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CAROLINE MALTHUS TE PUNA AKO LEARNING CENTRE APA referencing.

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Presentation on theme: "CAROLINE MALTHUS TE PUNA AKO LEARNING CENTRE APA referencing."— Presentation transcript:

1 CAROLINE MALTHUS TE PUNA AKO LEARNING CENTRE APA referencing

2 AREAS TO BE COVERED  What is referencing?  Why is referencing important?  How do we do APA referencing?  In text referencing  Reference list *APA - American Psychological Association

3 WHAT IS REFERENCING? … a standard method of acknowledging the sources of information and ideas that you have used in your assignment.

4 What’s the difference between…. Students who use the internet as a social communication tool are also likely to communicate with others face-to-face and by phone. Students who use the internet as a social communication tool are also likely to communicate with others face-to-face and by phone (Baym, Zhang & Lin, 2004).

5 What’s the difference between…. Relations between state, industry and finance underwent an important shift from the late 1970s onwards as the focus on capital accumulation changed. Relations between state, industry and finance underwent an important shift from the late 1970s onwards as the focus on capital accumulation changed (Bellamy Foster, 2008; Henwood, 1998; Hope, 2006).

6 Why is referencing needed? - To recognise another person's work - To help a reader locate sources - To demonstrate depth of study - To include experts’ ideas as support - To avoid 'plagiarism' (writing other people's ideas as if they were your own )

7 PLAGIARISM If students  “Cut and paste” information from internet  Copy sentences / paragraph / theme  Paraphrase too closely  Use another person’s work e.g. writing or research material  Copy another student’s assignment  Submit other people’s work (allow others or ask someone to do work for them)

8 Referencing in assessments  Evidence of thorough research  Range and use of resources  Critical understanding of ideas and concepts demonstrated  % marks for accurate referencing

9 Sources you will need to reference include:  books or chapters in books  journal or newspaper articles  conference papers  video or television excerpts  personal communications such as interviews, s or letters  electronic sources such as web pages, journal articles from online databases, or software.

10 You don’t need a reference when you use..  general knowledge e.g. the 2011 Rugby World Cup was held in New Zealand  information that is readily available to all e.g. that training is necessary before staff can use new software  ideas that are definitely your own

11 APA referencing system -overview In-text references : in sentences in the body of the assignment show where you’ve used ideas or words of an expert include name of author and year Reference List: on a separate page at the end of the assignment list of materials you have consulted in alphabetical order

12 APA (6 th ed.) referencing style In-text (short form) Direct quotations Paraphrases Reference list (full details)

13 In-text references are needed for:  use the exact words of the author(s)  rewrite the idea in your own words  express the main points of someone else's opinion, theory or information. Quotations Paraphrases

14 Quoting “academic success may be more a question of good strategy and of building upon experience rather than underlying intelligence"  copying exactly the words of the author(s). When quoting, use quotation marks around the author's words, “academic success may be more a question of good strategy and of building upon experience rather than underlying intelligence" (Cottrell, 2005, p. 134).  author's family name, year of publication, page number. For example (Cottrell, 2005, p. 134).

15 Integrating quotations into your text: before the info… Cottrell (2005) makes the point that “academic success may be more a question of good strategy and of building upon experience rather than underlying intelligence” (p. 134). This suggests that students need to develop appropriate strategies….

16 Link quotations into your text: after the info… As one writer on study skills has observed “academic success may be more a question of good strategy and of building upon experience rather than underlying intelligence” (Cottrell, 2005, p. 134). This means that students may be better to…

17 Quotation with a group as ‘author’ – give full name of organisation at first mention: "Blindness in people with diabetes can occur suddenly with no warning" (Ministry of Health (MOH), 2007, para. 1). With this in mind, more needs to be done to address the issue of... Later you can use initials: A more recent report (MOH, 2008) shows that doctors are more cautious about making such claims.

18 Exercise: present the following text as a quote: Nurses realise they are accountable for their own standards of practice and professionalism p. 18. Philpott, N. (2005). Nurses as professionals. New York, NY: Blackwell.

19 Paraphrasing  putting someone else's ideas or information into your own words  you may also summarise, or outline only the key ideas, but it is important not to change the meaning of the original text  paraphrases also need to be referenced

20 Example of paraphrase “However, successive waves of new immigrants from the early 1990s reinvigorated many traditions. Chinese New Year and the mid-autumn festival, for example, have become popular celebrations drawing huge crowds of Chinese and other New Zealanders. Some events, like the lantern festival and the dragon boat race, are now widely popular among other New Zealanders, especially the young” (Ip, 2007, para. 2). Ip (2007) comments that the celebration of Chinese festivals has become popular with many New Zealanders, whether of Chinese background or not.

