2 Learning ObjectiveLearn the steps and tips for planning and conducting a successful Kaizen event.
3 Agenda What is a Kaizen event? Planning the event Holding the event and implementing changesMonitoring resultsSustaining standard work and ensuring continuous improvementPlanDOCheckActPlan Phase:Identify need/problem/opportunityWork with sponsor and team leader to agree on project scope, goals and performance targets – Prepare CharterConfirm project type is appropriate for a Kaizen eventSelect and invite teamSchedule eventCollect information on the current situation/process, including reliable data on customer needs and service speed, quality, and costs;Do Phase:Map current state processAssess the current situation (identify strengths and weaknesses/wastes, validate root cause, prioritize problems)Generate, evaluate and select improvements for eliminating non-value added steps and reducing variationMap the future state processCreate action items/plan to accomplish improvementsCreate performance measuresDocument standard operating procedures, lessons learned, and ideas for future improvementsPresent results to sponsor and stakeholders (Report Out presentation and celebration!)Implement improvements, including training employeesCheck Phase:Monitor implementation and institute metrics for ongoing auditing and validation of project goalsAct Phase:Adopt, adjust or abandon improvementsTransfer responsibility for sustainment to process owner
4 Increasing Organizational Value What is a Kaizen Event?A 3-5 day facilitated event that engages a team to remove “waste” from a process.7 Wastes5SStrategyLeadershipPerformance MeasuresTrainingProject PortfolioLean TransformationStandard WordIncreasing Organizational ValueKaizenEngage the creativity of employees to make the process betterBut a Lean transformation is more than just a kaizen
5 Communicate! Communicate! Communicate! Planning PhaseSelect ProjectDefine ScopeSet GoalsEngage TeamSchedule MeetingsCollect Info.Hold Kick-offSelect the project (define the business issue)Define project scopeSet goals & complete a project charterDefine and prepare the teamSchedule meetingsCollect information and dataCommunicate! Communicate! Communicate!
6 1. Select the Project Consider the following criteria: Alignment Select ProjectDefine ScopeSet GoalsEngage TeamSchedule MeetingsCollect Info.Hold Kick-offConsider the following criteria:AlignmentImpactNeedWillingnessAbilityStrategic alignmentIt is important to the overall success of the division, or work unit that this process functions well (reliably, predictably, efficiently)It is related to one of our strategic objectivesImpactIt’s a process that affects a large number of stakeholders/customersIt’s a process that consumes a lot of internal resourcesIt’s a highly visible process to stakeholders and/or customersNeedIt’s a process that clearly is not working as well as it should (lots of complaints, rework, defects, unhappy employees, etc.)It’s a core business process that affects many other processes or programsWillingnessManager of the affected area has an interest in supporting and making needed changesWorkers are open to change, and would be able and willing to participate in an improvement eventAbility
9 Project Selection Tips Clear start and end points (can be described as a process)Easily identifiable internal and external customersImprovement can be measuredStart with quick wins before tackling larger projects
10 2. Scope the Project Define what is IN scope Select ProjectDefine ScopeSet GoalsEngage TeamSchedule MeetingsCollect Info.Hold Kick-offDefine what is IN scopeWhat is the first step of the process?What is the last step?Define what is OUT of scopeIf we can’t define that, we may need a different tool (Process preparation-2P)
11 Scoping TipsHow big is too big? (rule of thumb; if there are 10 or more functions, reduce the scope)Adjust the scope if you do not have the current state process documented by mid-morning of Day 2Use a SIPOC diagramSupplierInputsProcessOutputsCustomer
12 3. Set Goals & Complete a Project Charter Select ProjectDefine ScopeSet GoalsEngage TeamSchedule MeetingsCollect Info.Hold Kick-offEstablish SMART goals (time, defects, FPY)Set the bar high! (50% reduction in lead time)Goals should be clear, and easy to communicateGoals should be set by the project sponsorComplete a project charterSMART: Specific, Measurable, Aligned, Realistic, Time-boundFPY – First Pass Yield
14 4. Define and Prepare the Team Select ProjectDefine ScopeSet GoalsEngage TeamSchedule MeetingsCollect Info.Hold Kick-offTeam Roles:SponsorTeam leaderFacilitatorTeam membersSponsor:Set project purpose, goals, and scopeAssign resources and remove barriersTeam Leader or Project Manager:Lead team, guide process, liaison to sponsor and units impactedCoordinate implementation of action planFacilitator:Train and coach team on Lean principles and toolsFacilitate Kaizen event processTeam Members:Collect, share and analyze informationRecommend changes and develop an action plan*May have a Steering Team, Champion or Subject Matter Experts for larger projectsCommitment is needed from everyone!
