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1 Lecture 15 Power Distance a cultural dimension Luis San Andres Mast-Childs Tribology Professor Texas A&M University March.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Lecture 15 Power Distance a cultural dimension Luis San Andres Mast-Childs Tribology Professor Texas A&M University March."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Lecture 15 Power Distance a cultural dimension Luis San Andres Mast-Childs Tribology Professor Texas A&M University March 24, 2011 ME 489 Practices of Modern Engineering

2 2 Lecture Date: March 22, 2011 Today Cultural dimensions The need for advanced education. Where PhDs work? Power Distance – A measure of inequality (more and less) Assignments & reading: (class URL site) A5 – learn more about IP Read A3 – Team Essays on COE SP Other: complete ONE MINUTE PAPER

3 3 A reminder for your grade Group READING/WRITING Assignments Group LISTENING/INFO SEARCHING presentations Team member participation 40% 30% + Attendance : no less than 75% time (20/27 lectures) Remember max. 7 unjustified class absences

4 4 Assign 5 Intellectual Property Rights Read ASME magazine articles Developed to be Unique. Marketability isn’t the whole story. Without exclusivity, a product may yield small profits in a field crowded by competitors (September 2008) Timing Issues Critical to New Product Development (web exclusive, 2008) Trade Secrets 101: There are advantages to protecting intellectual property by keeping it under wraps. But there are some things you just can’t keep from getting out. (October 2008) Due APRIL 5: Write a (group) 500 word essay addressing to (one or more) of the following subjects:

5 5 Assign 5 Intellectual Property Rights Why is IP important? How can you protect your IP? Explain the different forms of IP: patents, copyrights, trade marks and trade secrets. Which form is the one most applicable to a product or service? Give examples. What are the steps and timing needed to ensure protection? How to make it cost-effective? Is there a way to protect trade secrets? Give a few examples of known trade secrets. What is reverse engineering? Is it legal? Can you use knowledge learned in a company (former employer) in you new job? When developing a new product, elaborate on the importance of IP intelligence and marketing-driven product development strategy? Can it lead to new applications?

6 6 Schedule Guests: Practicing Engineers Date Feb 17 (R) Sulzer Turbo: Ash Maruyama & friends March 8 (T) Pratt & Whitney Engines March 10 (R) Crash on Entrepreneurship - Richard H. Lester March 29 (T) GE Oil & Gas female engineers March 31 (R) UT graduate students April 7 (R) Southwest Research Institute old engineers April 14 (R) Arun Srinivasa: Hurricanes, heat engines and entropy All confirmed Learn from practicing engineers

7 7 Re 2 -schedule Group presentations Group Name 22- Mar 29- Mar 31- Mar 5- Apr 12- Apr 14- Apr 19- Apr 21- Apr 26- Apr 28- Apr 1 The Wrecking Crew X XX 2 A&M Team x X XX 3 Classic Style X X XX 4 The Better Team X XX 5 Team Alpha X XX 6 Last Pick X XX 7 Gilligan's Blade X XX 8 LeftOvers XXX My apologies to you! I think this is the final schedule Until it is revised!

8 8 A3: Your thoughts on A Strategic Plan for Transforming Engineering Education at TAMU Read on Class URL site FULL Essays & Summary of your comments

9 99 Engineering: Enrollment by Ethnicity ASEE: American Society for Engineering Education Male 82.1% Female: 17.9% Male 78 % Female: 22% Male 77.4 % Female: 22.6% Q: Why do you think Engineers are mostly Caucasian Males? a)Foreign students are not counted in enrollment by ethnicity (or gender) b)Ethnicity (and gender) distribution do NOT reflect current population distribution. A distorted reality that Universities are trying to correct with IMPERATIVE of DIVERSITY

10 10 Comments on Graduate Education MS/PhD degrees “narrow” your scope or expertise, do they also narrow your job opportunities? As in only R&D, etc… The advanced degree will certainly make of you an specialist. The market for your skills will be more reduced. However, one precisely selects a graduate program to gain a desired expertise; one that can make you more attractive to a certain employer. Most Texas A&M Ph.D.s, for example, will NOT work on academia or even R&D. Most of my former students work as design & troubleshooting engineers for specific products, many are in sales and also managing (own) businesses.

