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1. John Rolfe In 1612, Rolfe created tobacco.

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1 1. John Rolfe In 1612, Rolfe created tobacco.
John Rolfe began to grow tobacco plants in Jamestown, which was very popular at the time in West Indies. This crop helped the settlement flourish and provided much of the economy of Jamestown from that time. Since tobacco was so profitable, more people began to travel to the New World and start new plantations further in the land. This demand created the “Headright System” which promoted travel in exchange for fifty-acre land grants. He later married Pocahontas which established a alliance between the Jamestown settlers and the Powhatan tribe. Pages 30-32

2 2. John Smith Became leader of Jamestown around 1608
Prior to John Smith’s arrival, Jamestown was is disarray and the settlement was barely surviving. He is contributed to Jamestown survival by creating the “work or get out” policy, raiding local Indian tribes, and forming good relations with the local Powhatan tribe. When he left Jamestown due to injury, the settlement started to struggle stressing how Smith was such a vital leader for Jamestown. Pages 29-32

3 3. Jamestown Founded 1607 Jamestown was the first permanent English settlement in the new colony. The settlement was on the James River close to the Chesapeake Bay. At first, most of the inhabitants were wealthy Englishmen then after John Smith’s leadership called for hard work and dedication. Jamestown’s success was credited to John Rolfe’s tobacco plant which produced an economy for the settlement and influenced more people to travel to the New World and become wealthy off of tobacco and other riches. Pages 29-32

4 4. Plymouth Founded September 1920
The Plymouth Bay Colony is significant because it was the first English colony in the northern part of the New Word. The Pilgrims, type of Puritans, escaped England and settled in Massachusetts to have free religion practice. The northern colonies were primarily focused on religion while the southern colonies focused on economy. Even though the first years were very harsh they survived and created good relations with the Indians that lived in the North at the time. Pages 36-40

5 5. King Phillip’s War War began in 1675
The King Philip’s War was the largest conflict with colonists and Metacomet, or King Philip, and his Wampanoag tribe. This war began because of the expansion of colonists and ended with the destruction of the tribe and the death of Metacomet. The use of firearms and cannons were a great advantage over the Indians. This War would start constant warfare between the colonists and the native tribes. Pages 40-42

6 6. Navigation Acts 1660, 1663, 1673 The English colonies began to trade with other nations like the Dutch and the Caribbean. These laws barred them to only trade with English ships, all goods had to go through taxation in England, and there will be inter-colonial taxes. These laws showed that England was in control and it also started the tensions that led to the Revolutionary War. Pages 54-55

7 7. Glorious Revolution Took place in 1688
James II was overthrown by his daughter Mary and William of Orange. This revolution effected the colonies by the Dominion of New England was destroyed and that the “hands off” policy was placed on the colonies. This policy would change when George I came to power were it would start the Revolutionary War. Pages 54-56

8 8. Triangular Trade – p.72 - 73 Date: 1650-1750
Fueled the colonial economy in the 17th and 18th centuries. Established the New World’s international economy. Colonists were able to export raw materials to Europe, while they received slaves from Africa, and manufactured goods from Europe.

9 9. Great Awakening – p. 82 - 83 Date: 1730s – 1740s
Return to a religious focus, rather than materialistic focus on life. Spurred by Enlightenment and development of new education and technology. “Last ditch effort” to return people back to God and religion from the Enlightenment ideals of reason and natural law Method of teaching was frightening the audience.

10 10. Enlightenment – p.83 Date: 1700-1800
Belief that reason, natural law, and rational thought, not just religious faith, creates human progress. Growing interest in education, especially government and politics. Established colonial belief that they could thrive without help from England. Founding of premier schools, such as Harvard and Yale. Undermining of British authority in the colonies, thus weakening the colonial relationship with England.

11 11. French and Indian War – p.94 - 98
Date: Series of conflicts between the English colonists against the French and several native tribes. Fought over Ohio River Valley territory, claimed by French, English, and Native peoples. Victory for English in the war not only won them the Ohio River Valley, but also military superiority in Europe. Urge to win also placed England in a serious financial debt. Since colonists actually fought the war, future taxes on the colonists, and a lack of full payment, infuriated them, and seriously increased the tension between Britain and the colonies.

12 12. Proclamation of 1763 – p. 98-100 Date: 1760s
Forbid colonists to expand west of the Appalachian mountains. Passed due to immense war debt from French and Indian War, and British could not pay for another conflict, this time, against natives. Angered colonists since they had just fought in nine year war, and won land they now can not use. Law was mostly ignored, yet principle of it led to an increase in tension between the colonies and Britain.

13 13. Sugar, Stamp, and Currency Taxes – p. 100 - 101
Date: 1764, 1765 Taxes placed on colonists to repay war debt. Taxed everyday items, such as paper and sugar. These taxes angered colonists not because of the tax itself, but the fact that the colonists were being taxed without being represented in the government in England. Spurred formation of groups such as the Sons of Liberty and produced a merchant boycott on 40% of English goods.

14 14. Boston Massacre – p. 103 - 104 Date: March 5, 1770
British redcoats shot and killed five colonists, who were “harassing” them, in Boston, Massachusetts. Labeled by colonists as massacre, as it made the event seem much more serious. Also labeled as an attack by a government on their own people, thus making the government oppressive. Informal beginning of American revolution. Committees of Correspondence became unifying force for colonists.

15 #15:Lexington and Concord
Pg April 19th, 1775 The British under Thomas Gage marched from Boston to Lexington and Concord, to seize ammunition, and John Hancock and Sam Adams. The first shots the Revolutionary War were fired, and the colonists won a small victory, using guerilla warfare to send the Brits running back to Boston

16 #16: Declaration of Independence
Pg. 116 July 4th, 1776 The document signed in Independence Hall in Philadelphia that officially declared the colonies independent of Britain. The document was written by Thomas Jefferson. The declaration stated that people the government had a right to protect life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness

17 #17: George Washington Pgs: 117-118, 120-121, 125 1775-1797
Washington was an early advocate of independence and the major commander in chief for the colonial effort in the American Revolution. His victories in Trenton, Princeton, rallied American morale. He became the first president of the US in 1789.

18 #18: Thomas Jefferson Pgs: 116, 130, 183-185 1743-1826
Thomas Jefferson was the main writer of the Declaration of Independence. He was the third president of the United States. He purchased the Louisiana Territory from France, and he worked through the “Impressment Scandals” involving Britain taking American sailors.

19 #19: Battle of Bunker Hill
Pg: 119 June 17th, 1775 Fought on Breed’s Hill, the Battle of Bunker Hill, although a loss for the Americans, was a key confidence booster. The Americans retreated after inflicting severe casualties on the British troops. After this battle, the British moved the war out of the Boston area.

20 #20: Saratoga Pg. 121 October 17th, 1777
General Horatio Gates and the American forces surrounded and captured Burgoyne and his men in upstate New York, showing the world that the Americans can win. This also weakened the Iroquois Confederacy as its members began to break apart. This was the turning point of the war because following Saratoga, the French decided to support the revolutionaries.

21 #21: Yorktown Pg. 125 October 17th, 1781
The Battle of Yorktown was the final battle of the Revolutionary War. American and French troops surrounded Cornwallis and his men, and he surrendered all 7,000 of them in Yorktown Virginia

22 22. The Articles of Confederation
The Articles of confederation were drafted in 1777 by the continental congress. The confederation provided a national government, and it expanded congresses powers to give authority to conduct wars and foreign relations as well as the authority to appropriate, borrow and issue money. The confederation led to disagreements over the plan for congress with the varying Virginia and New Jersey plans. After all thirteen states ratified the Confederation in 1781, it became the nation’s legislature until 1789. Although many saw it as a failure, this was the crucial first step our government took to make it full proof with substantial powers to deal with interstate issues and to enforce its will on the states through the Constitution. Pg. 136

23 23. Shay’s Rebellion Daniel Shay was a former captain of the continental army who in 1786, issued a set of demands that included a need for paper money, tax relief, and obliteration of imprisonment for debts. He then lead his group of poor farmers who rallied behind him to prevent the collection of debts. In the winter of 1797, the state militia cut off and dispersed Shay’s ragged band of troops who were trying to seize weapons from an arsenal in Springfield. As a result of the rebellion, the protestors were offered tax relief and a postponement of debt payments, and it added urgency for the United States to push for a new, national constitution. Pg. 139

24 24. Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton was the most resourceful advocate of the creation of a stronger national government. He grew up as the son of a Scottish merchant in the west indies and became a successful lawyer. He was among the first to call for a national convention to replace the articles of confederation. Hamilton organized a meeting in Annapolis in 1786 and in Philadelphia in 1787 to discuss the need for a new constitution. Lastly, he created a national bank in 1791 to create a safe place for government to deposit funds and to provide loans and currency to businesses. He also created his own federalist program in 1972 to determine taxes that should be placed on people. Pg ;

25 25. James Madison James Madison was a delegate from Virginia who was sent to Philadelphia in 1787 to propose his plan for a new national government. He proposed the Virginia Plan which said that “a national government ought to be established consisting of a supreme Legislative, Executive, and Judiciary.” His plan also called for two houses, the lower being determined by population and the upper who were elected by the upper. His plan was a start to a new government but favored big states over smaller ones which was unfair and eventually lead to the Great Compromise on July 2, 1987 Pg ; 150.