15 Sponsor Responsibilities Create or ratify project scope and goalsSelect the team leader, facilitator, and team members (often with team leader)Invite team members and communicate project to key stakeholders – transparency is key!Kickoff the event with words of supportStay involved with the team and attend check-in meetings at the end of each dayAttend final presentation and recognize teamEnsure improvements are implemented and sustainedSponsor should invite team members to a pre-event meeting to explain:Scope and goalsWhy they were selectedExpectations – time commitment/ scheduleImportance of the event
16 Team Leader Responsibilities Assist on scope, goals, and defining team membersGather process information and dataSchedule kickoff and event meetings and venuesHelp the facilitator with team member involvementLead check-in meetingsCoordinate implementation of action planTrouble shoot and bring issues to sponsor’s attentionMonitor progress and performanceEnsure standard work is followed and sustained and results achieved
17 Facilitator Responsibilities Help the sponsor and team leader define and prepare for the kaizen eventFacilitate the eventTrain on Lean principles and toolsWork with the team to provide deliverablesSupport implementation and sustainment3. To train kaizen team members, you should:Train team members in the elements of the 7 wastes, process mapping, and process improvementTrain team members in the purpose and application of standard workTeam members may need to understand the elements of 5S4. To facilitate the team and capture the results of the kaizen event you should:Manage the schedule, participation, and progress each dayCapture and record decisions, and actions on the report out documentAttend team leader meetings, ensure good communication between the team and sponsorAs new facilitators, co-facilitate with some one more experiencedDon’t give upHave fun, if you’re not having fun the team isn’t having fun
18 Team Member Responsibilities Knowledge and expertise on the current process (may also want a person from outside of the process to provide a fresh perspective)Use data to understand and solve problemsAbility and willingness to participate – are they open to change or a CAVE dweller?Create and abide by team ground rulesDevelop project deliverables (future state process, action plan, report out presentation)Implement action plan and sustain improvements18
19 5. Schedule MeetingsSelect ProjectDefine ScopeSet GoalsEngage TeamSchedule MeetingsCollect Info.Hold Kick-offReserve rooms and peoples schedules 4-6 weeks prior to the event (including Kick-off meeting)Event venue criteria:Isolated - quiet for work and not disturbing othersLots of available wall spaceTechnology for trainingProvides access to process materials and resources19
20 6. Collect Information and Data Select ProjectDefine ScopeSet GoalsEngage TeamSchedule EventCollect Info.Hold Kick-offTeam leader collects process data:Volumes (# processed per month, year)Current metrics relevant to the process (time, first pass yield, rework, customer satisfaction)Forms/databases used in the processDefects – External, re-workCustomer needs and requirements (CTQ)
21 7. Hold Kick-Off Meeting Purpose: Get everyone on the same page Select ProjectDefine ScopeSet GoalsEngage TeamSchedule EventCollect Info.Hold Kick-offPurpose: Get everyone on the same pageSponsor Kickoff (business issue and anticipated customer and staff benefits)Review project charter & roles and responsibilitiesAnswer questionsSign Project Commitment
22 Communicate before, during and after the event Identify key audiences for the project and what they may need or want to know and how best to deliver the informationEg: Let leaders and staff know that you are engaging a team to recommend changes to improving the process; share the process goal and timeline; who is involved, and who they may contact with questions, concerns and advice.Communicate before, during and after the event22
23 Planning Advice Use a project charter and sign charter Do not use a kaizen event to address employee performance issuesInclude someone from outside the process on the teamClarify team member time commitment before, during & afterEducate/coach sponsors to manage their expectationsSolicit input from staff and stakeholders upfrontProvide an avenue to report concerns, questions, and improvement ideas before, during and after the projectPublicize the project – it shouldn’t be a secret!Provide sponsor check-ins to obtain guidance and avoid zingers!
24 Event & Implementation Phase Map and characterize the current state processObserve the process (e.g. strengths and weaknesses/wastes)Brainstorm improvementsMap and characterize the future state processCreate an action planSet performance measuresShare results with stakeholdersImplement the action planYou will need the following supplies:Training materials (PowerPoint, toast kaizen video)Paper for swim lane mappingMarkersFlipchartsLaptop and speakers (video equipment)Post-it notes (5 different colors)TapeScissorstreats
25 1. Map & Characterize the Current State Process People(jobfunctions)Characterize the process by assigning time to tasks and waits and counting the number and time for tasks and waits and the number of decisions, handoffs, and storage.25
26 2. Observe the Process Strengths Weaknesses (OFI) Where does the process work well?What are value-added steps?Where are the 7 wastes?OverproductionWaitingTransportationExtra processingInventoryMotionDefects* Underused creativity!Non Value-Added ActivitiesAll of the other things that we do, but don’t cause the product or service to physically transform.ReworkDoing the same thing over again. What prevented us from making it right the first time? Let’s identify that and fix it!MovingCan we move operations closer to minimize the movement of materials or information?Why does there need to be a handoff at all? (Eliminate the move)Handoffs are often a function of “knowledge silos.” We need to pull back the curtain and look at the actual action taken and see if a specially trained person really needs to perform that function.InspectingMany processes are not capable of letting products/services go to customers without inspecting.The function of inspecting doesn’t physically transform anything.While inspecting we should collect the data about why something isn’t correct and then use the data to put in place improvements that eventually gets rid of the need to inspect.Inspection and the associated data collection, should always be looked at as a short-term, temporary process.TestingTesting is another form of inspection.Re-entering information.This happens typically in the office as one person hands off a job to another person. Many times it is blamed on “4 systems that don’t talk to each other.” The challenge is to simplify the process and you will often find you don’t need to enter the information at all.This is also true with a lot of shop floor data entry. You need to ask, “What is going to be done with the information? What improvement activities will this generate?”Waiting occurs any time there is a handoff from one person to another.Sometimes people are waiting for each other.Sometimes information/materials are waiting for a person or a machine to be available.Many times a person is watching an automatic process operate, thus waiting for it to be done. We must question “What else can the person be doing while that process is running?”
