Community and/or Neighbourhood Policing Area-based policing Multi-agency partnership Community-based crime prevention Police-public contact strategies Area-based foot patrols Community involvement and consultations These are the 6 community policing models which have been described by, inter alia, Trevor Bennet in 1994. To these I wish to add some specific working methods, which are, at any rate, important for consideration in the Nordic countries: 1)Problem-oriented policing 2)Cross-sectoral and interdisciplinary preventive work and inter-agency cooperation 3)Community involvement
The Crime Prevention Councils Main objectioves for the SSP-cooperation The SSP-cooperation must be a noticeable, integral part of the local/municipal prevention-task. SSP-cooperation should as a main goal Prevent criminality among children and youngsters Inside the frames of local management Which combine municipal, national and private efforts And ad a main point include an overall understanding of the life- situation of children and youngsters And create a constant press against factors, which could release criminality – the socalled “criminogene factors”.
The Crime Prevention Councils Main objectioves for the SSP-cooperation The local object of SSP The local constellation of SSP The local target-groups The local modus operandi (in general and specific) and the local distribution of tasks are to be determined locally – but the Crime Prevention Council has on a national levelmade recommendations on these questions – in order to ensure effectiveness in the local SSP-organisation.
The characteristics of the SSP-cooperation Collection of know-how and experiences locally Be in charge of bringing “the world of the youngsters” into the “system” And during this establish a basis for political attention and decision “Watch-dog” –part And on this background ensure the development of look up tasks Dialog and action
Working with Children and Young People at Risk Long Term Work (The normal system) Short Term Work (The Special system) Projects Special Institutions Research/Investigative Crime Initiatives Day Care Institutions Schools/SFO Youth Continuation Schools After School Clubs/Youth Clubs Other Clubs Preventive Health Services Social Initiatives Acute Efforts Preventive Initiatives Initiatives to prevent Drugs and Alcohol Abuse National and Local Initiatives SSP-Commities Districts Commities Town-Commities “Monday Conferences” Direction of the Crime Prevention Work Basic Values: Cooperation, Coordination, Interdisciplinarity, Capaciousnes and Personel-development
SSP – SSP+-cooperation (EXAMPLE) 4 Districts Committees Local Committees following the Schoool Districts “Drop Out” Committee Prisons – Prevention of Recidivism Network between the Youth Educa - tion Possibilities SSP-Contact Committee Target Group1: Children between 0 – 18 years SSP-Plus Target Group 2: Children between 17 – 24 years
Network-Reminder If we were to form a general view of “a turbulent world” of “a complex and rapidly changing situation” against the background of such vague concepts as values, attitudes, view of human nature whilst at the same time taking decisions on institutions, communities of interest, “actors” and legal principles, it might be helpful to consider the totality as a network or a networking organisation. Such a consideration would mean that a problem might be formulated as a “network-reminder” ad follows: Which degree of co-ordination is desirable and achievable? Which degree of freedom/autonomy is desirable and achievable? Which common interests and principles form the basis of the network? Which competences and legal principles regulate the interaction between the separate constituent parts of the network? Which fora/organisation will co-ordinate the network and will ensure the appropriate autonomy for the separate constituents of the network? Which communities of interests can be identified?
Network-Reminder How are common interests and principles to be defined? Who is/are to define common interests and principles be safeguarded ? Such, or similar, considerations will provide other approaches to a fundamental debate on cooperation. Hence, the following concrete questions may be as a basis for debate: What basic values are involved (e.g. democracy, human rights, market economy, social dimension, equality, environmental awareness, professional attitudes)? Which actors exist in the field of cooperation? Which degree of coordination is desirable? Which degree of autonomy is desirable? Which are the common interests? Which competences and legal principles?
Network-Reminder Which institutions, agencies, businesses, spheres of authority? Which communities of interests (professional, cultural, religious, financial)? How, and by whom, are the various values, actors, interests and communities of interests to be defined? How will the various defined values, interests and communities of interests be upheld and safeguarded? How will the balance be struck between the numerous various interests and what strategies should be promoted?
The Connection between Crime possibility and moral Crime Possibility Moral Crime Possibility Moral
Irish Youth Justice Service Conference 2010 The PSP model Police, Social Service and Psychiatry
Irish Youth Justice Service Conference 2010 The Danish Administration of Justice Act, section 114: The Police Director will work to establish cooperation between police, social services and psychiatry as part of efforts to help and protect socially vulnerable people.