26 26. Checks and Balances Checks and balances was an idea that was put into our national government where there are many centers of power. Each of which have the ability to check each other and not allow any one area of government to gain too much power and become corrupt. The three major areas of legislation in our government are the executive, legislative, and judiciary branches. Congress has two chambers that each check each other, the President can veto Congress, and judicial courts are protected from the other branches as they serve for life. This system came into being with the Constitution in 1787. Pg

27 27. Bill of Rights The Bill of Rights was the first ten amendments to the Constitution that were proposed on September 25, 1789 These rights were essential to legitimize the new government and provide all citizens of the United States a form of written rights that they were all allowed to have. Also, it placed limitations on the new government to forbid it from limiting the rights of freedom of speech, religion, press, immunity from arbitrary arrest, and trial by jury. These amendments were not officially ratified by all the states until the end of 1792. Pg. 150

28 28. Whiskey Rebellion The whiskey rebellion was an uprising by farmers in western Pennsylvania in 1794. The farmers refused to pay the new tax on whiskey and they began to use violence on tax collectors. The government didn’t let Pennsylvania handle the dilemma but took the matter into their own hands Washington called out the militias of three states and with a force of 15,000 men, the rebellion quickly collapsed. This was important as it showed that the strong new government was willing to use force to impose it’s will and put down rebellions quickly and with no mercy. This would drive others away from a potential rebellion as they saw the fate of the farmers in western Pennsylvania Pg

29 29. Alien and Sedition Acts
The Alien and Sedition acts were passed in The Alien acts were created to make it more difficult to for foreigners to become United States citizens. This gave the President more leverage against these aliens. The Sedition acts on the other hand were made to allow the government to keep a closer watch on Americans, so that it would be easier to discover who was plotting against the government. This allowed the government to shut down even the slightest speculation of sabotage against the U.S. The republicans believed that this was a federalist plan to end their power. Page: 158

30 30. Election of 1800 The two candidates running for president in the election of 1800 were Thomas Jefferson, Republican, and John Adams, Federalist. The federalists stated that if Jefferson came to power he would bring with him terror. On the other hand, Republicans believed that if Adams were to win the presidency then he would become a tyrant and then proclaim himself king. Aaron Burr then stepped into the election, and with him much controversy followed. This controversy ended with Congress choosing who will be president, and it was decided that Burr was too untrustworthy, and it would be Jefferson who would win the election. Pages:

31 31. Marbury V. Madison The case of Marbury V. Madison occurred in Before Jefferson became president, John Adams passed the Judiciary Act of This increased the amount of Federal Judges greatly, and Adams proceeded to fill these new positions with Federalists Judges so that they would be able to overpower Jefferson. This was also known as the “Midnight appointments,” where the famed John Marshall was also appointed to Chief Justice of Supreme court. When William Marbury’s appointment letter was not delivered by John Marshall, Marbury went to Madison, secretary of state, asking for his letter to be delivered, which Madison refused to do. Madison would later win this case because the court has no power of the secretary of state and what they do or do not do. However, although Marshall took the short time loss for the supreme court, he established judicial review, which would prove vital in the long run. Judicial review stated that the court had the final say in what a given law is stating. Pages:

32 32. Louisiana Purchase The Louisiana purchase was made on April 30th Thomas Jefferson was president during the purchase of this land which doubled the size of the United States. The U.S. bought this land from the French for the very low price of 15 million dollars because the French, specifically Napoleon, were desperate for money because of the war they were fighting in Europe. After buying this, the U.S. was free to travel the Mississippi and the port of New Orleans as they pleased. Some say that this was one of the best moves of Jefferson's presidency, however there were some draw backs. The federalists stated that this move was unconstitutional and that Jefferson was misusing his power as presidency. Pages:

33 33. Lewis and Clark Lewis and Clark were sent on an expedition by Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, shortly after the purchase was made. They made friends with a Native American woman known as Sacagawea and she helped them greatly on their venture. After they explored the newly purchased land, people began to move west so they themselves could too explore the land. This would soon give rise to the westward expansion. This was important because it showed that the U.S. had full intention of claiming all the land from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Also, because this exploration was made, ideas such as manifest destiny began to come into existence, and the U.S. began to greatly expand. Pages:

34 34. War of 1812 The War of 1812 lasted from 1812 to At the time, Spain and Britain were allies, and Spain had control of the majority of Florida. The U.S. had great desire for this Spanish land, so they decided that the best way to get into a conflict with Spain was to declare war on their ally, Britain. For the first part of the war Britain was preoccupied with Napoleon and his growing empire, however when the Russians handed him an awful defeat, the British could now focus on the war with the United States. The U.S. would proceed to win this conflict. This war yielded many gains for the U.S. The national anthem was written on September 13th by Francis Scott key as he watched the Battle of Fort McHenry. Also, Florida was annexed from the Spanish. Lastly, this victory showed that the U.S. could defeat the British repeatedly, and that the U.S. was here to stay. Pages:

35 35. Battle of New Orleans The Battle of New Orleans took place January 8th This was a battle between a couple thousand veteran British troops, and a miscellaneous group of American soldiers, headed by Andrew Jackson. This was the final British offensive of the War, even though the war had technically ended weeks prior to this battle. The British casualty number was around a total of 2,600 men, while the U.S. was 21 men. This battle was very important because it showed the the United States could continue and would continue to not only fight the British, but defeat the British, as long as they had to. Page: 189

36 36. Era of Good Feelings Pg. 201 Date: 1814-1819
The “Era of Good Feelings” was the period after the war of 1812 where the two party system came to an end. In the election of 1816, Monroe won a very one-sided election with 183 ballot votes to 34 against his opponent, Rufus King. The Nation faced no international threats but it ended in with the panic of 1819.

37 37. Missouri Compromise Pg. 205 Date: 1820
In 1819, Missouri, an area with a large presence of slaves, applied for admission into the union as a state, but the problem with this was that it would upset the balance of slave and free states. There were 11 free and 11 slave states in the union and Missouri would make it uneven, so the senate finally agreed to allow Missouri and Maine to both enter the union. Missouri became a slave state and Maine a free, maintaining the balance of slave and free states

38 38. John Marshall Pg. 206 Chief Justice from 1801-1835
John Marshall was the chief justice of the United states from 1801 to during this time he strengthened the power of the supreme court by making the court system the final say on whether or not something was constitutional or not. This is known as Judicial Review

39 39. Monroe Doctrine Pg. 209 Date: 1823
The Monroe Doctrine was the United States foreign policy that we will interfere with any European nation that tries to claim any more land in the America’s if they have already been kicked out. Until then they can rule as they please but when they are overthrown then they have to stay out.

40 40. Corrupt Bargain Pg.210 Date: 1824
The corrupt bargain took place during the election of 1824 and it was the reason that John Quincy Adams was elected president. The two major contenders in the elections were Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams. Andrew Jackson received the largest number of electoral votes but he did not receive a majority therefore the house of representatives had to choose among the 3 candidates with the most votes according to the 12th amendment. Those three candidate were Jackson, Adams, and Crawford ( who had become seriously ill). Henry Clay, knowing he was out of the race decided to spread his influence in the house and told everyone to vote for John Quincy Adams instead of Jackson even though Jackson received more popular votes and electoral votes. So Adams won the presidency and Henry clay was named his secretary of state because the secretary of state usually becomes the next president.