21 Introducing paraphrases: examples:  Smith and Ngawai (2005) point out that …  Jones (2005) believes that …  Mason (2010) defines ‘culture shock’ as...  Milton, Robbins and Schneider (2004) ask whether…  Reid (2006) concludes that..  According to Lealofi (2011) ….  A study by Jones (2010) shows that...  Sanders (1999) states that …

22 Signal verbs: Choose a signal phrase that is appropriate in the context. Possible verbs are: admits agreesarguesasserts believesclaimsemphasizes comparesconfirmsdeclaresdenies insistsnotesobservespoints out reasonsrefutesrejects reports respondssuggeststhinkswrites

23 In- text referencing: Paraphrasing: - ideas of experts in your own words - show your own understanding of the writer’s ideas - NEED REFERENCES  (Fan & Buxton, 2008). - Use most Paraphrasing: - ideas of experts in your own words - show your own understanding of the writer’s ideas - NEED REFERENCES  (Fan & Buxton, 2008). - Use most Quotation - exact copied chunks of text from experts - NEED REFERENCES (Fan & Buxton, 2008, p. 239). - Use least <10 -20% Quotation - exact copied chunks of text from experts - NEED REFERENCES (Fan & Buxton, 2008, p. 239). - Use least <10 -20% © Unitec New Zealand 23

24 For 3 -5 authors, cite all the first time, then put first author and et al. : As Baym, Zhang, Kunkel, Ledbetter & Lin (2007) point out, “studies which examine different aspects of the relational context and that implement varied measures” (p. 748) cannot easily be compared. Later reference to same article in same essay: It is still not clear how media choice affects the quality of relationships among students (Baym et al., 2007).

25 Using secondary sources To quote something quoted or paraphrased from another work: Paltridge (2004) makes the point that thinking about the needs of the eventual reader(s) of a text is an important step in academic writing (as cited in Gregory, 2008).

26 Newspaper: put author, year of publication and page number / paragraph number: "Politicians have rejected a proposed new law which would have... " (Tunnah, 2003, p. B1). Newpaper article online - unknown author: cite the title of article, year and paragraph number: "Investors were put off by a resurgence in bond yields that could choke the US economic recovery" ("Bonds bounce back", 2003, para. 5).

27 Personal communications (unpublished)  Personal communication = letter, memo, , fax, an interview, an informal conversation, telephone call or a lecture presentation.  They are included as an in-text reference but not put in the reference list.

28 When referencing a personal communication:  obtain permission of person in order to quote them  give the communicator's initials and surname  include ‘personal communication’ in the in-text reference  give the exact date of the communication - day, month and year.

29 Personal communications (unpublished): example:  According to a personal source, the best method for learning programming is … (G. Thomas, personal communication, March 5, 2012).  In a lecture for Applied Data Management (ISC 5500) presented on 19 April, 2012 at Unitec, Auckland, Dr. C. Smart suggested...  in-text reference but no reference list entry.

30 Spot the in-text referencing mistakes: 1. Richard Paul refers to critical thinking as “the essential foundation for adaptation to the everyday personal, social and professional demands of the 21 st Century and thereafter”. 2. The rise of the critical thinking movement as a separate field of educational development has its origins as far back as the early 1940s. (Reed J. G. 1998). 3. Critical thinking may be defined, for the purposes of this paper, as the ability to analyse argument, demonstrating reasoning skills appropriate to the level of intellectual sophistication required for higher education (http://www.criticalthinking.org/research/Abstract- JREED.cfm).

31 Paul (2004) refers to critical thinking as “the essential foundation for adaptation to the everyday personal, social and professional demands of the 21 st Century and thereafter” (p. 24).  Can use first name, if a major expert  Needs year and page number The rise of the critical thinking movement as a separate field of educational development has its origins as far back as the early 1940s (Reed, 1998).  No initials, one fullstop per sentence, after the in-text reference Critical thinking may be defined, for the purposes of this paper, as the ability to analyse argument, demonstrating reasoning skills appropriate to the level of intellectual sophistication required for higher education (Foundation for Critical Thinking, 2008).  No web addresses in text  Use organisation or group name if no named author

32 The Reference List  First, decide what kind of source material you’re looking at: Webpage? Web article? Pdf of journal article? Book? Chapter in an edited book? etc.

