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Module 2 Current State Analysis. Agenda for all 5 ModuleDescriptionHomework 1Introduction to Lean Thinking Project documentation and customer information.

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Presentation on theme: "Module 2 Current State Analysis. Agenda for all 5 ModuleDescriptionHomework 1Introduction to Lean Thinking Project documentation and customer information."— Presentation transcript:

1 Module 2 Current State Analysis

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3 Agenda for all 5 ModuleDescriptionHomework 1Introduction to Lean Thinking Project documentation and customer information 2Current State AnalysisCurrent state map 3Future StateFuture state implementation plan 4Sustainable LeanComplete A3 5Lessons Learnt and Final Presentation Continue implementation and further Lean work

4 Review of Module 1 You can now:- Understand the principles of lean Appreciate the need to remove wastes and failure demand Analyse who your customers are, what they need from you and how they feel about your service

5 Lets Review Your Homework Talk to your Customer Complete the Project Documentation

6 Agenda Plan Do Check Act and A3 Current state mapping, why, how and tips The importance of Gemba Root cause analysis

7 You Should… Be able to:- Understand the importance of mapping Be able to create a current state map Want to actively adopt Gemba Have options for root cause analysis

8 What is Lean?

9 Plan Do Check Act Investigate the current situation & understand fully the nature of the problem to be solved Develop a future state. Implement short term fixes and long term plans to eliminate root causes Evaluate the effect of implementation; have actions delivered expected results? Put plans in place to standardise the process & set further review dates

10 Plan Do Check Act Investigate the current situation & understand fully the nature of the problem to be solved Develop a future state. Implement short term fixes and long term plans to eliminate root causes Evaluate the effect of implementation; have actions delivered expected results? Put plans in place to standardise the process & set further review dates

11 A3 Problem Solving

12 A3 is Aligned to PDCA

13 A3 – Business School

14 Plan – Prioritise Improvements Plan Do Check Act

15 Problem Statements A clear statement that describes the symptoms of the problem, the boundaries and reason for review. A good problem statement: – Has a desired state or goal – Contains measurement – Is short and to the point – Has no implied cause or solution – Is limited in scope

16 Good Problem Statements It takes 7 weeks to process an expenses form – staff would like payment within 1 week The cost of replacing damaged lab equipment is excessive – we need to reduce this by 50% Returned library books take days to go back on shelves. We want books on shelves within 5 hours Our department wastes too much time searching for information. We need to be able to find a file on the shared drive within 45 seconds

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18 Lean and Mapping

19 What is a Process? Everything that happens within the University is a process or a series of processes A process may be contained within one department or may be cross- functional or university wide Our success is determined by how well these processes work and work together

20 What is a Process Map? A visual picture of everything that happens – Common understanding – Understanding outside of your immediate area Issues clearly highlighted – Symptom and cause Drawn by the people who do the job – Realisation – Buy-in to change Management tool – Make decisions now and in the future

21 21 Lean and Mapping CURRENT STATE IDEAL STATE FUTURE STATE FUTURE STATE FUTURE STATE

22 Why Map the Current Process? Understanding - gives an overall picture of the end to end process including all activities and decisions and highlighting complexities. Analysis – When all the activities are clearly visible it is easier to see the problems, errors and wastes. It directs improvement efforts to the right areas. Communication – The act of creating the map helps to bring the team together and provides a common language. It allows for plenty of discussion Customer Focus - details how we are meeting customer requirements... Or not!!

23 How to Map Current State Identify Your Process Establish a Process Team We need people who: – Are enthusiastic and interested – Are honest and open – Believe that there is room for improvement – Play a key role in the current process

24 How to Map Current State Establish the Environment Sensitivities need to be acknowledged Set rules Location Empowerment – Senior endorsement Engage with everyone Set the Boundaries of the Process Determine the Appropriate Level of Detail

25 How to Map Current State 25 issues process steps ownership inputs & outputs Muda timeline measures Identify the Activities – Post-its on a big sheet of brown paper. Visually capture a process from end to end on one piece of paper suggestions

26 Issues ISSUES Problems Opportunities Uncertainties Controversies Duplication Lack of documentation Handoffs Additional funding opportunities Future funding Changes in legislation External body requirements Process ownership issues

27 Questions to Ask When Process Mapping What triggers the process? What are the inputs? What is the next step? What are the outputs? How is information forwarded? (hardcopy, , system updated) How many people undertake this step? How long does this step take? What is the time delay between steps? What are the issues?

