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MS Excel Formulas & Functions

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What are formulas & functions? Formulas are instructions that tell Excel how to perform calculations. Formulas must always begin with an equals sign = Functions are built in formulas.

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MS Excel – Inserting Functions You can enter a function manually by typing it into the formula bar. Or click on the Insert Function icon to choose from some built in functions. Write formula in Formula BarInsert Function

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Cell Reference Each cell is identified by its cell reference. The cell reference is made up of the column letter followed by the row number. For example, A3. (Column A Row 3) You can write formulas that reference specific cells. =A1+A3+D5

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Example #1 = A1 + C4 - A5 = 10 + 8 - 5 = 13

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Example #2 = (A1*D4)/D5 = (10*15)/100 = 150/100 = 1.5

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Example #3 = B3 * 1.15 = 3 * 1.15 = 3.45

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Cell References/Ranges A cell reference can consist of a single cell or a block of cells. Excel refers to these references as a range To identify a “range”, key the cell references for two diagonally opposite corners of a group of cells, separated by a colon.

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Range Examples B5:B10A range of cells in column B

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Range Examples D3:G3A range of cells in row 3

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Range Examples C5:F12A rectangular range of cells Top Left = C5 Bottom Right = F12

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Parts of a Function Excel has a number of built in functions to perform common calculations =SUM(E9:E11) Equals Sign Function Name Colon Cell Reference Brackets Column Letter Row Number

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Auto Sum Button The AutoSum button is a shortcut for entering the SUM formula. It enters =SUM (and suggests a range to total.)

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Auto Sum Button Auto Sum Suggested Range

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The Fill Handle Fill Handle The Fill Handle allows you to copy formulas across a range of cells. Cell references in formulas are automatically adjusted

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The Fill Handle Fill Handle Grab the fill handle & drag in the direction where you want the formula copied Drag where you want the formulas copied

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Types of Cell Reference There are three types of cell references we can use in Excel. They are: 1. Relative i.e., A3 2. Absolute i.e., $A$3 3. Mixed i.e., $A3

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Relative Cell Reference A cell reference that will change relative to where it is copied. Cell references change relative to where it is copied

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Absolute Cell Reference A cell reference that does not change when copied because the dollar sign ($) has been placed in front of both the column letter and row number. Reference to cell $C$9 is absolute B11*$C$9 B12*$C$9 B13*$C$9

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Mixed Cell Reference A cell reference that has either the row or column reference as absolute and the other part of the reference relative i.e. $E4. Reference to column $E is absolute but the row reference is relative

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More Functions Clicking on the Insert Function button will bring up a list of built in functions. Function List Definition Search Functions

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Excel Glossary 1. =SUM( ) 2. =AVERAGE( ) 3. =MAX( ) 4. =MIN( ) 5. IF( ) 6. PMT( ) 7. COUNT( ) 8. COUNTIF( ) Find definitions for the following functions

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Your Task Download & complete the Excel assignment from the class website

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