33 Sources you will need to reference include:  books or chapters in books  journal or newspaper articles  conference papers  video or television excerpts  personal communications such as interviews, s or letters  electronic sources such as web pages, journal articles from online databases, or software.

34 Pay attention to:  Information required for different types of references  Punctuation – use of full-stops, commas, capital letters  Use of italics  Format – hanging indent

35 Referencing Electronic Sources  electronic books  electronic journal articles  CD-ROMs  World Wide Web site or page/s  document on World Wide Web  electronic databases, either on CD-ROM or accessed through the internet  software   bulletin boards, discussion groups, listserves  theses

36 A reference of an Internet source should provide:  the author(s) of a document (surnames or organisation name)  a date of publication or most recent update  a document title Retrieved from:  the web address (http://www

37 Check home page to find referencing information in webpages Gorski, P. (2012). Five approaches to social justice activism. Retrieved from American Psychological Association. (2012). Frequently asked questions. Retrieved from

38 The components of a URL are as follows Track back through the URL to find the organisation / author

39 Web source, no date Plunket. (n.d.). Maori child health. Retrieved from us/maori-child-health Look carefully to see if you can find a date for the specific page or article e.g.: Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment. (2012). Home page. Retrieved from

40 Journal Articles from Internet: Lassen, S., Steele, M. & Sailor, W. (2006). The relationship of school-wide positive behaviour support to academic achievement. Psychology in the Schools, 34, doi: /pits Ramstad, K. M., Nelson, N. J., Paine, G., Beech, D., Paul, A., Paul, P., …Daughtery, C. H. (2007). Species and cultural conservation in New Zealand: Maori traditional ecological knowledge of tuatara. Conservation Biology, 21(2) doi: /j

41 References depend on source type Electronic version from the internet Orsman, B. & Vaughan, G. (2005, June 21). Rat blamed for latest Telecom blackout. The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved from ObjectID= ObjectID= Print version: Orsman, B. & Vaughan, G. (2005, June 21). Rat blamed for latest Telecom blackout. The New Zealand Herald, p. A3.

42 Referencing books and chapters:

43 Rowe, C. & Koetter, F. (1978). Collage City. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.

44 Tamblin, L., & Ward, P. (2006). The smart study guide: Psychological techniques for student success. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Cottrell, S. (2008). The study skills handbook (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. Chapter in a an edited book Barks, D., & Watts, P. (2001). Textual borrowing strategies for graduate-level ESL writers. In D. Belcher & A. Hirvela (Eds.), Linking literacies: Perspectives on L2 reading-writing connections (pp ). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

45 Hard copy report from a government department: Publisher Author City of publication Year

46 Report / Document available on institutional or corporate website Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., & Nix, D. H. (1993). Technology and education: New wine in new bottles: Choosing pasts and imagining educational futures. Retrieved from newwine1.html

47 Evaluating Sources How would you rate these sources of information in terms of reliability? Very reliable Reliable Not Reliable Article in The New Zealand Herald Netguide (monthly magazine) article Statistics New Zealand website Encarta CDROM Encyclopaedia Article taken from the Internet, 1999, no author IT textbook, published 2004 PC shop website, no date Article published in Journal of Information Systems, 2005 Article in the PC World magazine, 2006

48 Reference lists 1. In pairs or groups of 3, match headings to the appropriate entry 2. In same groups, put all the elements of an entry into the correct order 3. Put all the entries into the correct alphabetical order

49 Exercise: reference list Look at the example you’ve got:  What type of reference is it?  Which model does it follow?  Write out the reference: Check for:  Order of information  Completeness of information  Punctuation  Correct use of italics Check with someone else and with the master list

50 Useful resources for referencing: FAQsFAQs on APA style website Perrin, R. (2009). Pocket guide to APA style. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Unitec Moodle: Te Puna Ako Learning Centre

51 Key points to improve your referencing skills (and therefore your assignment grades!):  make effective notes from sources  reference notes and drafts as you go  resist the temptation to ‘copy & paste’ from the internet  Work on paraphrasing and summarising skills  refer to guidesheets and guidebooks on referencing skills  develop your referencing skills through repeated practice

52 Evaluation:  What is referencing?  Why is referencing important?  How do we do APA referencing?  In text referencing  Reference list *APA - American Psychological Association


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