41 41. Election of 1828 Pg. 211 Date: 1828 In the election of 1828 a new two party system had emerged, supporters of Adams called themselves the National Republicans and supporters of Andrew Jackson called themselves Democratic Republicans. During this election Jackson had a very big victory over Adams even though he had taken all of New England.

42 42. John C. Calhoun Pg. 219 Nullification crisis took place from 1832 to 1833 In 1832, South Carolina was angry at the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 and they had a state convention in which they decided to nullify those tariffs and forbid the collection of duties in the state. Jackson proposed a force bill in response to this which gave him the right to go down there with the army and force them to comply with the law but Henry Clay stepped in and made a plan that the tariff would slowly revert to its normal strength by 1842 and all was forgotten for now…

43 #43 Nullification Crisis
Date – 1832 Significance – John C. Calhoun, then the Vice President, developed a theory of nullification to the Tariff of Abominations that was hurting South Carolinas economy. There was talk among Carolinians of succession, and President Andrew Jackson sent federal forces to enforce the Tariff. However, Henry Clay drafted a comprise that dissolved the conflict. Still the Crisis was a serious threat of Civil War and a sense of anger in the South towards the North. Page – #221'%252BRights%252Band%252Bthe%252BNullification%252BCrisis%3B380%3B282

44 #44 Trail of Tears Date – 1831 Significance – The removal of Indians on the Trail of Tears was the last large population left of Native Americans west of the Mississippi. A huge expanse of land was now available for American grow, farming and slavery. The forced march of Indians caused several small uprising but they were quickly suppressed. Also the Indian Removal made Jackson incredibly popular. Page – #223

45 #45 Nativism Date – Significance –Nativism created a sense for the so called “Native Americans”, or people born in America, that they had racial superiority over the influx of immigrants. “Native Americans” were fearful that immigrants were going to take the jobs, bring in foreign cultures and sell there vote to elect politicians that would not protect their own business interests. Page – #241

46 #46 Telegraph Date – Commercially introduced in 1837
Significance – The invention of the telegraph was the first time in human history that people could communicate from long distance instantly. With improved communication, America flourished because the new technology connected all of the nation. News could be reported across the country, businesses could coordinate, and people could maintain relationships. However the biggest role the telegraph had was in the Civil War when Union generals used it to direct there armies. Page – #246

47 #47 Railroad Date – 1830’s Significance – The railroad, like the telegraph, also connected the nation. The railroad allowed for people and materials to be transported anywhere in the country at an incredibly fast rate. The expansion of the railroad is also seen as the height of the Industrial Age because of how the industry influenced the economy. Also, the railroad industry gave way to the first business tycoons like Cornelius Vanderbilt. Page – #

48 #48 Cotton Kingdom Date – 1776– 1860’s
Significance – While the South has produced other crops like tobacco, rice and sugar, cotton was the crop that controlled the South because of its popularity within and beyond America. The Cotton industry required slavery, an issue that began to drive wedge in the nation because Southern politics, mostly democrats, wanted to protect their economy and way of life while the North wanted abolition. The power of the Cotton Kingdom was one of the major factors of the Civil War. Page – #

49 #49 Romanticism Date – mid 1700’s - 1860
Significance – Romanticism was Americas way to differentiate ourselves from the rest of the world, especially Europe, by artistically displaying the nations unique characteristics whether by art or literature. Romanticism added to the expansion West because of the somewhat magical persona is was given by Romantic painters and authors, which attracted people to migrate and settle. Some of Americas best writers were around this time like Edgar Allen Poe and Mark Twain. Page – #

50 50. Transcendentalism 1830s-1850s
A philosophical movement began in Concord Mass. by Ralph Waldo Emerson. Focused on a return to nature while trying to transcend the limits of the intellect and allow the emotions to create an original relation to the universe. Among the first Americans to anticipate the 20th century environmental movement. Key Writings: Nature by Ralph Waldo Emerson (1836), Walden by Henry Davis Thoreau (1854), and Resistance to Civil Government by Henry Davis Thoreau (1849). Read more on pages

51 51. “Civil Disobedience” 1849 A philosophical concept derived from Henry David Thoreau’s 1849 essay entitled Resistance to Civil Government. The philosophy centers around the idea tat when a government force a law upon the populous and violates one’s morality, the one who has been violated can choose not to follow that law. An example of civil disobedience would be the northern resistance to the fugitive slave acts in 1850. Read more on page 292

52 52. William Lloyd Garrison 1805-1879
A proponent of the abolitionist movement who used his newspaper, the liberator to encourage abolitionism. Rejected the gradualism of abolitionism and requested immediate action. Hoped to focus more on the conditions of the oppressed blacks than the white owners. Founded the New England Antislavery Society in 1832 and the American Antislavery Society in 1833 The abolitionism movement was dying out leading up to the 1830s, but this man’s contributions that allowed the movement to thrive once more.

53 53. Rise of Feminism 1840-present
The rise began in 1840 after women were denied entry to the antislavery convention in London. This helped females realize that in order to help with other movements, they would have to organize a movement of their own in order to be recognized Movement leaders met in 1848 to discuss the issue of women’s rights The Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions was established which stated that men and women were created equal. Feminists often helped out other movements such as abolitionism. This would either hurt or help their efforts depending on the case. Read more on pages

54 54. Abolitionism 1800s-1865 Abolitionism was the movement to end slavery By the mid 1830s the movement was divided into radicals and moderates. Moderates believed in using peaceful methods to ban slavery. Radicals attacked the government and often resorted to violent means. The Abolitionist movement yielded the Liberty party in 1840. This movement helped spur the civil war and the passing of the 13th amendment. Read more on pages

55 55. Fredrick Douglas unknown-1895
Born a slave in Maryland. Escaped to Massachusetts in 1838. Became a prominent speaker for the abolitionist movement. Spent 2 years lecturing in England. Demanded full social and economic equality. Founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star, and wrote an autobiography that exposed many to the horrors of slavery. Read more on pages

56 56. Underground Railroad 1850-1860 (height)
A system of escape routes organized by runaway slaves and sympathetic whites to allow runaway slaves to make it north or to Canada Travel was often hazardous due to white patrols Patrols of white men cracking down on travel permits carried by blacks. Their main jobs where to stop runaway slaves. The railroad had huge efficiency and allowed large numbers of black slaves to run away Read more on page 282

57 57.Harriet Beecher Stowe 1811-1896
Wrote the book Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852). Sold more than 300,000 copies within a year of publication Brought the message of abolitionism to an enormous audience. This book increased northern resentment of the south because its message conveyed that southern plantation owners where the evil-doers. The book was highly publicized. It a reissued again and again as well as it was broadcast by theater companies across the nation. Was perceived as truth in the north and as a misunderstanding in the south. Read more on pages

58 58. Manifest Destiny pg. 311 Manifest destiny had been in the minds of Americans since the early 1800s until Hawaii was annexed in 1898. Manifest destiny reflected both the growing pride that characterized American nationalism in the mid-nineteenth century and the idealistic vision of social perfection that fueled so much of the reform energy of the time. It rested on the idea that America was destined by God and by history to expand its boundaries from sea to sea. Many Americans believed that God gave them the right to expand, which meant they could remove anything or anyone standing in their way of this goal. Unfortunately, this meant they could push out, and even kill, Native Americans that had lived across the continental United States for centuries. This idea of manifest destiny lead to atrocities such as the Trail of Tears, and the Mexican American War

59 59. Texan Revolution pg. 312 1835- April 21 1836
1835- April In the 1820s the Republic of Mexico owned Texas and the majority of the population was Mexican. But by 1830, there were about 7,000 Americans living in Texas, more than twice the amount of Mexicans living there. So in 1830 the Mexican government barred any further American immigration into Mexico. Because Texas was mostly inhabited by Americans, they thought they should be independent from Mexico, so in 1836 American settlers defiantly proclaimed themselves independent from Mexico. At the Battle of San Jacinto, General Sam Houston defeated the Mexican army; and a treaty was signed by Santa Anna, making Texas independent.

60 60.The Mexican American War pg. 318
President James Polk tried to buy disputed lands from Mexico but Mexican leaders refused. Polk ordered Zachary Taylor’s army in Texas to move to the Rio Grande river. Mexicans refused to fight for months, but according to some disputed American accounts, Mexicans crossed the river and attacked and killed a unit of American soldiers. In 1846 the U.S. declared war, because they “Spilt American blood on American soil.” By the fall of 1846, the U.S. had captured New Mexico and California. The U.S. lost a battle in Mexico city, but a new Mexican government took power and was willing to sign a peace treaty. On February 2nd 1848, the Mexicans signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo which acknowledged the Rio Grande as the boundary of Texas.