Irish Youth Justice Service Conference 2010 The Danish Administration of Justice Act, section 115: The police may disclose information about individuels privacy to other authorities if the disclosure is deemed necessary for crime prevention or for police cooperation with social services an the psychiatry to help socially vulnerable persons.
Irish Youth Justice Service Conference 2010 The authorities and institutions involved in cooperation are not required to disclose information.
Irish Youth Justice Service Conference 2010 The PSP model must through a quick, efficient and coordinated action, ensure that vulnerable people are offered appropriate help and support immediately after the need for assistance has been identified.
Irish Youth Justice Service Conference 2010 The PSP model will ensure that cooperation between the participating authorities is being optimized, and that any barriers between the authorities are removed.
Irish Youth Justice Service Conference 2010 The PSP model will ensure an optimal exchange of information between the participating authorities and the project must be used as a platform for multi- disciplinary experience and skills.
Irish Youth Justice Service Conference 2010 The PSP model must ensure that the help and support to groups or individuals is structured in particular action plans, so that actions can be initiated, followed up and evaluated.
Irish Youth Justice Service Conference 2010 The cooperation between The Prosecution Service and the social authorities
The basic structure of the Prosecution Service and the Police in Denmark The Minister of Justice The Director of Public Prosecution Prosecutor General – Supreme Court The 6 Regional Public Prosecutors + 2 specialised units appeal cases before the high courts The 12 Commissioners (Local prosecution and police districts) The National Commissioner of Police
Irish Youth Justice Service Conference 2010 Flow: The police charge a young person (between 15 and 18 years) for a criminal act – violence, burglary or robbery) The police charge a young person (between 15 and 18 years) for a criminal act – violence, burglary or robbery) After investigation in the police depart- ment the case will be send to The Prosecution Service After investigation in the police depart- ment the case will be send to The Prosecution Service
Irish Youth Justice Service Conference 2010 The Prosecution Service makes the indictment and send the case to the city court (1st instance) The Prosecution Service makes the indictment and send the case to the city court (1st instance) The Prosecution Service ask the social authorities to make a pronouncement about: The Prosecution Service ask the social authorities to make a pronouncement about: - social and personal conditions - make a proposal for conditions - make a proposal for conditions
Irish Youth Justice Service Conference 2010 Next step is a discussion and casework in the consultation-group about young criminals Next step is a discussion and casework in the consultation-group about young criminals - The members of this group are: - representative of the social authorities - representative of the penal system - representative of youth custody / detention centre
Irish Youth Justice Service Conference 2010 - psychologist - representative of The Prosecution Service - caseworker from the social authorities The consultation-group about young criminals The consultation-group about young criminals receive all the relevant documents from The Prosecution Service, the social authorities, psychiatric examination etc.
Irish Youth Justice Service Conference 2010 The consultation-group about young criminals make a proposal about sanction The consultation-group about young criminals make a proposal about sanction - for example:- conditions about residence or institutionalization - conditions about compulsory schooling - drug or alcohol rehabilitation - supervision
Irish Youth Justice Service Conference 2010 The proposal about sanction vill be send to the city court The proposal about sanction vill be send to the city court The prosecutor will under the trial read from the proposal about sanction The prosecutor will under the trial read from the proposal about sanction
The New Prevention Concept Lars Rand Jensen Consultant Master of Law and Art
Agenda 1.Introduction 2.Framework for understanding and concept definition 3.The concept of safety 4.Other concepts
Strategic plan Mission: ‘We prevent crime and create a safer society’ Motto: ‘A safe life without crime’
Why define the concepts? To establish consensus on the framework for understanding and a common platform for the work of crime prevention Conscious use of knowledge and mission Use the strategic plan as the basis ’To achieve our strategic goals, we must be aware of the platform that is the basis for the work of the council and stakeholders.’ (Page 16, A3 in the council’s strategic plan)
The four core concepts Safety Development Prevention Crime prevention Increase people’s sense of safety Promote initiatives that strengthen society and individuals and improve their conditions Prevent/avoid the emergence or worsening of a problem Prevent/avoid the occurrence or recurrence of a crime problem/incident
Crime prevention – a definition Crime prevention is a task that requires focusing on crime incidents and how to reduce them. By crime we mean acts of commission or omission that are punishable violations of a legal standard.
