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1 11 Master of Business Administration Module Module Culture & Politics: International Politics Development – Democracy - Human rights + Democracy promotion (Arabellion + Afghanistan) – German Development – Democracy - Human rights + Democracy promotion (Arabellion + Afghanistan) – German Peace and Security Policy ANOTHER HEARTILY WELCOME! Prof. Dr. Uwe HOLTZ 9/10 December 2011 Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg / University of Applied Sciences

2 2 Road Map for December 9 and 10, 2011  The Meaning of Development – new vision: democracy, equity and environmental sustainability  Democracy and Human Rights  Relationship between Democracy, Good Governance and Development  Democracy Promotion – “Arabellion” + Afghanistan (Conference in Bonn, December 5, 2011)  CDU/CSU/FDP Foreign Policy  Official Development Assistance (ODA)  Development Cooperation by Germany and the EU  Factors responsible for (mal-)development – role of elites  Future of International Relations  Two guest speakers: Bärbel Dieckmann (President of Deutsche Welthungerhilfe, 9 December) and Ursula Mogg (former MP on Peace and Security Policy, 10 December) Cross-cutting: NGOs

3 3 Bärbel Dieckmann *1949 Leverkusen; married, 4 children on International Politics and the Role of NGOs (Deutsche Welthungerhilfe) Ms. Dieckmann holds a Master of Arts (“Staatsexamen”) in Philosophy, History and Social Sciences from the Bonn University Professional experiences as a teacher – lastly as a deputy director “Studiendirektorin”) of a high school in Bonn Lord Mayer of Bonn, 1994 – 2009 (U.H.: excellent “ambassador” for Bonn as a UN City) Executive President of the Council of European Municipalities and Regions, Brussels, 2004 – 2009 President of the Deutsche Welthungerhilfe, since 2008

4 4 Ursula Mogg Ursula Mogg (*1953 Koblenz) on Peace and Security Policy Ms. Mogg holds a Master of Arts in Political Science, English Philology and International Law from the University of Bonn Professional experiences in an office of an MP and in the State administration of Rhineland- Palatinate Member of the German Bundestag, 1994-2009 (deputy speaker for defense of the SPD parliamentary group; member of the NATO Parliamentary Assembly) Lecturer at the Federal Armed Forces Academy in Koblenz

5 55 In order to achieve the vision of a better world and a better life for all human beings, the appropriate development efforts are requested. But what does it mean: Development?

6 6 “South”- oriented definition: Nyerere Commission 1990* Development is a a process which enables human beings to realize their potential, build self-confidence, and lead lives of dignity and fulfillment. It is a process which frees people from fear of want and exploitation. It is a movement away from political, economic, or social oppression. Through development, political independence acquires true significance. And it is a process of growth, a movement essentially springing from within the society that is developing. Development therefore implies growing self-reliance, both individual and collective. (…) External assistance can promote development. But to have this effect, this assistance has to be integrated into the national effort.” * The Challenge to the South: Report of the South Commission, Oxford 1990, p. 10-11

7 7 Sustainable Development / Brundtland Commission 1987 Almost 25 years ago, the report “Our Common Future” from the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (chaired by Gro Harlem Brundtland) placed sustainable development on the political agenda: Under the label “from One Earth to One World” it pleaded for “sustainable development” in developed and developing countries defined as “development that meets the needs of the present without compro- mising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts: the concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs. The satisfaction of human needs and aspirations is the major objective of development.”* The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future, Oxford – New York 1987, p. 43

8 8 UN Conference on Environment and Development, at Rio de Janeiro in 1992 The Brundtland Report led to the first Earth Summit. The international community formulated an action programme for the 21st century – the Agenda 21 with its developmental and environmental objectives asking for national and international endeavours and for a new global partnership for sustainable development. Rio led to new development paradigm of “sustainable human development”. The United Nations officially recognized the interdependence of climate change, land degradation and biodiversity, and their relevance for sustainable development, in the three “Rio Conventions”: the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, (UNFCCC), the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD); and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).

9 99 Rio: Agenda 21 – democracy takes place: Rio: Agenda 21 – democracy takes place: 27.1. Non-governmental organizations play a vital role in the shaping and implementation of participatory democracy. 2.6. Experience has shown that sustainable development requires a commitment to sound economic policies and management, an effective and predictable public administration, the integration of environmental concerns into decision-making and progress towards democratic government, in the light of country-specific conditions, which allows for full participation of all parties concerned. The Millennium Declaration from 2000 and the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set out important guidelines and concrete targets in the area of global sustainability and sustainable development.