61 61. California Gold Rush pg. 322
News of gold discovered in California spread quickly and brought hundreds of thousands of people to California. The rush created a diverse society made up of mixed nationalities in California. It attracted Chinese to the west coast for the first time in American history. Along with the Chinese were Europeans, South Americans, free blacks and even slaves. The huge influx in the population of California allowed it to become a state in The new diverse society was unstable and hostile due to the competition for jobs and ultimately gold. The 49ers were mostly men which meant there were few families; they were migrant workers living job to job. Most of these immigrants were leaving a bad life in their homeland and looking to get rich quick; a dream that a small number achieved.

62 62. The Compromise of 1850 pg. 323 Henry Clay proposed a compromise that would admit California to the Union as a free state; the formation of territorial governments in the rest of the lands acquired from Mexico without restriction on slavery; the abolition of slave trade, but not slavery itself in Washington D.C.; and a new and more effective fugitive slave laws. These resolutions launched a debate that raged for seven months. As a result of Illinois Senator Steven A. Douglas’ efforts, by mid-September Congress had enacted all the components of the Compromise.

63 63. Kansas Nebraska Act pg. 327 1854 This act created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska in order to build the Transcontinental Railroad. This act repealed the Missouri Compromise of This act allowed white male settlers in the new territories to determine by popular sovereignty whether the territories would allow slavery. Nebraska would most likely become a free territory and Kansas would probably allow slavery. No piece of legislation in American history had produced so many immediate political consequences. It divided and destroyed the Whig party, and divided northern Democrats who were angry at the repeal of the Missouri Compromise. Most importantly in 1854 it created the Republican Party made up of Anti-Nebraska Democrats and Whigs.

64 64. Transcontinental Railroad pg. 326
Built between As the nation expanded westward, broad support began to emerge for building a transcontinental railroad. The problem was where to build it . Northerners favored Chicago, while southerners supported St. Louis, Memphis, or New Orleans. The railroad had also become a part of the struggle between the North and South. In order to build it in the southern route, it would have to pass through an area of Mexican territory. So in 1853 Jefferson Davis sent James Gadsden, a southern railroad builder, to Mexico where he persuaded the Mexican government to accept $10 million in exchange for a strip of land which added to New Mexico and Arizona, in the Gadsden purchase.

65 65. Election of 1860 pg. 333 The United States, more specifically the Democratic party, had been divided on questions surrounding the expansion of slavery and the rights of slave owners. Southern Democrats demanded a strong endorsement of slavery, and westerners supported the idea of popular sovereignty. The Democratic party held a convention in Baltimore to decide who to nominate. They decided on John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky. The Republican convention nominated Abraham Lincoln, who won the election of Within weeks of Lincoln’s victory the process of disunion began between the north and south. This disunion would soon lead to a prolonged and bloody war.

66 #66 Confederacy Date: 1861-1865 Pg: 346-347
Significance: The Confederacy was a group of states from the South that seceded from the Union. Established in February 1861 following the attack on Fort Sumter, the Confederacy held a number of similarities with the Union. Both countries’ constitutions were almost identical to each other. The Confederacy also had a president, Jefferson Davis, who served six year terms, contrary to the Union’s four year terms. A major difference that surfaced among the two countries was the Confederacy’s emphasis on States’ Rights. The Confederacy wanted strong state governments that could govern itself rather than a strong central/federal government that contained more power, like the Union. The Confederacy's economy relied mainly on the production of cotton, as well as slavery, which was their largest source of labor. Overall, the inception of the Confederacy was a major event that led to one of the bloodiest wars in American history .

67 #67 Emancipation Proclamation
Date: January 1, 1863 Pg: 344 Significance: The Emancipation Proclamation was an order issued by President Abraham Lincoln to proclaim the freedom of slaves living in the remaining parts of the Confederacy. The document cemented the Union’s intentions of the war: to preserve the Union and destroy slavery. As a result, the anti-slavery movement continued to spread rapidly. Eventually, Union forces where able to abolish occupied Confederate states of slavery. To conclude, the Emancipation Proclamation confirmed one of the Union’s main goals in the war.

68 #68 Robert E. Lee Date: January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870
Pg: , 358, , Significance: Robert E. Lee was the most notable leader of the Confederate Army. A graduate of the United States Military Academy, he became one of the top officers in the United States Army. He then decided to fight for the Confederacy when his home state, Virginia, seceded from the Union. Shortly after, Lee was appointed as a military advisor to Confederate president Jefferson Davis. He provided strong leadership as a battlefield commander and tactician, and as a result was a challenge for Union armies to defeat. Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865 to end the Civil War. To conclude, Lee’s actions and abilities on the battlefield made him one of the most well-known American military figures.

69 #69 Ulysses S. Grant Date: April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885 Pg: 350
Significance: Ulysses S. Grant, the 18th president of the United States, was a significant figure in the Civil War. He was the unquestioned leader of the Union Army. His strong leadership and relentlessness in battle proved to be his strongest characteristics, as he was able to prevail in a number of key battles, such as Shiloh. In the battle Grant pushed through a whopping number of casualties to eventually overcome Confederate advances. The battle cemented the Union’s presence in the South by occupying the Mississippi river as far as Memphis. Overall, Grant’s stability as a leader provided the Union with a source of inspiration to win the war.

70 #70 “States’ Rights” Argument
Date: 1861 – 1865 Pg: 346 Significance: States’ Rights was a critical factor in the Civil War. The argument proved to be one of the Confederacy’s reasons for secession. This is evident in the abolitionist movement. Northern states wanted the federal government to eliminate slavery, while southern states wanted to choose with their own rights to decide whether or not to be a free state. To conclude, the disagreement between northern and southern states on states’ rights was a vital reason for southern states secession from the Union.

71 #71 Anaconda Plan Date: 1861-1865 Pg: 352-353
Significance: The Anaconda plan was a battle strategy that the Union used to defeat the Confederacy. The plan was immediately implemented following the attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, Planned by General Winfield Scott, the strategy called for a Union naval blockade of all Southern ports. As a result of the Anaconda Plan, the Confederacy was unable to trade for supplies that they needed for war. The strategy did not result in an immediate Union victory, but was a critical part in the Union’s defeat of the Confederacy.

72 #72 Battle of Antietam Date: September 17, 1862 Pg: 361
Significance: The Battle of Antietam was one of the most bloody battles in American History. Taking place in Antietam, Maryland on September 17, 1862, General George B. McClellan’s army of 87,000 met Robert E. Lee’s army of 50,000 at Antietam Creek. McClellan repeatedly attacked Lee, resulting in staggering casualties on both sides. Lee’s forces, nearing defeat, began to retreat back into Virginia. McClellan decided not to deliver a final assault on Lee’s forces, thus allowing Lee to salvage his army. Shortly after the battle, McClellan was removed from command by President Lincoln because of the wasted opportunity to finish off Lee’s army. Overall, the Battle of Antietam was a Union victory that saw General McClellan squander an opportunity to destroy Lee’s army.

73 #73 Battle of Vicksburg Date: Spring of 1863 – July 4th 1863
Pg: Significance: The Battle of Vicksburg was a major turning point in the Civil War. Led by General Ulysses S. Grant, Union forces moved to an area south of the city. Grant then ordered an attack on the Vicksburg. Vicksburg, well protected with artillery, halted Union advances. After six weeks, residents of the city surrendered as a result of the prolonged siege. The battle was a major victory for the Union. As a result, Union forces now had control over the entire Mississippi River. Consequently, the Confederate states Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas were cut off from the other Confederate states. To conclude, the Battle of Vicksburg was a critical Union victory that enabled them to control all of the Mississippi River, thus dividing the Confederacy.

