subscript indicates that there are 8 carbon atoms in a molecule of octane. Subscript indicates that there are 18 hydrogen atoms in a molecule of octane. Davis, Metcalfe, Williams, Castka, Modern Chemistry, 1999, page 203

145 Stock System of Nomenclature CuCl 2 Name of Roman cation numeral indicating charge Name of anion + copper (II)chloride

146 Chemical Formulas Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Subscript 2 refers to 2 aluminum atoms. Subscript 4 refers to 4 oxygen atoms in sulfate ion. Subscript 3 refers to everything inside parentheses. Here there are 3 sulfate ions, with a total of 3 sulfur atoms and 12 oxygen atoms. Davis, Metcalfe, Williams, Castka, Modern Chemistry, 1999, page 204

147 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Al 2 O 3 Name of cation Name of anion aluminum oxide Davis, Metcalfe, Williams, Castka, Modern Chemistry, 1999, page 207

148 The OLD System of Nomenclature CuCl 2 Name of Name of anion cation Cupric chloride -ic higher oxidation # -ous lower oxidation # + Davis, Metcalfe, Williams, Castka, Modern Chemistry, 1999, page 208

149 Multi-vitamins

150 Centrum Multi-Vitamin Ingredients: ascorbic acid, beta carotene, biotin, calcium pantothenate, calciumcalcium phosphatephosphate, carnauba wax, chromium chloride, crospovidone, cupric sulfate,chromium chloridecupric sulfate cyanocobalamin, dl-alpha tocopheryl acetate, FD & C blue no. 2 aluminum lake, hydroxypropyl cellulose, ferrous fumarate, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, lactose, Magnesium oxideMagnesium oxide, magnesium stearate, manganese sulfate, microcrystalline cellu-manganese sulfate lose,niacinamide, nickel sulfate, phytonandione, polyethylene glycol, potassium chloride, potassium citrate, potassium iodide, povidone, pyridoxine hydrochloride, riboflavin, silica gel, sodium borate, sodium metavanadate, sodium molybdate, sodium selenate, stannous chloride, stearic acid, thiamin mononitrate, titaniumstannous chloride dioxide, triacetin, vitamin A acetate, vitamin D 3, zinc oxide. PC zinc oxide Warning: Accidental overdose of iron-containing products is a leading cause of fatal poisoning in children under 6. Keep this product out of reach of children. In case of accidental overdose, call a doctor or poison control immediately.

151 Chromium (III) Chloride Step 1: Chromium (III) Chloride Step 2: Cr 3+ Cl 1- Step 3: Cr Cl 13 Step 4: CrCl 3 RECALL: Chromium forms oxides in which metal exhibits oxidation states of +3 and +2. STOCK system indicates oxidation state of compound. Assume Cr 3+ (chromium (III) chloride). Return to Centrum Bottle

152 Cupric Sulfate Step 1: Cupric Sulfate Step 2: Cu 2+ SO 4 2- Step 3: Cu (SO 4 ) 22 Step 4: Cu 2 (SO 4 ) 2 Step 5: CuSO 4 RECALL: “ic” higher oxidation & “ous” lower oxidation Cu 2+ (higher) Cu 1+ (lower) Return to Centrum Bottle

153 Manganese (III) Sulfate Step 1: Manganese (III) Sulfate Step 2: Mn 3+ SO 4 2- Step 3: Mn (SO 4 ) 23 Step 4: Mn 2 (SO 4 ) 3 RECALL: Manganese forms oxides in which metal exhibits oxidation states of +2, +3, +4, and +7. STOCK system indicates oxidation state of compound. Assume Mn 3+ (manganese (III) sulfate). Return to Centrum Bottle

154 Stannous Chloride Step 1: Stannous (tin) Chloride Step 2: Sn 2+ Cl 1- Step 3: Sn Cl 12 Step 4: SnCl 2 RECALL: “ic” higher oxidation & “ous” lower oxidation Sn 4+ (higher) Sn 2+ (lower) Return to Centrum Bottle

155 Stannic Chloride Step 1: Stannic (tin) Chloride Step 2: Sn 4+ Cl 1- Step 3: Sn Cl 14 Step 4: SnCl 4 RECALL: “ic” higher oxidation & “ous” lower oxidation Sn 4+ (higher) Sn 2+ (lower) Return to Centrum Bottle