10 1010

11 1111 Cotonou ACP-EU Agreement, 2000-2020, favours an integrated, holistic approach of development > the paradigm of “sustainable development centred on the human person“ (Art. 9 § 1) cultural environmentalsocial economic political development U. Holtz: A human being – this animal rationale = zoon logon echon – is not just a „homo oeconomicus“, but also a „zoon politicon“ as well as homo socialis, oecologicus and culturalis.

12 1212 Holtz: Development is a long term, complex and multi-dimensional process aiming at the satisfaction of basic human needs and the realisation of human rights. It must be sustainable. This is a challenge facing parliaments and governments, non- governmental organizations, private enterprises, research and teaching institutions, communities and individuals. Brundtland Commission, “Our Common Future”, 1987: The term “sustainable development” is defined as “…development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.” UNCED Rio 1992 > Agenda 21; WSSD Jo’burg 2002 confirmed the paradigm of “sustainable human development” Buen vivir for all instead of dolce vita for a few. (Ecuador y Bolivia han incluido el buen vivir en sus respectivas constituciones como el objetivo social a ser perseguido por el Estado y por toda la sociedad.)

13 13 How to measure development? The two most prominent figures are given by the WORLD BANK (GNI per capita) and the UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (Human Development Index / HDI) UNDP’s HDI is a composite index measuring average achievement in three basic dimensions of human development: 1.a long life (life expectancy) 2.access to knowledge (literacy rate), 3.a decent standard of living (using the power purchasing parity exchange rate).

14 14 UNDP (2011): Human Development Report 2011 Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All* The point of departure is that the remarkable progress in human development over recent decades that the Human Development Report has documented cannot continue without bold global steps to reduce environmental risks and inequality. “calls for a new vision that jointly considers equity and environmental sustainability. Taking up this challenge will expand choices for people today and in the future – the hallmark of human development.” (p. 98) * Also available at

15 15 Income inequality has deteriorated in most countries and regions – with some notable exceptions in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa There is a striking increase in the income share of the wealthiest groups in much of Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand. Income has also become more concentrated among top earners in China, India and South Africa. In China, the Gini coefficient for income inequality rose from 0.31 in 1981 to 0.42 in 2005.* Over the last decade or so, much of Latin America and the Caribbean has bucked this trend: within-country inequality has been falling, especially in Argentina, Brazil, Honduras, Mexico and Peru. *A value of 0 represents absolute equality, a value of 1 absolute inequality.

16 16 OECD (2011), Divided We Stand: Why Inequality Keeps Rising (5 Dec. 2011) COUNTRY NOTE: GERMANY (5 Income inequality in Germany has risen sharply since 2000. In the 1980s, German inequality levels were close to those found in some Nordic countries, but today they are very close to the OECD average. The average income of the top 10% of working-age Germans in 2008 was 57 300 euro (70 000 USD), nearly 8 times higher than that of the bottom 10%, who had an average income of 7 400 euro (9 100 USD). This is up from a ratio of 6 to 1 in the mid 1990s. Redistribution is stronger in Germany than a typical OECD country. In 2008, taxes and benefits reduce inequality by nearly 30%.

17 17 Notes: The Gini coefficient ranges from 0 (when all people have identical incomes) to 1 (when the richest person has all the income). Market incomes are labour earnings, capital incomes and savings. Disposable income is market income plus social transfers less income taxes. Incomes are adjusted for household size. Data refer to the working-age population.

18 18 COUNTRY NOTE: MEXICO Income inequality among working-age people in Mexico is the second highest in the OECD, after Chile, and well above the OECD average, despite falling since the mid-1990s. The average income of the top 10% of Mexicans in 2008 was 228,900 MXN, 26 times higher than that of the bottom 10%, who had an average income of 8,700 MXN. The ratio is 9 to 1 in a typical OECD country.

19 19

20 20 Democracy Human Rights Good Governance

21 2121 The word democracy originates from the Greek “demos” = “the people” “kratein” = “to rule” democracy = “rule by the people” (in the Athenian democracy, slaves and women were prohibited from voting) The word democracy originates from the Greek “demos” = “the people” “kratein” = “to rule” democracy = “rule by the people” (in the Athenian democracy, slaves and women were prohibited from voting) The classical distinction between governments in terms of the number of rulers: government by one man (monarchy or tyranny), government by the few (aristocracy or oligarchy), government by the many (democracy). Distinction between monarchies and republics. Schemes classifying democracies in terms of their key institutions: parliamentary democracy, presidential democracy.