Prevention – a definition Preventive activities aim to prevent an undesirable state, incident or problem. Prevention aims to prevent an incident or problem from occurring Prevention involves analysing causes and identifying problems and using the findings to launch preventive measures
Development – a definition Development deals with creating good, safe and stimulating living conditions for all members of society.
Development measures and measures to create safety We work to build public trust and safety by focusing on improving conditions for society and its citizens. The safety of a given community is thus linked to its ability to encourage development.
Safety – a definition A person’s sense of safety is a subjective perception and thus requires a psychological approach. Safety is a sense of trust in the outside world and our personal interaction with our surroundings. Safety is a sense of trust that comes when we feel under no threat of danger.
Safety and prevention ‘Preventing crime is a task that requires focusing on undesirable incidents and how to reduce them, while promoting safety requires focus on how to strengthen people’s feeling of being safe.’ (Jordan page 17, TMG)
Safety and security walks – an example Safety Development Prevention Crime prevention Feeling safe, creating communities, taking ownership and sharing responsibility for our residential areas Good residential areas with a sense of community Preventing conflicts in residential areas Preventing crimes
Project description of safety and Security walks - a concept A planning instrument when designing a building complex or making changes to a complex or district (safe-area checks allow many different people and representatives of many different groups to make their opinions known). An instrument for developing interaction between residents (neighbours) and users in a given area via change through dialogue. This approach may make use of many different methods – and generate many secondary projects. An instrument for increasing safety by addressing insecurity factors in the physical and social environment. An instrument for developing multi- sector and interdisciplinary working relationships between public authorities, organizations and private stakeholders (organized and informal). Examples of methods that will be particularly interesting to work with: ‘Designing out crime’ – in other words removing or reducing criminogenic factors from the physical environment Using CEN standards. Process methods for developing local/urban plans. Methods for involving residents and users in improving their neighbourhood community, including involving children and youth in measures to increase safety – with a view to promoting a good social life in the urban area. Methods for improving creative facilities for local residents.
Example based on SSP – Copenhagen’s action plan 2 DEVELOPMENT PREVENTION CRIME PREVENTION Provide good youth facilities such as youth clubs, sports halls, libraries, shelters Joint events for children and young people in urban districts Visible police presence on the streets, various youth activities, etc. Information for parents, residents and collaboration partners SSP presentation at schools about the initiatives Initiatives targeted at staff/police in the form of hotlines Skills upgrading for uniformed police officers Action plans
Example: From idea to reality We could have done what we usually do...... –Focused on the problems of resident composition, vandalism, crime, employee burn-out, etc. –Pinpointed all the errors in the area We decided to use the Appreciative Inquiry (AI) and the Asset-Based Community Development (ABCD) method. From AI: - Turn focus on opportunities, what already works, what people were proud of and dreamed about From ABCD: - by using Nørremarken’s human and physical resources as our starting point and getting them to interact with each other And then bring it all together in what we called the ‘Vejle Model’ (balanced city model)
Risk factors: Farrington Individual factors –Family background. Age, gender and ethnicity. –Low intelligence. Low self-control. –Mental illnesses. Home and family background –Upbringing. Early motherhood. –Parents involved in crime. Broken homes. –Poor housing conditions. School, education and work –Completed schooling and education. –School climate. Lifestyle –Alcohol and drug use. –Street lifestyle. Institutionalization –Negative impact Social environment/contextual factors 17. april 2015 Side 50 SOCIETY SOCIAL SITUATION TRIANGLE RISK INDIVIDUAL
Protective factors and Risk factors Low self-esteem Social isolation Growing up in a problem family Poor parental care Problems at school Social and cultural discrimination Socio-economic problems Living in areas with high violence and crime rates High self-esteem Social skills Good home and family background Positive experience of school Strong sense of cultural identity Sense of belonging (affiliation) Social engagement with others
relations individual Social Society The WHO environmental model
The prevention route in a social context – development Development measures and initiatives to increase safety Define the problem Identify risk factors and protective factors Develop/launch prevention strategies Evaluation/ research Dissemination of the method Risk/ individual prevention Situational prevention Social prevention Primary Secondary Tertiary