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1 By Nick Cohen, Calvin Rose, Alida Mitau, and Sydney Kuller http://www.internationaleducation g.jpg


3  Child labor occurs commonly in the cities of Bishkek, Osh, and Naryn in Kyrgyzstan.  Child labor mainly shows up in agricultural work, manual labor, domestic work, and service.  This work includes selling goods, working in the transportation of goods, ancillary workers, begging, cleaning/repairing shoes, washing cars, crop/field work (mainly on tobacco farms), mining, prostitution, and more.  The ages of children involved in child labor in Kyrgyzstan vary but they can be from around ages 5-15.  The income of these children is extremely small, but it can still be significant to poverty-stricken families.  Child labor not only violates a child’s basic rights but influences children negatively both mentally and physically.  Much of child labor is dangerous work that can be detrimental to a child’s health and development and employers almost never provide healthcare to the children. Many children are abused both verbally and physically at work.

4  Kids will work all day to make money for their families. Specifically in the capital city Bishkek in the Osh Bazaar where hundreds on children are seen working everyday. City children often work on construction or in the market selling cheap goods or loading and pushing carts. They are expected to produce the same amount of work as adults with very little pay. 40% of population in Kyrgyzstan is living below the poverty line and 65% in rural areas. Analysts estimate that there are up to 125,000 child laborer's throughout Kyrgyzstan and 7,000 in Bishkek alone (KYRGYZSTAN).

5  Child labor is common and in demand in Kyrgyzstan despite the fact that children’s rights are protected under the Kyrgyz government. When hiring children, labor contracts are often not honored and child labor is not reflected in official reports because it is considered a part of the illegal economy.  The problem stems from the country’s socio-economic issues and instability that is a result of the Kyrgyzstan never fully recovering after the fall of the Soviet Union and Kyrgyzstan becoming an independent state.  In 1999, 53% of the population was classified as poor. Many families with multiple children and no real sources of income feel forced to send their children to work.  The public schooling system is in a critical state due to the fact that the government education allowances have been reduced leading to less schools, overcrowded classrooms, poor education, and children becoming less interested, finding work more worth their while than school.  The main reason that child labor continues to be common and in demand is because it is not regulated in the country by organizations or the government it is taken for granted in Kyrgyz society and not enough attention is being paid to it, and because the labor is so cheap. Map of Kyrgyzstan http://www.centralasia- 800.jpg

6 Girl in Kyrgyzstan collecting tobacco leaves ( BA3D-67496C27035D_w203.jpg) BA3D-67496C27035D_w203.jpg Young child working in a coal mine in Kyrgyzstan ( 2351_mine416.jpg) 2351_mine416.jpg Child begging to help support his family in Kyrgyzstan ( com/3367/3299812868 _2e36c88b73.jpg) com/3367/3299812868 _2e36c88b73.jpg Child working on a tobacco farm ( AG/Media/TR6/6/f/9/b/NYC107797.jpg) AG/Media/TR6/6/f/9/b/NYC107797.jpg Child working in a Kyrgyz tobacco field ( 10/08/kazakhstan-tobacco-child-labor2.jpg) 10/08/kazakhstan-tobacco-child-labor2.jpg

7  Rule of law  International Intervention  Resources  Ex Laborers  Education  Jobs Our action plan ( n-plan-man-on-arrow-over-words.jpg) n-plan-man-on-arrow-over-words.jpg

8  Laws exist that prohibit children from working overtime or night hours, along with hazardous jobs or jobs that interfere with school hours  A legal and policy framework is in place to combat child trafficking  Kyrgyzstan government provides aid through the Prosecution Office Kyrgyz government building ( 890-Kyrgyzstan-House-of-Government.JPG) 890-Kyrgyzstan-House-of-Government.JPG

9  Implementation of child labor laws is poor  State officials admit to having little understanding of the legislation and the  definitions used  High levels of corruption at national, regional and local levels hinder implementation.  This is related to the absence of transparency and lack of accountability on the behalf of the state to its citizens Kyrgyz law, government, and implementation is corrupt and not effective ( 00/fikmik/fikmik1006/fikmik10060 0514/7201682-corruption-in-law.jpg) 00/fikmik/fikmik1006/fikmik10060 0514/7201682-corruption-in-law.jpg