74 74. Battle of Gettysburg Gettysburg was a major battle in the civil war that took place at Gettysburg Pennsylvania from July 1st to July 3rd in 1863 between Lee’s army and the Union army of the Potomac, commanded by Hooker and Meade. During the battle the Union controlled the valuable high ground. Both of Lee’s assaults on Cemetery Ridge and the assault known as “Pickett’s Charge” and Lee lost a third of his army before retreating and surrendering. Pages:

75 75. Sherman’s March to the Sea
This is the common name given to the Savannah Campaign through Georgia led by Major General William Sherman in 1864 between November 15th and December 21st. During this time Sherman’s men lived off the land and marched through Georgia destroying and burning everything in their path in hopes to deprive the Confederate army of supplies and break the will to fight of the Southern people. It was very successful and on December 20th they reached Savannah, which surrendered 2 days later Page: 365

76 76. Appomattox Courthouse
This was the location where Robert Lee met with Ulysses Grant on April 9th 1865 to officially surrender and negotiate a peace treaty with the Union. The terms of the treaty did not imprison Lee’s men nor prosecute them for treason instead, they were provided with rations and allowed to take their horses and mules home with them for spring harvest. Lee said himself that this kind treaty would help the men reconcile the country. Page: 367

77 77. Radical Republicans These were republicans in reconstruction era ( ) that pushed for Freedmen to gain more rights, demanded harsher treatment of the South, and more guarantees that Confederate nationalism was totally eliminated. They implemented a lot to help the Freedmen including: The Civil Rights Act of 1866, the 14th and 15th amendments, and impeached Andrew Johnson, but failed by one vote. Page:

78 78. 13th,14th,15th Amendments These were three amendments passed during the reconstruction era. The 13th amendment, adopted on December 6th ,1865 abolished slavery except when used in punishment for crime. The 14th amendment, adopted on July 9th 1868, made anyone born in the U.S. a citizen and entitled to all the “privileges and immunities” guaranteed by the constitution. The 15th amendment, ratified on February 3rd 1870, forbade the federal government to deny suffrage to any citizen on account of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”. Pages:

79 79. Sharecropping This was a system that was widely used in the 1860s and 1870s, in which people, usually Freedmen, rented land from a plantation owner to farm and live on to make a living. The plantation owner would provide the Freedman with clothes, food, and tools throughout the year and would get a cut of the crop profit, usually half, at the end of the year. When the Freedmen made his profit the plantation owner would usually tell him that he owed even more because of all the food and supplies he used during the year and the plantation owner would take even more. This was a version of slavery in a new and legal way that kept Freedmen from becoming part of society during this time period. Pages:

80 80. Ku Klux Klan This was the organization created by former confederate soldiers that rose to attention in the late 1860s and early 1870s, by physical harming and frightening black Freedmen. They used violence and terrorism to keep blacks from voting in the South and wore masks so people could not see their faces while they terrorized. They also used economic pressure, where they wouldn’t give the blacks any work. Eventually in 1870 and 1871, the government pass the Enforcement acts or the “Ku Klux Klan Acts” to discourage Klan violence. These acts, although seldom enforced, managed to discourage a majority of Klan violence. Page: 388

81 81. Compromise of 1877 This was the unwritten compromise between the Democrats and the Republicans during the election of 1876 where the election between Republican Rutherford Hayes and Democrat Sam Tilden was disputed by 20 electoral votes. This was solved by the compromise between the two parties where they would elect Hayes only if he would appoint one Southern democrat to his cabinet and withdraw soldiers from the South. The withdraw of the soldiers from the south in 1877 ended the reconstruction era. Pages:

82 82. Booker T. Washington p.395 He was the founder and president of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. He worked his way out of slavery and poverty by acquiring a good education. He advocated that other blacks should follow the same road to self-improvement. Washington wanted blacks to act like the white middle class in preparation for equality, instead of asking for political rights.

83 p. 397 83. Jim Crow Jim Crow was a character in a caricature of blacks. Jim Crow portrayed a black guy and in that when someone said Jim Crow, they meant a black guy. During Reconstruction, the southern states started enacting Jim Crow Laws. Jim Crow Laws were laws that racially segregated whites and blacks. This was due to the court’s Plessy v. Ferguson ruling “separate but equal”. These laws segregated schools, buses, and any public place. /restrooms.jpg

84 84. Sand Creek Massacre November 1864
p. 418 84. Sand Creek Massacre November 1864 In response to many Indian attacks in Colorado, whites called up a large territorial militia. The Governor urged all friendly Indians to gather at army outposts for protection. One group under Black Kettle wanted protection so they camped near Fort Lyon, but Colonel Chivington led a volunteer militia force to the camp and massacred 133 Indians, 105 being women and children.

85 85. Battle of Little Big Horn
p. 419 1876 General George A. Custer and the 7th Cavalry set out to Montana to round up Indians and take them back to their reservation. At the Battle of Little Big Horn, the Indians had a surprisingly large army, and they surrounded Custer and his regiment. The Indians killed every man.

86 86. Dawes Act p.421 1887 The Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 provided for the gradual elimination of most tribal ownership of land and the allotment of land to individual owners. It was a part of assimilation. The white people wanted to make Indians adapt and join white culture.

87 87. Gospel of Wealth p.438 1901 It was a book by Andrew Carnegie. It was a gentler approach to Social Darwinism. He wrote that all people who are rich and profit off of people’s labor should give money back for the good of the community. With great money and power comes great responsibility.

88 p.436 88. John D. Rockefeller He was an industrial tycoon. He used his smarts and his hard work to reach the top. He owned Standard Oil, which was the main oil company of the US. First he used horizontal integration to grow his business, then he used vertical integration. He was one of the richest men ever. He was an avid philanthropist.

89 p.435 89. Andrew Carnegie Andrew Carnegie was a Scottish immigrant. He wrote the Gospel of Wealth. He believed in giving back to the community. He started in Cleveland with the steel industry. He first bought up all of the steel companies in Cleveland, then he bought the railroads, the mines, and other enterprises. He was very rich. He sold his business to J.P. Morgan.

90 90- J. P. Morgan Pages 435-436; 540-543 Date: 1901
John Pierpont Morgan was very successful banker and industrialist. He built a financial empire by purchasing railroads, banks, and holding companies. Morgan knew that consolidating his companies would beneficially consolidate his wealth and power. Morgan used trusts, handing his money over to a committee to be dealt with properly, and holding companies, which used their income to purchase a large variety of stocks, to consolidate said wealth and power. In 1901, J. P. Morgan purchased Carnegie Steel for $450,000,000. Then, he merged it with US Steel. Morgan also helped to piece together the $400,000,000 Northern Securities business. He purchase larges shares in the Tennessee Coal and Iron Company while convincing President Roosevelt not to pursue Antitrust actions against him. Morgan is especially significant because he created competition for the other major industrialists.

91 91- Social Darwinism Pages 437-438; 474-475
Date: Late 19th Century, Early 20th Century This ideology revolved around the idea that men, especially tycoons, were only rich because they worked diligently. It also clarified that the poor were only poor because of their slothfulness and lack of effort. This theory was an application of Charles Darwin’s theory of Evolution on the social pyramid. The section of Darwin’s work regarding ‘survival of the fittest’ was also applied to society. English philosopher Herbert Spencer claimed that society would benefit from the elimination of the ‘unfit’ poor and the perseverance of the ‘fit.’ The ‘natural selection’ was showing itself already in the success of the tycoons. It developed out of Darwinism. This movement caused education to be emphasized, causing the rise of universities.

92 92- “Boss Tweed” Pages 389; 465 Date: 1860s-1870s
This man ran a corrupt ring of people in New York City’s Tammany Hall that was overthrown by Samuel J. Tilden, the Democratic candidate for the election of William M. Tweed, known as “Boss Tweed,” extravagantly used public funds to get monetary kickbacks. This caused him to be jailed in In other words, he got in trouble for siphoning money reserved for public work projects. This characteristic was common with city “bosses,” which is why he became known as “Boss Tweed.” The discovery of this crime ring made the government make a move against those that tried to create monopolies.

93 93- Populists Pages 489-497 Date: July 1892
This party was officially known as People’s Party. It was created in Nebraska in 1892 with James B. Weaver as its candidate. The party became very popular very quickly. However, its support remained limited to farmers, thus once it had gained strength, it would soon fade away. They did not believe in concentrated power and rejected laissez-faire. During his campaign, William McKinley attempted to sway their vote by endorsing some of their ideas. Despite this, the party backed William J. Bryan and faded away when he lost the election.