11 11 Comments on Graduate Education What are the possible repercussions for the lack of domestic students seeking a graduate degree? What is the extent of damage possible? 2007, Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future The prosperity the US enjoys today is due in no small part to investments the nation has made in research and development at universities, corporations, and national laboratories over the last 50 years. Recently, however, corporate, government, and national scientific and technical leaders have expressed concern that pressures on the science and technology enterprise could seriously erode this past success and jeopardize future US prosperity. Reflecting this trend is the movement overseas not only of manufacturing jobs but also of jobs in administration, finance, engineering, and research…….

12 12 Perspectives Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future “If you can solve the education problem, you don’t have to do anything else. If you don’t solve it, nothing else is going to matter all that much.” —Alan Greenspan, outgoing Federal Reserve Board chairman “We go where the smart people are. Now our business operations are two-thirds in the U.S. and one-third overseas. But that ratio will flip over the next ten years.” —Intel Corporation spokesman Howard High “If you want good manufacturing jobs, one thing you could do is graduate more engineers. We had more sports exercise majors graduate than electrical engineering grads last year.” —Jeffrey R. Immelt, Chairman and Chief Executive Office, General Electric

13 13 Perspectives Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future “If I take the revenue in January and look again in December of that year 90% of my December revenue comes from products which were not there in January.” —Craig Barrett, Chairman of Intel Corporation “When I compare our high schools to what I see when I’m traveling abroad, I am terrified for our workforce of tomorrow.” —Bill Gates, Chairman and Chief Software Architect of Microsoft Corporation

14 14 Perspectives Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future “Where once nations measured their strength by the size of their armies and arsenals, in the world of the future knowledge will matter most.” —President Bill Clinton “Science and technology have never been more essential to the defense of the nation and the health of our economy.” —President George W. Bush * President Obama speech on the economy: closing remarks (April 2009)

15 15 A pressing need Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future Many nations are seeking to reap the benefits of advanced education, including strong positive effects on GDP growth. They are working harder to attract international students and to encourage the movement of skilled personnel into their countries PhD’s awarded

16 16 Where are the jobs? The majority of people with S&E doctorates obtain nonacademic jobs. About equal numbers work in academic and industrial settings, and about 15% work in government or other sectors PhD’s Page 84 Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future

17 17 Where do Eng PhDs work? academia

18 18 Where do ME PhDs come from?

19 19 Power Distance a cultural dimension ME 489 Practices of Modern Engineering Cultures and Organizations: Software for the Mind by Geert Hofstede & Gert Jan Hofstede distance-index/www.clearlycultural.com/geert-hofstede-cultural-dimensions/power- distance-index/

20 20 Power Distance Index (PDI) Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind By Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede A cultural dimension: The extent to which the less powerful members of institutions or organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. PDI represents inequality (more versus less), but defined from below, not from above. It suggests that a society’s level of inequality is endorsed by the followers as much as by the leaders.

21 21 Power Distance Index (PDI) Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind By Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede PDI informs us about DEPENDENCE relationships in a country. Small PDI: limited dependence of subordinates and bosses, with a preference on consultation (interdependence). Emotional distance between them is small (easy approach and contradiction are OK). Large PDI: considerable dependence (even counterdependence (-)). Large emotional distance (difficult approach and no contradiction)

22 22 PDI: 74 countries Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind By Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede dimensions/power-distance-index/

23 23 PDI: General Norm Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind By Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede Small Power Distance Large Power Distance Key Differences

24 24 PDI: The Family Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind By Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede Small Power Distance Large Power Distance Key Differences

25 25 PDI: School Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind By Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede Key Differences Small Power Distance Large Power Distance

26 26 PDI: The Workpla ce Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind By Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede Key Differences Small Power Distance Large Power Distance

27 27 Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind By Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede Key Differences Small Power Distance Large Power Distance PDI: The Workpla ce

28 28 PDI: the State Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind By Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede Key Differences Small Power Distance Large Power Distance

29 29 PDI: the State Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind By Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede Key Differences Small Power Distance Large Power Distance

30 30 PDI occupations Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind By Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede Ocupation Differences

31 31 World map on cultural differences Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind By Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede See For a map of the world to find how similar or different countries or regions are. Are there more low PDI countries than those with high PDI? Is our culture (as per PDI) the dominant one?

32 32 Questions? Next lecture 03/29 – GE Oil & Gas engineers

33 33 Practices of Modern Engineering © Luis San Andres Texas A&M University 2011


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