27 3. Brainstorm Improvements List lots of ideas (big, bold ideas - no cost ideas)Rank and prioritize ideasSelect ideas to include in future state processHigh Impact / Low $High Impact / High $Low Impact / Low $Low Impact / High $
28 4. Map & Characterize the Future State Process Current StateFuture StateQuantityTimeTasksWaitsHandoffsFile/StoreDecisionsTotals% Change = (Current hours – Future hours)/Current hours) x 100[ ] % reduction in lead time[ ] % reduction in task time
29 5. Create an Action PlanWhatWhoWhenStatus126.96.36.199.
30 6. Set Performance Measures If you do not have performance measures, create performance measures during the event.Track performance on a regular basis to see whether you are achieving expected performance levels.Use both qualitative and quantitative measures (critical 2-4 measures).Use visual measures to quickly communicate progress, enhance standard work, and facilitate issue identification and resolution.Typical measures: Lead time, FPY, # errors/defects
31 7. Share Results with Stakeholders Hold a report out presentation where team members present project goals and recommended changes to key stakeholdersAsk questionsCelebrate!
32 8. Implement the Action Plan Include in your action plan how and when you will monitor performance.Have a strategy for identifying and resolving issues, including resistance
33 Event and Implementation Advice Create & enforce team ground rulesProvide just-in-time trainingReduce the project scope - if you need toPrioritize ideas based on impact & ease of implementation ($)Provide snacks and have fun during the event!Make the action plan accessible and easy to change and name the person who will complete each taskExpect and plan for challengesHold yourself and others accountableReward and recognize people for bringing up issues
34 Monitoring Phase 30, 60, & 90-day status meetings with sponsor Validate whether changes achieved project goalsDocument future state processManage resistance
35 Monitoring Advice Hold weekly or daily action plan status meetings The sponsor should assure that the action plan is being implementedIf the team runs into resistance that has stalled their efforts the sponsor needs to get involved – go to the Gemba (See, Ask, Lean, Show Respect)Monitor the demeanor of staff – are they energized or disheartened?Focus action plan discussions on yellow and red status tasks35
36 Continuous Improvement Phase Adopt, adapt, or abandon the approach.Document the future process and centrally store process maps – transfer process sustainment to process ownerInclude in the action plan how and when you will review the process.At least annually revisit the process to assess opportunities for improvement (OFIs).
37 Continuous Improvement Advice Sustaining improvement is often the most difficult part – make sure people do not slip back to the “old way of doing things”Expect to improve a process multiple times (3-5 times) to remove wastes and get closer to the “Ideal”
38 Kaizen Event Results Kaizen Event Results SSB: Assistive & Adaptive Technology Kaizen EventReduced technology evaluation assessment from 70 to 19 days (73% time reduction), 66% reduction in forms, standardized report forms, developed standard definitions, and enhanced supervisor ability to track progress and troubleshoot.TAA Projects:1) Customer Application Kaizen, 2) Purchase & Payment RedesignKaizen: reduced application process from 83 to 39 days (53%).Redesign: reduced purchase/payment from 72 to 38 days (47%).Reorganized customer caseloads, formalized internal discussions on unusual customer cases, improved policy development process, improved training process.UI: Customer Service Center Kaizen (General Mills & DEED)Eliminated duplicate requests for status updates from the Customer Service Center staff and resulted in reducing status updates from 25 days to 1 day (96% time reduction)UI: Phone Agent Problem Solving Project (General Mills & DEED)Fishbone analysis: 50% reduction in supervisor time spent bringing additional agents on line (saved 2500 hours per year).
39 For More Information Enterprise Lean Dept. of Administration, State of MinnesotaMN.gov/Lean |Mary Jo Caldwell |Director of Enterprise LeanOffice: |Cristine Leavitt | Lean ExpertOffice: |