10  There are few efforts to identify children who are at risk of trafficking specifically but identification procedures are in place to identify children at risk of ‘delinquent’ behavior, abuse, exploitation and illegal migration. These efforts are regarded as inadequate  Prevention activities do not focus on child trafficking specifically, but efforts to prevent children from dropping out of school, working, migrating illegally etc. can feed into counter-trafficking prevention programs Child labor needs more attention within Kyrgyzstan in order to stop it ( _5/1103853289mOlKB0.jpg) _5/1103853289mOlKB0.jpg

11  Existing laws are good  But they must be enforced  Police and law enforcement must know about the issue and how to stop it  Specific penalties need to be proclaimed and executed if there is a violation of the law The law must be upheld in Kyrgyzstan in order to stop child labor ( stock-photo_csp4187814.jpg) stock-photo_csp4187814.jpg

12  ECLT (eliminating child labor in tobacco-growing) is working to eliminate child labor in Kyrgyzstan, along with many other countries  The Working Group is working alongside the NGO “Save the Children” to prevent child labor in tobacco growing (one of Kyrgyzstan’s largest child labor markets)  UNICEF is also involved in child labor in Kyrgyzstan  Working to get to the root of the problem and figuring out a solution All three of these organizations are helping combat child labor in Kyrgyzstan—along with many other countries ( o_save-the-children.jpeg, content/uploads/2010/02/unicef_logo.jpg, wPagesWebLive/DO52AQDT/$FILE/medmd769dbr.j pg?openelement) o_save-the-children.jpeg content/uploads/2010/02/unicef_logo.jpg wPagesWebLive/DO52AQDT/$FILE/medmd769dbr.j pg?openelement

13  NGO’s need to:  Create access to a cheap credit scheme for farmers (to increase their income)  Create access to social activities and support  Raise awareness on child labor  Provide social support and activities  Create mutual-aid funds  Educate representatives of agricultural and healthcare workers  Work alongside the Kyrgyz government to aid victims and help protect potential victims NGO’s need to be a large part of the Kyrgyz community as well as be connected and work alongside the government ( earch?q=community&view=detai l&id=449A4FD00FA7166EEC5E 0769A2982E5C5B0838E9&firs t=0&FORM=IDFRIR earch?q=community&view=detai l&id=449A4FD00FA7166EEC5E 0769A2982E5C5B0838E9&firs t=0&FORM=IDFRIR

14  Because of the Kyrgyz economic crisis, many families are forced to send their children into work/labor for economic needs and some children are forced to work to simply survive.  These children are therefore unable to receive a decent education, or an education at all.  Organizations such as “Araket” focus on helping low-income families and supporting families that cannot send their children to school. They aim to improve the socio-economic position of Kyrgyzstan’s population, to eliminate poverty, and to improve/implement education.  Often the primary method of these organizations is to provide allowances and benefits to low-income families and families with more children, but these allowances are often too small to really make a difference. “Economic Crisis” 1/08/financial-crisis-2.jpg 1/08/financial-crisis-2.jpg

15  We suggest that implementing a new umbrella organization that forms partnerships with organizations such as “Araket”, and primarily aims to improve the socio-economic position of the population and to improve education would be a good solution.  This organization would direct and organize all of the similar organizations under it in, acting as an “umbrella” to these organizations. “Make Poverty History” m/i/make%20poverty%20history%2 0balloons.jpg?Width=130

16  The umbrella organization would travel throughout Kyrgyzstan and pinpoint various “hot spots” where help was especially needed.  It would establish centers in these areas to provide help, support, and benefits to families in need and implement/improve education for children.  This organization would form partnerships with schools in these “hot spots” to apply teachings about human rights into the school curriculum along with classes that teach skills such as sewing, carpentering, and other such skills so that these future generations may not face the same economic hardships that their parents do.  The organization would also provide more significant allowances and better benefits such as shelter, food, water, clothing, and other necessities.