28 0.5 mins Example: Buying Lunch at McKenzie House

29 How Do We Do It Now? Issues Process

30 Make A Cup of Tea and Create a Process Map

31 Mapping Checklist

32 Pre-Mapping Workshop Checks Do you have enough stationery – post-its, marker pens, sticky tape etc  Is there plenty of flip chart paper and a stand  Is the room big enough for people to move around and put post-its on the map?  Is there enough space to hang a length of brown paper horizontally  Do you need breakout rooms?  Put up the brown paper before people come into the room – often a 2 person job (masking tape is useful as it doesn’t mark the walls)  Arrange the room so that everyone is facing the map – bring people as close to the map as possible  Are colleagues from each stage of the process represented? 

33 Mapping Workshop Checks Get the team to write out the post-its (make sure it’s readable)  Capture all issues on a flipchart - number each issue and highlight on the map  When the map is complete, check with everyone that the map is a true reflection of what actually happens not what should happen  Agree what data needs to be gathered and who will gather it  Before taking the map off the wall tape down all the post-its – they tend to fall off when the map is unrolled 

34 Post Mapping Checks Transfer the map to Visio (or Powerpoint) – it is easier to store and circulate but not essential  Circulate the map widely and record feedback and additional issues – this helps to gain buy-in from those that did not attend the workshop  Display the map in the workplace (gemba)  If applicable, feedback to sponsor 

35 Remember Current State Maps are the team’s PERCEPTION of what happens within the process Map is produced from comments of those in session so will also need to get comments from outside We then need to go CHECK THE FACTS 35

36 Gemba Gemba = The Real Place

37 Why do Gemba walks? Managers become more accessible - barriers to speak with them are lowered Management understands what is actually happening and why - seeing not just analysing data (disconnect between understanding & decision making) Management can visibly support change efforts - actively supporting not just empowering Develops a culture of trust - people should not be surprised to see you

38 Gemba Rules Show respect, know who people are Explain to people what you have come to see Build trust – gemba walks should be common place Don’t be afraid to ask why (not why don’t you..?) The objective of Gemba Walk is to understand the value stream and its problems rather than review results or make superficial comments. Gemba is not a pat on the back exercise, it’s going to the actual place to see the actual work in actual time.

39 A3 – Business School Root Cause Analysis

40 Problem Solving Problem solving is like pulling weeds…. Unless we address the root that causes the problem, poor results will keep coming back.

41 Root Cause Analysis (RCA) Root Cause Analysis seeks to identify the primary cause of a problem so that you can: – Determine what happened? – Determine why it happened? – Figure out what to do to reduce the likelihood of it happening again

42 Root Cause Analysis 1.Define the problem 2.Gather evidence 3.Identify all causal factors 4.Identify the root cause using RCA tools e.g. 5 whys, Pareto charts, fishbone diagrams etc 5.Identify solutions 6.Implement 7.Observe 8.Continuously improve

43 5 Whys

44 Why? Because the marks are late into the office from the lecturers Why? Because the timescales are too tight Why? Because there are just too many exam papers to mark Why? There are too many courses / modules Why? Because we keep adding new modules but don’t switch any off! Conclusion: A strategic decision needs to be taken on the number of modules on offer. “The staff in the Exams and Assessment office are not getting the marks to students on time”

45 Ishikawa Helps identify root causes of a problem Encourages group participation & utilises group knowledge Easy to understand Identifies areas for further data collection aka cause and effect analysis and fishbone analysis

46 Ishikawa Problem statement Identify all the factors Identify all causes Identify root cause

47 Fishbone/Ishikawa ManpowerMachineryMethod EnvironmentMaterials Wrong marks issued to students Temp. staff wasn’t properly trained Recoding system makes it easy to get a whole batch of marks wrong Manager not given financial budget to allocate staff training Phone rings all time Frequent student requests No policy exists about how to issue marks or what happens when it goes wrong Exam officer on sick leave

48 Problem statement Factor Identify root cause

49 Measles Chart A map, picture or form with a rash of dots to identify problem areas. To complete: – Get a copy of form or process where problems are occurring – Agree timescales for recording problem – Mark the location of each problem on the form / diagram as it occurs – Identify where problems are clustered – Use the measles chart to inform improvement activities

50 Measles Chart Example Issue – incomplete forms returned to Staff development. – Using a blank form the team recorded the areas of missing information – At the end of the month the main problem areas were identified and action taken

51 A3 – Business School

52 Your Homework Current State Mapping

53 Lets Recap! 1.What does PDCA stand for? 2.What are the elements of an A3? 3.What does OPTIMISM stand for? 4.What is an issue? 5.What is meant by GEMBA? 6.How many times should you ask “Why”? 7.What is another name for Ishikawa?

54 Useful Websites

55 Further Reading Gemba Walks (Jim Womack) Learning to See (Mike Rother and John Shook) Managing to Learn: Using the A3 Management Process (John Shook)

56 Any Problems Kate Hales


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