 # MS Excel Formulas & Functions. What are formulas & functions?  Formulas are instructions that tell Excel how to perform calculations.  Formulas must.

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MS Excel Formulas & Functions

What are formulas & functions?  Formulas are instructions that tell Excel how to perform calculations.  Formulas must always begin with an equals sign =  Functions are built in formulas.

MS Excel – Inserting Functions  You can enter a function manually by typing it into the formula bar.  Or click on the Insert Function icon to choose from some built in functions. Write formula in Formula BarInsert Function

Cell Reference  Each cell is identified by its cell reference.  The cell reference is made up of the column letter followed by the row number. For example, A3. (Column A Row 3)  You can write formulas that reference specific cells. =A1+A3+D5

Example #1  = A1 + C4 - A5  = 10 + 8 - 5  = 13

Example #2  = (A1*D4)/D5  = (10*15)/100  = 150/100 = 1.5

Example #3  = B3 * 1.15  = 3 * 1.15  = 3.45

Cell References/Ranges  A cell reference can consist of a single cell or a block of cells.  Excel refers to these references as a range  To identify a “range”, key the cell references for two diagonally opposite corners of a group of cells, separated by a colon.

Range Examples  B5:B10A range of cells in column B

Range Examples  D3:G3A range of cells in row 3

Range Examples  C5:F12A rectangular range of cells Top Left = C5 Bottom Right = F12

Parts of a Function  Excel has a number of built in functions to perform common calculations =SUM(E9:E11) Equals Sign Function Name Colon Cell Reference Brackets Column Letter Row Number

Auto Sum Button  The AutoSum button is a shortcut for entering the SUM formula.  It enters =SUM (and suggests a range to total.)

Auto Sum Button Auto Sum Suggested Range

The Fill Handle Fill Handle  The Fill Handle allows you to copy formulas across a range of cells.  Cell references in formulas are automatically adjusted

The Fill Handle Fill Handle  Grab the fill handle & drag in the direction where you want the formula copied Drag where you want the formulas copied

Types of Cell Reference  There are three types of cell references we can use in Excel. They are: 1. Relative i.e., A3 2. Absolute i.e., \$A\$3 3. Mixed i.e., \$A3

Relative Cell Reference  A cell reference that will change relative to where it is copied. Cell references change relative to where it is copied

Absolute Cell Reference  A cell reference that does not change when copied because the dollar sign (\$) has been placed in front of both the column letter and row number. Reference to cell \$C\$9 is absolute B11*\$C\$9 B12*\$C\$9 B13*\$C\$9

Mixed Cell Reference  A cell reference that has either the row or column reference as absolute and the other part of the reference relative i.e. \$E4. Reference to column \$E is absolute but the row reference is relative

More Functions  Clicking on the Insert Function button will bring up a list of built in functions. Function List Definition Search Functions

Excel Glossary 1. =SUM( ) 2. =AVERAGE( ) 3. =MAX( ) 4. =MIN( ) 5. IF( ) 6. PMT( ) 7. COUNT( ) 8. COUNTIF( )  Find definitions for the following functions