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Filamentous/solid fermentation Tempeh Tempeh Quorn Quorn Soya sauce Soya sauce Commercial mushrooms Commercial mushrooms Cheese Cheese Penicillin Penicillin.

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Presentation on theme: "Filamentous/solid fermentation Tempeh Tempeh Quorn Quorn Soya sauce Soya sauce Commercial mushrooms Commercial mushrooms Cheese Cheese Penicillin Penicillin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Filamentous/solid fermentation Tempeh Tempeh Quorn Quorn Soya sauce Soya sauce Commercial mushrooms Commercial mushrooms Cheese Cheese Penicillin Penicillin

2 Agricultural waste  2.1 x kg per year  cereal straw, sugarcane and sugar beet residue  primarily cellulose and lignins  low digestibility (40-60%) even for herbivores  subsistence nutrition  leads to low growth rates, and need for feed supplements (especially lysine!)

3 Tempeh – traditional Used for food and feed Used for food and feed Modifying agricultural waste  materials that do not have economic value by direct use, or for conversion by animals into valuable products Modifying agricultural waste  materials that do not have economic value by direct use, or for conversion by animals into valuable products Undigestible carbohydrates are wrapped in large leaves (banana) and left 1-2 d for solid fermentation Undigestible carbohydrates are wrapped in large leaves (banana) and left 1-2 d for solid fermentation Mixed inoculum of wild fungi Mixed inoculum of wild fungi

4 Tempeh – food Tempeh – Rhizopus oligosporus Tempeh – Rhizopus oligosporus Soya beans or other plant material Soya beans or other plant material Uses similar to tofu Uses similar to tofu

5 Quorn mycoprotein Fusarium graminearum A3/5 Fusarium graminearum A3/ RankHovisMcDougall (RHM)  high-protein foods from starch 1964 RankHovisMcDougall (RHM)  high-protein foods from starch Highly branched ‘colonial’ mutant CC1-1 that arose spontaneously in a glucose-limited culture of F. graminearum (now called F. venatum) Highly branched ‘colonial’ mutant CC1-1 that arose spontaneously in a glucose-limited culture of F. graminearum (now called F. venatum) Unlike tofu, has a meat-like texture, chewiness, mouthfeel Unlike tofu, has a meat-like texture, chewiness, mouthfeel January 1985 – marketed in England January 1985 – marketed in England Vegetarianism; Mad cow disease Vegetarianism; Mad cow disease February 2002 – marketed in USA February 2002 – marketed in USA

6 Culturing Fusarium graminearum A3/5 Isolated from soil, UK Isolated from soil, UK Liquid fermenters – stirred and cooled Liquid fermenters – stirred and cooled Oxygen, nitrogen, waste soluble carbohydrates, and vitamins Oxygen, nitrogen, waste soluble carbohydrates, and vitamins RNA-reduction process – “debittering” improves digestibility RNA-reduction process – “debittering” improves digestibility Current annual production: 14,000 tons Current annual production: 14,000 tons “…between chicken and mushroom in texture, with very little inherent flavor “ “…between chicken and mushroom in texture, with very little inherent flavor “

7 Quorn mycoprotein  publicity “Quorn fillets [are] made from succulent mushroom protein, coated in light crispy batter” “Quorn fillets [are] made from succulent mushroom protein, coated in light crispy batter” like mushrooms, truffles and morels hails from the fungi family deliver unrivaled taste, as well as an exceptional nutritional profile. excellent source of protein and fiber cholesterol free; low in fat, especially saturated fat

8 Toprina – animal feed – 1970s Toprina – animal feed – 1970s Candida lipolytica cultivated on C15 n-alkanes Candida lipolytica cultivated on C15 n-alkanes initially at Grangemouth (Scotland); later production scale in Sardinia initially at Grangemouth (Scotland); later production scale in Sardinia significant feature  hydrocarbon was completely fermented significant feature  hydrocarbon was completely fermented protein content ~ 65% protein content ~ 65% production uneconomic due to cost of cooling the fermenters production uneconomic due to cost of cooling the fermenters Single Cell Protein technology

9 Soya sauce, miso, tamari Soya bean + wheat flour + Aspergillus Soya bean + wheat flour + Aspergillus  Koji mold Steamed soya beans Cooled Sprinkled over toasted wheat flour Sprinkled with Aspergillus sojae

10 Soya sauce, miso, tamari Three days of aerobic fermentation Three days of aerobic fermentation Cool temperature to prevent bacterial overgrowth Cool temperature to prevent bacterial overgrowth Transferred to barrels Transferred to barrels Brine added to ~15% salt Brine added to ~15% salt 18 months

11 Soya sauce, miso, tamari Liquid – soya sauce Solid – miso and tamari Further maturation  up to several months, cool temperature