94 94- William McKinley Pages 487; 495; 497-498; 504-505; 510-511
Date: 1896 This man passed the McKinley Tariff of 1890 which seemed to enrich the producers while starving the consumers. Even though this decreased Republican popularity for the election of 1892, McKinley won the election of 1896. Another factor that aided in his election was that the Democrats were unable to successfully do anything about the Panic of His administration decided to focus on one item: heightening tariffs. He was very angry at the Spanish actions in the Atlantic, calling them “uncivilized and inhuman.” He tried to keep America out of the Spanish-American War, but the public protested to the extent that he was Nearly forced to get a congressional declaration of War on April 25, Later, he tried to annex the Philippines. He was reelected in 1900, this time with Teddy Roosevelt as his Vice President. Teddy Roosevelt was thrown into Presidency upon the assassination of McKinley in September 1901.

95 95- U.S.S. Maine Pages 504-505 Date: February 1898
This US ship exploded in Havana Harbor due to a mechanical failure. Most Americans agreed with the Yellow Journalists that it was not an accident, but a Spanish attack. Unfortunately, this accident set off a war hysteria in the US that caused Congress to suddenly devote $50,000,000 to mobilizing for a major Spanish-American conflict. This event gave the US an excuse to continue imperializing and fight a war with the Spanish.

96 96- Rough Riders Pages 508 Date: Mid 1898
This was a cavalry unit officially commanded by General Leonard Wood, but actually commanded by Colonel Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt led these men up Kettle Hill directly into the attacking Spanish during the Battle of San Juan Hill. This group gave Teddy Roosevelt the background of being a War Hero, a title that led to his presidency.

97 97- The Spanish-American War
Pages Date: 1898 Also known as “A Splendid Little War,” this conflict between Spain and the US took place in Cuba/the surrounding area. Many soldiers were inexperienced. Due to the already depleted Spanish forces from Cuban revolts, this was more of a “mopping-up” affair than an actual war. Segregation permeated the US forces. The US was forced to rely on the National Guard. Very inaccurate accounts regarding Spanish brutality spread throughout the US. President McKinley lost popularity because many US citizens did not like the way in which he handled the war. The Foraker Act was passed to end the military supremacy government in effect in Cuba and establish a civilian government. Only 460 Americans died. US troops wore thick wool uniforms that made the high temperatures even more unbearable. The war was promoted by Jose Marti (Cuban) in New York. The US gained Puerto Rico and Guam, but also occupied the Philippines.

98 #98 Occupation of the Philippines
Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt was a proponent of war and urged Commodore George Dewey attack Spanish forces as the Pacific squadron was strengthened. Dewey did just that and in May of 1898 the Spanish fleet was depleted at Manilla Bay. Dewey emerged as the first hero of the war and he was promoted to admiral. Several months later with the arrival of the American expeditionary force, the Spanish surrendered at the city of Manilla. Pgs

99 Imperialism (Pages 499-501) The New Manifest Destiny
New markets abroad A more aggressive foreign policy Fear the Europe would leave America out of Imperialism Alfred Thayer Mahan The Influence of Sea Power upon History Countries with the best Sea Power were the great countries in history By 1900 the US’s naval power was third in the world Hawaii The US’s first conquest 1893 America takes control of Hawaii 1899 Congress annexes Hawaii

100 The Platt Amendment (Page 511)
Passed in 1901 by Congress The US pressured Cuba into adding it into their new constitution Gave Cuba very little political power It prevented Cuba from making treaties with other nations Gave the US the right to intervene in Cuban government to preserve basic freedoms Required Cuba to allow US naval bases on its land

101 The Social Gospel (Page 521)
Popularized during the early 1900’s It integrated Christian ethics into Social difficulties Failed to impact the urban reform movement It brought a moral commitment to help the Lower Class citizens to Progressivism

102 W.E.B. DuBois (Pages ) DuBois opposed Booker T. Washington’s philosophy DuBois believed African Americans should accept nothing but full civil rights and a university education In 1905 DuBois started the Niagara Movement with his supporters on the Canadian side of Niagara Falls Four years later in 1909 he created the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in conjugation with white progressives

103 Theodore Roosevelt (Page 539-540)
Became youngest president ever when William McKinley was assassinated in September of 1901 He became a supporter of moderate change He wanted to regulate trusts but not destroy them He filed more than 40 antitrust suits during his presidency The Square Deal Roosevelt’s ideal which attempted to provide everyone with an equal “Square” deal

104 William Howard Taft (Page 543-544)
Roosevelt’s handpicked successor Became president in 1909 Signed the Payne-Aldrich Tariff into law Barely lowered the tariff rates which angered progressives Taft refused to do what Roosevelt wanted Split the Republican Party Roosevelt created the Bull Moose Party and ran for President again against Taft Woodrow Wilson (Democrat) was elected

105 Roosevelt Corollary (Pages 554-555)
In 1904 Roosevelt created a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine It stated the US had the right to intervene in Latin American countries domestic affairs if they could not govern themselves in addition to the right to oppose European involvement in the Western Hemisphere

106 The Unfinished Nation pg. 555-556
Panama Canal #106 The Unfinished Nation pg Following the French’s effort to build the Panama Canal, the United States began construction to finish the canal in The Panama Canal was finally opened in October 1914. The Panama Canal was a canal that connected the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean through Panama. The success of the Panama Canal was a vital foreign policy accomplishment for Theodore Roosevelt's presidency because Roosevelt was able to benefit the nation’s international commerce by creating a faster trade route between Asia and the United States. The construction of the Panama Canal also showed the United States’ imperial power because Roosevelt had United States troops sent into Panama in order to control it and prevent resistance from Columbian forces there. After the United States forces controlled Panama, Roosevelt recognized Panama as a separate nation, which was greatly influenced by the United States. Finally, the construction of the Panama Canal created a lot of tension and hostility between the United States government and the Columbian government. Negotiations over the cost and location of the Panama Canal ended up outraging the Columbian government, which then infuriated Roosevelt. Consequently, the tension that the canal created between the two nations led to an organized revolt in Panama against the Columbian government.

107 Wilson’s Neutrality (WWI) #107
The Unfinished Nation pg President Woodrow Wilson strived to keep peace in the United States by telling Americans to be “impartial in thought as well as deed” in President Wilson’s decision and ability to keep the United States out of war allowed him to win reelection in 1916. Wilson’s neutrality was President Woodrow Wilson’s attempt to keep the United States from entering World War I. President Wilson was able to show the control he had over the nation through his neutrality because he faced a lot of pressure from the public and other countries that made it hard for him to stay out of conflict in the beginning of World War I. Wilson made tough leadership decisions that maintained the United States’ neutrality, such as deciding to trade with Britain when Germany issued a blockade and demanding Germany to stop using submarines to attack American civilians on naval vessels that do not pose as a threat to Germany. Despite Wilson’s efforts to stay neutral for the nation’s sake, he received some criticism from Americans who were concerned for the countries receiving German violence, especially like Britain. Some American’s believed that Wilson’s efforts to stay neutral were selfish and immoral, yet, neutrality was the central theme of Wilson’s 1916 presidential campaign, which received a lot of support from the public and had a major positive impact on the outcome of the election.

108 Pacifists vs. Interventionists #108
The Unfinished Nation pg Woodrow Wilson supported military leaders’ plan for a massive increase in the armed forces of the United States in Although Wilson made an interventionist action, he was reelected president by the public in 1916 for keeping the United States out of conflict. Pacifists vs. Interventionists were two opposing groups of people that focused on whether the United States should participate in European conflict or not during World War I. Pacifists believed that the United States should not have gotten involved in the European conflict of World War I, while interventionists believed that the United States should have gotten involved in the conflict in Europe. The argument between these two groups of people made a huge difference on the way the 1916 election tuned out. Woodrow Wilson’s campaign focused on the idea that he kept the United States out of war in Europe, while Charles E. Hughes was seen as a man that would have led the United States into war. As a result, Woodrow Wilson won the election with around 600,000 popular votes and twenty-three electoral votes, which showed that many Americans were actually pacifists, despite their previous eagerness and determination to send troops into battle.