156 Chromium Chloride Step 1: Chromium (II)Chloride Step 2: Cr 2+ Cl 1- Step 3: Cr Cl 12 Step 4: Cr 1 Cl 2 Step 5: CrCl 2 RECALL: Chromium has multiple oxidation states. Name with STOCK system. Assume Chromiun (II). Return to Centrum Bottle

157 Calcium Phosphate Step 1: Calcium Phosphate Step 2: Ca 2+ PO 4 3- Step 3: Ca (PO 4 ) 32 Step 4: Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 Return to Centrum Bottle

158 Zinc Oxide Step 1: Zinc Oxide Step 2: Zn 2+ O 2- Step 3: Zn O 22 Step 4: Zn 2 O 2 Step 5: ZnO Return to Centrum Bottle

159 Polyatomic Ions

160 Common Polyatomic Ions Ion Name Ion Name NH 4 + ammonium nitrite nitrate phosphate hydrogen phosphate dihydrogen phosphate carbonate hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate is a widely used common name) sulfite sulfate hydrogen sulfate (bisulfate is a widely used common name) hydroxide cyanide hypochlorite chlorite chlorate perchlorate acetate permanganate dichromate chromate peroxide NO 2 - NO 3 - SO 3 2- HSO 4 - OH - CN - PO 4 3- CO 3 2- SO 4 2- MnO 4 - O 2 2- Cr 2 O 7 2- HPO 4 2- H 2 PO 4 - ClO 2 - ClO 3 - ClO - HCO 3 - ClO 4 - C2H3O2-C2H3O2- CrO 4 2- Names of Common Polyatomic Ions

161 Vocabulary - Chemical Bonds Keys Vocabulary – Chemical Bonds

162 Electronegativities 7 Be 1.5 Al 1.5 Si 1.8 Ti 1.5 V 1.6 Cr 1.6 Mn 1.5 Fe 1.8 Co 1.8 Ni 1.8 Cu 1.9 Zn 1.7 Ga 1.6 Ge 1.8 Nb 1.6 Mo 1.8 Tc 1.9 Ag 1.9 Cd 1.7 In 1.7 Sn 1.8 Sb 1.9 Ta 1.5 W 1.7 Re 1.9 Hg 1.9 Tl 1.8 Pb 1.8 Bi N 3.0 O 3.5 F 4.0 Cl C 2.5 S 2.5 Br 2.8 I Na 0.9 K 0.8 Rb 0.8 Cs 0.7 Ba 0.9 Fr 0.7 Ra 0.9 Below 1.0 H 2.1 B 2.0 P 2.1 As 2.0 Se 2.4 Ru 2.2 Rh 2.2 Pd 2.2 Te 2.1 Os 2.2 Ir 2.2 Pt 2.2 Au 2.4 Po 2.0 At Period Actinides: Li 1.0 Ca 1.0 Sc 1.3 Sr 1.0 Y 1.2 Zr 1.4 Hf 1.3 Mg 1.2 La 1.1 Ac Lanthanides:     1A 2A 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 1B 2B 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A Hill, Petrucci, General Chemistry An Integrated Approach 2 nd Edition, page 373 8B

163 Metal (fixed) + Non-metal binary -ide NaCl sodium chloride Metal (variable) + Non-metal STOCK system (Roman Numeral) CrCl 2 chromium (II) chloride OLD system [-ic (higher) & -ous (lower)] CuCl 2 cupric chloride Sn stannum Pb plumbum Cu cuprum Au aurum Fe ferrum Polyatomic Ions [-ate (one more O) & -ite (one less O)] LiNO 3 lithium nitrate LiNO 2 lithium nitrite Li 3 N lithium nitride TWO Elements Three or more Elements Review Cu 1+ or Cu 2+ Group 1, Group 2, Ag, Zn, Al Transition Elements Cr 2+ Cl 1- Ternary Compounds (binary compound)