22 2222 US President Abraham Lincoln in his »Gettysburg Address« (19.11.1863): Democracy is “government of the people by the people for the people” rule emanating from the people (legitimacy) participatory form of rule (execution) committed to the people and the public welfare (normative aspect of rule).

23 2323 There is much debate on the ability of a democracy to properly represent both the ‘will of the people’ and to do what is ‘right’, but to refer to Winston Churchill: Democracy is the worst form of government except for all those others that have been tried. This is because there is no system that can ideally order society. Traditionally the purpose of democracy is to prevent tyranny and dictatorship (the accumulation of too much authority in the hands of one or a few). IPU, Universal Declaration on Democracy, 1997: Democracy “is the only political system that has the capacity for self-correction.”

24 2424 U. Holtz The triangle of core components of any democracy 1. Free, fair and regular elections with the possibility to change government Elections require the freedom of expression and associational freedom. Electoral competition is required for any democracy to thrive and flourish. In a democracy, multiple political forces/parties compete inside an institutional framework; parliaments are the heart of democracy. Without inclusion, certain segments of society are not eligible to participate, leaving a lack of true democratic representation.

25 2525 Nelson Mandela voting in 1994 elections

26 26 Parliamentary Hexagon (U.H.): The main six functions / powers of Parliaments: (i) Lpower of the purse; (iii) elective power; (iv) power of oversight; (v) treaty and war power; (vi) power of discourse. Parliamentary Hexagon (U.H.): The main six functions / powers of Parliaments: (i) Legislative power; (ii) power of the purse; (iii) elective power; (iv) power of oversight; (v) treaty and war power; (vi) power of discourse. German: Basic Law, Article 21 Political parties shall participate in the formation of the political will of the people. They may be freely established. Their internal organisation must conform to democratic principles. They must publicly account for their assets and for the sources and use of their funds.

27 2727 2. Politics shall be bound by constitutional law and order law and order This requires the - at least a minimum of – separation of powers, independent judiciary, rule of law.

28 2828 Federal Constitutional Court - Karlsruhe / Germany

29 2929 3. The respect for, and protection and promotion of inalienable human rights and civil and political liberties Elections and a body of civil rights - both institutions limit the power of the state: the first by ensuring that the rascals can be thrown out of office, the second by making sure that the rascals cannot do certain things even while in office. Civil rights also protect minorities against the dictatorship of the majority.

30 3030 European Court of Human Rights / Council of Europe Strasbourg / France

31 3131 Democracy – universally recognised? IPU, Universal Declaration on Democracy,1997: Democracy is a universally recognised ideal as well as a goal, which is based on common values shared by peoples throughout the world community irrespective of cultural, political, social and economic differences. It is thus a basic right of citizenship to be exercised under conditions of freedom, equality, transparency and responsibility, with due respect for the plurality of views, and in the interest of the polity. Amartya Sen, 1999: The recognition of democracy as a universally relevant system, which moves in the direction of its acceptance as a universal value, is a major revolution in thinking, and one of the main contributions of the twentieth century. … Democracy enriches the lives of the citizens.

32 3232 Amartya Sen (*1933): Democracy as a Universal Value (1999) This recognition of democracy as a universally relevant system, which moves in the direction of its acceptance as a universal value, is a major revolution in thinking. A country does not have to be deemed fit for democracy; rather, it has to become fit through democracy. We can distinguish three different ways in which democracy enriches the lives of the citizens: a)Intrinsic value b)Instrumental value c)Constructive role

33 33, January 2011

34 34 Democracy Index 2008 – Economist Intelligence Unit Source: The Economist Intelligence Unit’s Index of Democracy 2008 ( Index 2008.pdf - 12.11.10

35 3535 Democracy and human rights  Democracy, human rights and development should go hand in hand.  Democracies rarely, or even never, go to war with one another. (< Democratic peace theory or liberal democratic theory – Immanuel Kant) Kant's theory was that a majority of the people would never vote to go to war, unless in self defence. Therefore, if all nations were republics, it would end war, because there would be no aggressors. Kant's theory was that a majority of the people would never vote to go to war, unless in self defence. Therefore, if all nations were republics, it would end war, because there would be no aggressors. (Perpetual Peace, 1795)

36 3636 The International Bill of Human Rights consists of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948, (Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.) the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights/ICESCR adopted by the General Assembly by its resolution 2200 A (XXI) of 16 December 1966 - entered into force 3 January 1976. the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights/ICCPR adopted by the General Assembly by its resolution 2200 A (XXI) of 16 December 1966 – entered into force 23 March 1976, and its two Optional Protocols. the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights/ICCPR adopted by the General Assembly by its resolution 2200 A (XXI) of 16 December 1966 – entered into force 23 March 1976, and its two Optional Protocols. The WORLD CONFERENCE ON HUMAN RIGHTS, Vienna, 14-25 June 1993, confirmed: All human rights are universal, indivisible and interdependent and interrelated.