109 The Unfinished Nation pg. 562
Zimmermann Telegram #109 The Unfinished Nation pg. 562 President Woodrow Wilson received the Zimmermann Telegram on February 25, 1917, which the British had intercepted from Germany. The Zimmermann Telegram was a telegram that Arthur Zimmermann of Germany sent to the Mexican government in order to ask them to become Germany’s ally during WWI. The Zimmermann Telegram was the deciding factor for the United States’ involvement in the war because it thoroughly angered and threatened the United States government, since the telegram offered German help to Mexico for taking back the lands that the United States took from them. In addition, news of the telegram spread throughout the country, and the telegram itself became the subject of countless numbers of media and propaganda that invigorated the American public’s war sentiments. Consequently, pressure from the public about war got to President Wilson and forced him to get a declaration of war from Congress. The Zimmermann Telegram pushed the United States into war with Germany, which allowed the United States to have a major role in the outcome of the war. At the same time, it came with a substantial loss of life many international issues that would appear again many times after the war.

110 Battle of the Argonne Forest #110
The Unfinished Nation pg The Battle of the Argonne Forest occurred on September 26, 1918. The Battle of the Argonne Forest was the last battle of the war and one of the most important battles as well. The Battle of the Argonne Forest ended the Germans’ hopes of continuing to expand throughout Europe by pushing them out of the Western Front and back into Germany. In addition, the allied forces cut the supply lines of the German forces during the battle, which made the German’s defeat in the war inevitable. As a result, Germany immediately wanted an armistice following the Battle of the Argonne Forest, which was the source of Adolf Hitler’s anger and motivation for World War II. Moreover, the victory at the battle showed the significant role that the United States had in the war because a large amount of the credit for the victory went to the American Expeditionary Force, since they mostly drove the Germans back into Germany. This important role that the United States military played in the war pleased President Wilson because it made him feel good that the United States was able to successfully help the allied cause in the war, and it made him feel confident in the strength and the potential impact the United States military could have on events in the future.

111 The Unfinished Nation pg. 564-565
Trench Warfare #111 The Unfinished Nation pg The trench system of World War I, which made up most of the Western Front during the war, lasted from 1914 to 1918. Trench warfare was a war tactic where opposing forces dig trenches that are opposite to one another in order to protect themselves from enemy fire and fire at their enemy at the same time. Trench warfare was the main type of warfare during World War I because the new weaponry used during the war, such as tanks, faster machine guns, and heavier artillery, could easily kill a lot more soldiers out in the open. Trench warfare was very time consuming and dangerous as a result because soldiers that lived in the trenches for a long period of time would develop diseases, deformities, and other severe medical issues. In addition, trench warfare created a stalemate on the Western Front that halted the Germans’ advancement and allowed the United States forces to break the stalemate upon their arrival because of their eagerness to fight and relentless attitude in the trenches.

112 The Unfinished Nation pg. 570-572
League of Nations #112 The Unfinished Nation pg The creation of the League of Nations was accepted by the Allied powers on January 25, Although, the United States Senate rejected the League of Nations following the Senate’s refusal to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, which was presented to them on July 10, 1919. The League of Nations was the main component of President Wilson’s Fourteen Points and the component Wilson was willing to fight the most for. Following Henry Cabot Lodge’s criticism of the League of Nations, Wilson decided to give speeches all over the country in order to gain support for the organization, which resulted in Wilson becoming very ill from exhaustion. President Wilson decided to focus on the League of Nations for his 1920 presidential campaign, which essentially cost him the presidency because people were not interested in the League of Nations. Despite Wilsons persistent efforts, the Foreign Relations Committee rejected the League of Nations, which prevented the United States from joining the international organization. The League of Nations also turned out to be very weak because the countries that made up the organization all had different ideas. The aftermath of World War I also made the League of Nations useless because the nations involved could not enforce the demands put in the Treaty of Versailles on other countries, since no nation wanted to use force right after a major war finished.

113 The Unfinished Nation pg. 576
The Red Scare #113 The Unfinished Nation pg. 576 The Red Scare came about after the Soviet Union created the Communist International in 1919. The Red Scare was a time of chaos and fear in society because of the aftermath of World War I. The radicalism and Soviet communism that resulted from the war kept Americans on edge and skeptical about how much the government could control. The radical bombing that took place between 1919 and 1920 caused the federal government to produce strict sedition laws with harsh punishments for radical behavior. More instability and chaos occurred because of the bombings through the Mitchell Palmer and J. Edger Hoover raids, which resulted in thousands of radical arrests. Fear of radicalism also spurred the Vanzetti and Sacco trial, in which the immigrants Bartolomeo Vanzetti and Nicola Sacco were accused of murder and sentenced to death. Both men were executed on the electric chair on August 23, Their executions, along with all of the other extreme radical actions, outraged the public. The events of the Red Scare made it clear that society was not the way it was before World War I or getting any better. Therefore, the government and society began to take a new approach to make sure things were the way they were before World War I or better.

114 #114 Great Migration Page #574 1919
After WWI black war veterans had new pride and wanted to be treated better, but there was no change During the war nearly half a million blacks migrated to industrial cities from rural southern towns to attain the industrial jobs that had pooped up because of the war Transformed the racial Americas racial demographics Large black communities arose in northern cities

115 #115 Stock Market Crash Page 603-604 October 1929
After a week of steadily rising instability, all efforts to save the market failed 16 million shares traded Wiped out all gains of the previous year Stocks became worthless Continued to decline for several years Fabled to be the beginning of the stock crash but actually was due to additional reasons

116 #116 Great Depression Page 604-607 1929-1933
No economic diversification all the gains in industry and technology were declining and those were the two driving factors of the market Uneven distribution of wealth Loans were constantly defaulted and banks went under WWI countries couldn’t pay back debts and took loans from American banks Depression exposed more weaknesses in America, in three years 9,000 banks closed Production prices rose and unemployment was rampant

117 #117 Herbert Hoover Page Began his presidency in March 1929, believing there was a prosperous future Hoover program Restore confidence in economy Increase govt spending Agricultural marketing act – help farmers maintain steady prices by making loans and buying surpluses His popularity deteriorated and public started to blame him for depression The failure of the RFC (Reconstruction Finance Corporation) Used to pay banks and large business (public works), failed and didn’t use all of its 1.5 Billion dollar budget

118 #118 “Bonus” Army Page 1924 Veterans who were promised a $1000 bonus, by congress had not received it Hoover concerned about balancing the budget rejected their appeal In June 20,000 veterans marched into D.C. claiming they were the bonus army Protesting until congress approved Congress voted down and when police tried to clear street violence broke out and two veterans dead Hoover sent in the army and MacArthur sent the veterans running with fear

119 #119 Direct v. Indirect Relief
page 1933 Two types of relief during the depression Direct relief involved providing aid to businesses/ individuals first hand Indirect relief involved providing programs to teach people to thrive and provide their own relief Hoover preferred indirect to make people work for the relief creating deserving and undeserving poor, those who waited for handouts and those who worked to survive Many programs spurred from this such as NRA ( National recovery Admin) CCC (Civilian Conservation Corp) TVA ( Tennessee Valley Authority) FERA ( Federal Emergency Relief Admin)

120 #120 Election of 1932 page 623-624 11 million unemployed
Depression sine Oct. 1929 Stay on course vs. New Deal Hoover, republican FDR, Democrat FDR rose through government despite having polio and won the election of 1932 he won by a landslide receiving 57.4% of the popular vote

121 #121 Fireside chats Page 628 1933 The first president to make use of the radio Public was able to hear his ebullient personality He used his fireside chats to explain in simple terms to the people what he planned to do with his programs and aid This helped build public confidence in the administration This was the first time the public was able to connect with the president and for them to keep in touch on what was going on in his administration

122 #122: New Deal Legislation p.629,
Emergency Banking Act-March 9, 1933 Designed to primarily protect the larger banks from being dragged down by smaller ones Help dispel the panic and reopened ¾ of the banks in the federal reserve Agricultural Adjustment Act- May 1933 Producers of seven basic commodities would decide on production limits of their crops. Government then tells them how much to produce Glass-Steagall Act-June 1933 Gave the government authority to curb irresponsible speculation by banks Established Federal Deposit insurance Corporation(FDIC) The National Recovery Act- June 1933 Created the National Recovery Administration(NRA) Established industrial work codes for all businesses Securities Exchange Act- June 1934 Created the Securities and Exchange Commission to police the stock market

123 #123: The “100 days” Info from: http://www. digitalhistory. uh
FDR was inaugurated on March 4, 1933 The “100 days”= 1st 100 days that Franklin D. Roosevelt was in office In these days Roosevelt: Pushed 15 major bills through Congress Used fireside chats Attacked the bank crisis Significance: Due to his action, he helped the United States on to long road to recovery