164 Polyatomic Ions [-ate (one more O) & -ite (one less O)] per____ate NORMAL _____ite hypo_____ite chlorate nitrate carbonate sulfate phosphate ammonium, cyanide, hydroxide Nonmetal & Nonmetal (Greek prefixes)……DO NOT REDUCE! Mono Di Tri Tetra Penta Hexa Hepta Octa Nona Deca ClO 3 1- NO 3 1- CO 3 2- SO 4 2- PO 4 3- NH 4 1+ CN 1- OH 1- chlorite nitrite carbonite sulfite phosphite ClO 2 1- NO 2 1- CO 2 2- SO 3 2- PO 3 3- perchlorate pernitrate percarbonate persulfate perphosphate ClO 4 1- NO 4 1- CO 4 2- SO 5 2- PO less oxygen 1 less oxygen1 more oxygen ClO 1- NO 1- CO 2- SO 2 2- PO 2 3- hypochlorite hyponitrite hypocarbonite hyposulfite hypophosphite Memorize How many atoms are in a formula unit of ammonium hypophosphite? NH 4 1+ PO 2 3- (NH 4 ) 3 PO _____ate

165 Molecular Models Activity KeysKeys Molecular Model's Activity

166 Molecular Models Activity ammonia hydrogen monochloride trichloromethane urea propane butane nitrogen triiodidenitrogen triiodide (video)video carbon tetrachloride methane water ethane ethyne dihydrogen monosulfide carbon dioxide supplies

167 Bonding and Shape of Molecules Number of Bonds Number of Unshared Pairs ShapeExamples Linear Trigonal planar Tetrahedral Pyramidal Bent BeCl 2 BF 3 CH 4, SiCl 4 NH 3, PCl 3 H 2 O, H 2 S, SCl 2 -Be- B C N : O : : Covalent Structure

168 Lewis Structures 1) Count up total number of valence electrons 2) Connect all atoms with single bonds - “multiple” atoms usually on outside - “single” atoms usually in center; C always in center, H always on outside. 3) Complete octets on exterior atoms (not H, though) 4) Check - valence electrons match with Step 1 - all atoms (except H) have an octet;if not, try multiple bonds - any extra electrons?Put on central atom - no unpaired electrons (free radicals) Gilbert Lewis

169 Carbon tetrachloride CCl CCl 4 C o Cl Carbon tetrachloride – “carbon tet” had been used as dry cleaning solvent because of its extreme non-polarity. Tetrahedral geometry

170 Methane CH H H H C o H H H H Methane –The first member of the paraffin (alkane) hydrocarbons series. a.k.a. (marsh gas, CH 4 ). Tetrahedral geometry

171 Water.. HH O Bent geometry SO 2  (-)  (+) Polar molecule

172 Ethane C H CH H H HH space-filling molecule ball-and-stick Lewis dot notation C2H6C2H6 molecular formula C = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2

173 Ethene C H CH H H HH space-filling molecule ball-and-stick Lewis dot notation C2H4C2H4 molecular formula

174 Ethyne CCHHCCHH No octet Stable octet 6 electrons = triple bond CCHH C2H2C2H2 CCHH each C “feels” 6 electrons each C “feels” 7 carbons Ethyne – a.k.a. “acetylene”

175 Dihydrogen monosulfide.. HH S Bent SO 2

176 Carbon dioxide OO C Linear geometry CO O CO 2 CO O

177 Ammonia N HH H N 107 o H H H.. NH 3.. H H H N Trigonal Pyramidal geometry N HH H

178 H Amino Acids – Functional Groups AmineCarboxylic AcidBase Pair NH 2 1- R- COOH NH 3 NH 2 1- NH 4 1+ amineammoniaammonium ion N H H H : N H H H H : 1+ N H H : 1- : H+H+ lose H + H+H+ +

179 Hydrogen monochloride HCl HCl HCl  (-)  (+) HCl Polar molecule HCl(g) + H 2 O(l)  HCl(aq) hydrogen chloride water hydrochloric acid

180 Trichloromethane CCl H CHCl 3 C o H Cl C H  (-)  (+) Polar molecule Tetrahedral geometry

181 Urea C O N H H N H H C O N H H N H H CO(NH 2 ) 2 NOT “di-urea” Urea – The first organic compound to be synthesized (Wohler, 1828).