17  Some children, such as Uluk and Kylch work in the coal mines of Kyrgyzstan in dangerous conditions.  Uluk is 14 and he says, "When I grow up I want to become a policeman, so that I can catch thieves and protect the children” (BBC News).  These children, who have lost much of their childhood, have dreams.  If organizations/people taught these children about their rights and showed them that there are other opportunities for them, they could work for better lives for themselves, their families, and future generations. Kyrgyz Child, Kylch, works in Kyrgyz coal mines m m

18  With the forming of organizations by ex-slaves, or ex- laborers, a lot of progress could be made. These children know exactly what its like to be a working child under harsh conditions.  The children could band together and demand for an education instead of forced labor, they could demand for protection and rights from their government, but without a strong desire for this change, the change will not happen.  To make this change happen, these children must first be educated about their rights, and be educated about the injustice of child labor by a well-managed organization such as the umbrella organization mentioned in the last two previous slides.  These children could also join organizations already combating child labor in Kyrgyzstan to give input on what could be done to solve the problems of child labor, with first-hand experience.  After being educated themselves, these children could do very well by educating the public and their communities on the hardships of child labor and on human rights. “Change Ahead” http://www.ideacha gs/change- architect-sign1.jpg

19  Organizations such as the umbrella organization mentioned in the previous slides could have a special department to go to “hot spots” around Kyrgyzstan where child labor is used most commonly and make sure to educate these children about their rights by implementing this particular education into the local school’s curriculum so that these children can change the fate of future generations.

20  Many parents don’t educate their children by choice  They don’t have money to buy the supplies needed for school  They weren’t educated so they don’t understand the importance of education  Since the kids aren’t educated they go down the same path as the parent and end up in poverty  The kids need to help their families  They don’t have an education and they are too young to get a well paying job  They become child laborers to help their families or end unemployed later in life

21  Schools would need to provide programs that are free and supportive  A way to acquire school supplies and uniforms even if you don’t have money  Teachers would need to support the children so the kids want to learn and help themselves  If schools didn’t provide this, organizations would need a fund to help children attend school  Some organizations already have allowances for families to send their children to school but it’s not enough http://columbia.sunne.w s/2011/08/10/money- for-schools- %E2%80%98no- thanks%E2%80%99- south-carolina-officials- say/

22  If children were educated they would be able to get jobs that earn more money and wouldn’t end up unemployed later in life  If in each generation kids don’t go to school and end up child laborers if just one generation is educated it stops a chain reaction of a whole family ending up in slavery  The Government may be trying to help make education more accessible

23  A big problem that causes human trafficking is lack of income  Families can’t find jobs that make enough money so they send there kids to work in child labor industries  If a program was created to help parents find jobs the kids would then not be forced into child labor  The same program could help kids find jobs after they go to school and are educated a-job-where-to-begin.php

24  "Activities for the elimination of child labour in Kyrgyzstan 2005-2010."International Labour Organization. N.p., 23 Feb. 2011. Web. 26 Oct. 2011..  "BBC NEWS | Asia-Pacific | Child labour in Kyrgyz coal mines." BBC News - Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2011..  Boincean, Svetlana. "Kyrgyzstan: The Project on Eliminating Child Labor in Tobacco Growing." Child Labour in Agriculture. N.p., 19/02/2010. Web. 25 Oct 2011. { "@context": "", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "", "name": " Activities for the elimination of child labour in Kyrgyzstan 2005-2010. International Labour Organization.", "description": "N.p., 23 Feb. 2011. Web. 26 Oct. 2011..  BBC NEWS | Asia-Pacific | Child labour in Kyrgyz coal mines. BBC News - Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2011..  Boincean, Svetlana. Kyrgyzstan: The Project on Eliminating Child Labor in Tobacco Growing. Child Labour in Agriculture. N.p., 19/02/2010. Web. 25 Oct 2011.

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