124 #124: Social Security p.639 Created as a result of the Social Security Act of 1935 Created a system of unemployment insurance, which employers would finance Created a pension system for working Americans to contribute to through taxes Significance: Created a way to aid the retired, single mothers, and those with disabilities

125 #125: The Court Packing Plan p. 642-643
February 1937 Roosevelt just started second term Send surprise message to Capitol Hill proposing to add 6 new justices Claims that the Supreme Court is “overbooked” Significance: Viewed by supporters and conservatives as a evident quest for power by Roosevelt

126 #126: The Cash and Carry/Lend-Lease p. 658,661,663
Created by a law in 1937 Nations could only buy non military goods from U.S. by coming to get them Changed in 1939 Allowed countries to buy military goods, if the nation was “pivotal to the defense of the U.S.” Lend Lease Allowed government to sell or lend armaments to any nation pivotal to the defense of the U.S. Significance U.S. is becoming more involved in the affairs of the Allied nations

127 #127: The Attack on Pearl Harbor p.666-667
7:55 am, December 7, 1941 Japanese attack U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor U.S. loses 8 battleships, 3 cruisers, 4 other vessels, 188 planes, 2400 soldiers Significance: Attack is failure, repair and refueling stations not targeted This attack “awoke the sleeping giant” and brought America into the war

128 #128: The Holocaust p Started by the Germans in the late 1930’s America had knowledge of this by 1942 Viewed as a distraction to intervene or save the Jewish people there Significance Killed 6 million Jews America justified there own rejection of the holocaust by winning the war and freeing the Jewsss

129 #129:The Battle of Midway p.670-671
June 3-6, 1942 American receive word of Japanese invasion force heading to Hawaii Cut off at midway island Fought in the air Significance U.S. destroyed four Japanese Carriers without losing one of its own Afterwards America began to slowly push Japan back through Island-hopping

130 130. D-Day Invasion (p. 689) The D-Day Invasion of Nazi-controlled France occurred on June 6, It marked the first time Americans saw combat in the European Theatre. Also it was imperative to the liberation of France; which led to the forcing of German forces back toward Germany, and defeat of Nazi Germany.

131 131. Battle of the Bulge (p. 689) The Battle of the Bulge occurred in the December of 1944, and was the last major battle of the western front of the European Theatre. It was the Germans last chance to halt the Allied Forces advance toward Germany; however the Nazis failed to turn back the Allied Forces and met their demise just five months later.

132 132. Battle of Leyte Gulf (p. 691)
The Battle of Leyte Gulf occurred on October 20, It was the largest naval engagement in history, and one of the more decisive battles of the Pacific Theatre. American forces destroyed four Japanese aircraft carriers, which all but destroyed Japan’s ability to continue a serious naval war.

133 133. Battle of Okinawa (p. 691) The Battle of Okinawa was won by American forces in late June The capture of Okinawa was essential to the Americans plan of launching and attack on the Japanese mainland. Also, after seeing the suicidal fighting tactics of the desperate Japanese, American officials were discouraged from the idea of launching an invasion on the Japanese mainland. This led them to instead choose to drop atomic bombs on Japan.

134 134. Axis/Allies WWII (pp. 653-695)
The Allied Powers were a group of countries that formed in 1939 to combat the growing Axis Powers. The Axis Powers were composed of Germany, Italy, and Japan. The Allies were composed primarily of the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union. /216x281/hitler.jpg

135 135.Manhattan Project (pp. 691-693)
The Manhattan Project was a top secret government project that started in 1939 and ended with the dropping of the atomic bomb in The Manhattan Project was started to compete with German efforts to build an atomic bomb, and was very successful. This success allowed the United States to end the war with Japan without risking more lives to the vicious style of combat the was being used in the Pacific Theatre.

136 136. Containment Doctrine (pp. 702-703)
The Containment Doctrine was the American foreign policy following World War II. Its purpose was the “contain” the threat for further communist expansion into democratic areas. This led to the Soviet-American tension that caused the Cold War.

137 137. Alger Hiss/ Rosenberg Case (pp.718-719)
Alger Hiss was a former high-ranking member of the United States State Department who passed classified State Department documents to a communist agent. This case cast suspicion on a generation of liberal Democrats and transformed Richard Nixon into a national figure and helped him earn a Senate seat. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were a New York couple and members of the Communist Party. The government claimed that they had obtained top secret information on the Manhattan Project from Ethel’s brother who was a machinist on the Project, and passed it on to the Soviets. They were convicted and executed in the electric chair. This combined with the Alger Hiss case created a fear of communist subversion within the United States.

138 #138 McCarthyism Page: 719-721; 750 Date: 1950-1954 Description:
First-term Republican senator During a speech he claimed to have a List of 205 known communists currently working in the American state department. Became chairman of a special subcommittee and conducted highly publicized investigations of alleged subversion in many areas of the government. Became very popular because of his “fearless” assaults on a government establishment. No person had ever made such bold charges against the federal government. Popularity declined when he attacked Secretary of the army Robert Sevens and the armed services in General, and he was Condemned for “conduct unbecoming a senator” and people saw him as a villain and even a buffoon in the nationally televised Army-McCarthy hearings.

139 #139 Brown V. Board of Education
Page: 746 Date: May 17, 1954 Description: Court ruling on the consideration of the legal segregation of a Kansas public school system. Court rejected its own 1896 Plessy V. Ferguson decision The Brown decision unequivocally declared the segregation of public schools on the basis of race unconstitutional.

140 #140 Martin Luther King Page: 747; 768 Date: 1960s Description:
Son of prominent Atlanta minister, approach to black protest was based on the doctrine of nonviolent resistance to injustice. To generate support for the civil rights movement, more than 200,000 demonstrators marched down the Mall in Washington, D.C. where Martin then gave one of the greatest speeches called “I have a dream”. Martin Luther King was assassinated in 1968, but he helped the African Americans to eventually get the civil rights that they deserved.

141 #141 Dwight Eisenhower Page: 749 Date: 1950s Description:
Least experienced politician to serve in the White House in the twentieth century. He was among the4 most popular and politically successful presidents of the postwar era. Eisenhower encouraged private enterprise, and supported the private rather than public development of natural resources. One of his most significant legislative accomplishments was the Federal Highway Act of This created 40,000 miles of interstate highways, the largest public works project in American history

142 #142 John F. Kennedy Page: 758 Date: 1960-1963 Description:
Son of wealthy, powerful, and highly controversial Joseph P. Kennedy, former American ambassador to Britain. Had an appealing public image, but he was only 43 in 1960, and he was catholic. It was a close election between Kennedy, and Nixon 49.7% to 49.6% Kennedy campaigned for a set of domestic reforms he described as the “New frontier” Republicans and conservatives Democrats dominated congress so it was difficult for Kennedy to pass legislation. On November 22, 1963, Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald. Lyndon Johnson then took over the White House.

143 #143 Lyndon Johnson Page: 761-764 Date: 1963-1966 Description:
Johnson was a native of the poor “hill country” of west Texas and had risen to become majority leader of the U.S. Senate through obsessive effort and ambition Johnson was rough-edged, even crude, but he compiled the most impressive legislative record of any president since Roosevelt. Constructed a reform program called the “Great Society”. Johnson’s plan for solving poverty or “war on poverty” was the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) which created an array of new educational, employment, housing, and health-care programs. OEO fell short of eliminating poverty and ultimately failed, but the “Great Society” programs significantly reduced hunger, made medical care available to millions of elderly and poor people, and contributed to the greatest reduction in poverty in American history.

144 #144 Affirmative Action Page: 769 Date: 1965 Description:
Battle against job discrimination Argued that the only way for employers to prove they were not discriminating against African Americans was to demonstrate that they were hiring minorities. If necessary they should adopt positive measures to recruit minorities.

145 #145 Cuban Missile Crisis Page: 772 Date: 1962 Description:
American intelligence agencies became aware of the arrival of a new wave of soviet technicians and equipment in Cuba October 14, aerial reconnaissance photos produced clear evidence that the Soviets were constructing sites on the island for nuclear weapons. Soviets placed weapons there as a counter measure of the presence of American missiles in Turkey. October 22, Naval and air blockade around Cuba, a “quarantine” against all offensive weapons was ordered. October 26, Kennedy received a message from Khrushchev implying that the Soviet Union would remove the missile bases in exchange for an American pledge not to invade Cuba.

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