182 Propane C H CH H C H H HHH C C C H H H H H H H H C3H8C3H8

183 Butane C H CH H C H CH H HHHH H - C - C - C - C - H H H C 4 H 10 C C C H H H H H H H H C H H

184 Nitrogen triiodide N II I N 107 o I I I.. NI 3 Trigonal Pyramidal geometry Video clip: (slow motion) detonation of N I 3

185 Supplies  15 black(carbon)  8 green(chlorine and iodine)  1 yellow(sulfur)  4 blue(oxygen)  4 red(nitrogen)  42 hydrogen(hydrogen)  67 bonds(bonds)

186 C Cl I S O N H C C H HH H CO O S HH CCHH C H H CCl 4 CH 4 CO 2 C2H2C2H2 HCl CHCl 3 SH 2

187 C H CH H C H CH H HHHH C H CH H C H H HHH N HH H N II I

188 Decomposition of Nitrogen Triiodide

189

190 2 NI 3 (s) N 2 (g) + 3 I 2 (g) NI 3 I2I2 N2N2

191 C o H H H H N 107 o H H H.. O o H H.. CH 4, methaneNH 3, ammoniaH 2 O, water.. O O O lone pair electrons O OO O 3, ozone

192 .. The VSEPR Model OO C Linear The Shapes of Some Simple AB n Molecules OO S Bent OO S O Trigonal planar F F F N Trigonal pyramidal T-shapedSquare planar FF Cl F F F Xe FF F F F P F F Trigonal bipyramidal Octahedral F F F S F F F AB 6 SO 2 Brown, LeMay, Bursten, Chemistry The Central Science, 2000, page 305

193 KEYS - Nomenclature Objectives Worksheet - binary cmpds: single charge cation binary cmpds: single charge cationbinary cmpds: single charge cation Worksheet - ions in chemical formulas ions in chemical formulasions in chemical formulas Worksheet - ionic cmpds: polyatomic ions w multiple-charge cation ionic cmpds: polyatomic ions w multiple-charge cationionic cmpds: polyatomic ions w multiple-charge cation Worksheet - ionic formulas (binary, polyatomic, transition) ionic formulas (binary, polyatomic, transition)ionic formulas (binary, polyatomic, transition) Worksheet – ionic cmpds: traditional system of nomenclature ionic cmpds: traditional system of nomenclatureionic cmpds: traditional system of nomenclature Worksheet - covalent binary cmpds: non-metal - non-metal covalent binary cmpds: non-metal - non-metalcovalent binary cmpds: non-metal - non-metal Worksheet - ionic cmpds: polyatomic ions ionic cmpds: polyatomic ionsionic cmpds: polyatomic ions Worksheet - ionic binary cmpds: multiple charge cation ionic binary cmpds: multiple charge cationionic binary cmpds: multiple charge cation (general) Outline (general) Outline Worksheet - oxidation numbers and ionic cmpds oxidation numbers and ionic cmpdsoxidation numbers and ionic cmpds Worksheet - names and formulas of cmpds names and formulas of cmpdsnames and formulas of cmpds Worksheet - empirical and molecular empirical and molecularempirical and molecular Worksheet - vocab (bonding) vocab (bonding)vocab (bonding) Activity – bonding PP bonding PPbonding PP Activity - molecular models activity - mole pattern Worksheet - errors in chemical formulas and nomenclature errors in chemical formulas and nomenclatureerrors in chemical formulas and nomenclature Worksheet - binary compounds binary compoundsbinary compounds Worksheet - ions in chemical compounds ions in chemical compoundsions in chemical compounds Textbook - questions questions

194 Resources - Nomenclature Objectives WorksheetWorksheet - binary cmpds: single charge cation Worksheet Worksheet - ions in chemical formulas Worksheet Worksheet - ionic cmpds: polyatomic ions w multiple-charge cation Worksheet Worksheet - ionic formulas (binary, polyatomic, transition) Worksheet Worksheet - traditional system of nomenclature Worksheet Worksheet - covalent binary cmpds: non-metal - non-metal Worksheet Worksheet - ionic cmpds: polyatomic ions Worksheet (general) Outline (general)general Outlinegeneral WorksheetWorksheet - empirical and molecular Worksheet Worksheet - vocab (bonding) Worksheet ActivityActivity - bonding pieces bondingpieces Activitybondingpieces ActivityActivity - molecular models Activity Activity - mole pattern Activity WorksheetWorksheet - binary compounds Worksheet Worksheet - ions in chemical compounds Worksheet TextbookTextbook - questions Textbook WorksheetWorksheet - ionic binary cmpds: multiple charge cation Worksheet WorksheetWorksheet - oxidation numbers and ionic cmpds Worksheet Worksheet - names and formulas of cmpds Worksheet Worksheet - errors in chemical formulas and nomenclature Worksheet General Chemistry PP


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