12 Tempeh Soybeans are boiled and dehulled Soybeans are boiled and dehulled Rhizopus oligosporus grows < 24 h, creating a solid cake of hyphae/beans Rhizopus oligosporus grows < 24 h, creating a solid cake of hyphae/beans Soybeans are made more digestible by lipases and proteases secreted by Rhizopus,as well as fungal components Soybeans are made more digestible by lipases and proteases secreted by Rhizopus,as well as fungal components Growth is halted (cooking, freezing) before sporulation begins (NB: oligosporus = few spores” Growth is halted (cooking, freezing) before sporulation begins (NB: oligosporus = few spores” Traditionally, tempeh is stored wrapped in banana leaves, and eaten soon after preparation Traditionally, tempeh is stored wrapped in banana leaves, and eaten soon after preparation

13 Modified forage  2.1 x kg per year – cereal straw, sugarcane and sugar beet residue – contains nutrients, primarily as cellulose and lignins  low digestibility (40-60%) even for herbivores  generally subsistence nutrition, but leads to low growth rates, and need for feed supplements  uses naturally occurring fungi, &/or inoculated deliberately

14 Basic Mushroom culture Grow spawn on grains Grow spawn on grains Inoculate substrate Inoculate substrate Mycelial growth in substrate Mycelial growth in substrate Fruiting, harvest, grading Fruiting, harvest, grading

15 Commercial mushroom growing Agaricus brunescens Agaricus brunescens 3-7 d Crimini (Italian brown )

16 Commercial mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus – oyster mushroom – straw, sawdust, bagasse and molasses (from sugar refining) Pleurotus ostreatus – oyster mushroom – straw, sawdust, bagasse and molasses (from sugar refining)

17 Commercial mushrooms Shiitake – Lentinus edodes Shiitake – Lentinus edodes Inoculated into oak logs Inoculated into oak logs

18 Commercial mushrooms Enoki Enoki Flammulina velutipes Flammulina velutipes

19 Commercial mushroom harvest – wild mushrooms can save the forest Morchella, Cantharellus Morchella, Cantharellus Value to the forest: $$, mycorrhizae, environmental monitoring

20 Morels in truffle juice 50g € Boletus granulatus, Tricholoma terreum, Lactarius deliciosus Guaranteed freshly picked up200g 3.95 € Boletus edulis 200 g 6.98 €

21 Cheese manufacture Fungi  flavour and texture ONLY Fungi  flavour and texture ONLY

22 Roquefort Sheep’s milk  Penicillium roquefortii

23 Roquefort production traditional cheese-making process traditional cheese-making process genuine Roquefort cheese  look for the red sheep seal on the packaging genuine Roquefort cheese  look for the red sheep seal on the packaging sheep’s milk is shipped to the cheese-making facilities in 40 liter containers, rather than tanker trucks, to avoid breaking up the milk-fat on the way sheep’s milk is shipped to the cheese-making facilities in 40 liter containers, rather than tanker trucks, to avoid breaking up the milk-fat on the way milk is tested and filtered, but neither pasteurized nor homogenized milk is tested and filtered, but neither pasteurized nor homogenized prepared with rennet for two hours prepared with rennet for two hours whey is drained  curds are hand-ladled into draining molds whey is drained  curds are hand-ladled into draining molds

24 Roquefort production whey is drained  curds are hand-ladled into draining molds whey is drained  curds are hand-ladled into draining molds Penicillium roqueforti culture is added (same culture used to make English Stilton) Penicillium roqueforti culture is added (same culture used to make English Stilton)Stilton P. roqueforti grown by leaving bread in the caves for six to eight weeks until it was consumed by the mold  crumb was then dried to produce a powder P. roqueforti grown by leaving bread in the caves for six to eight weeks until it was consumed by the mold  crumb was then dried to produce a powder “finished” cheeses are stored for a week and turned frequently “finished” cheeses are stored for a week and turned frequently moved to the caves of Cambalou moved to the caves of Cambalou salted and pierced to encourage the growth of the mold salted and pierced to encourage the growth of the mold aged in the caves at least three months aged in the caves at least three months

25 Blue cheese options

26 The story of penicillin –the contaminant that changed history Alexander Fleming & Staphylococcus aureus Alexander Fleming & Staphylococcus aureus Contaminated plate showed a “zone of inhibition Contaminated plate showed a “zone of inhibition Original culture was Penicillium notatum

27 Development of submerged fermenters for aerobic fungi Industrial development was moved to Illinois to protect from WWII (Chain and Florey) Original culture ‘lost’; reisolated; modified and selected  P. chrysogenum and submerged culture

28 Bacillus + penicillin Bacillus

29 Antibiotic resistance 40,000 units total  500,000 per day typical treatment 20 million kg antibiotics / year in US; 70% used in agriculture


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