37 37 Universal Declaration of Human Rights Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations, 1948):United Nations, 1948 Every person – ‘without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or … the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs’ (Article 2) – should enjoy such rights, including those in the following categories: Cf. Development 53 (2010), p. 451–456, 452 (www.palgrave-

38 38 1. Political/Civil: - not being ‘subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment’ (Article 5); - ‘equal protection of the law’ (Article 7); - not being ‘subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile’ (Article 9); - ‘a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal’ (Article 10); - ‘freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state … [and] to leave any country … and to return to his country’ (Article 13); - ‘take part in the government of [one's] country, directly or through freely chosen representatives’ (Article 23);

39 39 2. Economic/Welfare: - ‘own property alone as well as in association with others’ (Article 17); - ‘free choice of employment, … just and favorable conditions of work, … just and favorable remuneration [in work] … and [freedom] to join trade unions for the protection of [one's interests’ (Article 23); - ‘a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of [one]self and of [one's] family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services’ (Article 25); 3. Social/Cultural: - ‘freedom of thought, conscience and religion’ (Article 18); - ‘freedom of opinion and expression … and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers’ (Article 19); -‘freely participate in the cultural life of the community, … enjoy the arts, and … share in scientific advancement and its benefits’ (Article 27).

40 40 „New“ Generation of Rights: Collective Rights Right of peoples to: Self-determination Development Free use of their wealth and natural resources Peace A healthy environment Other collective rights: Rights of national, ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities Rights of indigenous peoples

41 41 The right to development The 1986 UN Declaration on the Right to Development states that: 1. “… every human person and all peoples are entitled to participate in, contribute to, and enjoy economic, social, cultural and political development, in which all human rights and fundamental freedoms can be fully realized”, [and] 2. “The human right to development also implies the full realization of the right of peoples to self-determination, which includes, subject to the relevant provisions of both International Covenants on Human Rights, the exercise of their inalienable right to full sovereignty over all their natural wealth and resources.”

42 42  The right to development is based on the principle of the indivisibility and interdependence of all human rights and fundamental freedoms.  Equal attention and urgent consideration should be given to the implementation, promotion and protection of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights.  The Millennium Development Goals of September 2000 define the eradication of poverty as the overarching objective of the development process.  Governments and other duty bearers are under an obligation to respect, protect and fulfil human rights. Cf. IPU (2005): Human Rights: A Handbook for Parliamentarians, Geneva

43 43 Relationship between development, democracy and good governance Democracy promotion Good governance is more than good government; it encompasses good administration. [In French: “bonne gestion des affaires publiques”]

44 44 Kofi Annan, Secretary-General of the UN, 1997* “Good governance and sustainable development are indivisible. That is the lesson of all our efforts and experiences, from Africa to Asia to Latin America. Without good governance -- without the rule of law, predictable administration, legitimate power, and responsive regulation -- no amount of funding, no amount of charity will set us on the path to prosperity.”44 (7.12.11)

45 45 A central prerequisite for sustainable development is good, legitimate and effective governance. The EU-ACP Cotonou Agreement (Art 9.3) gives the following defintion: “In the context of political and institutional environment that upholds human rights, democratic principles and the rule of law, good governance is the transparent and accountable management of human, natural, economic and financial resources for the purposes of equitable and sustainable development. It entails clear decision-making procedures at the level of public authorities, transparent and accountable institutions, the primacy of law in the management and distribution of resources and capacity building for elaborating and implementing measures aiming in particular at preventing and combating corruption.”

46 46 The international community about the links WORLD CONFERENCE ON HUMAN RIGHTS, Vienna, June 1993: Democracy, development and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms are interdependent and mutually reinforcing. UNDP‘s HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2002: The links between democracy and human development are not automatic. Political freedom and participation are part of human development, both as development goals in their own right and as means for advancing human development. COTONOU AGREEMENT, 2000: The partnership shall actively support the promotion of human rights, processes of democratisation, consolidation of the rule of law, and good governance. NEPAD, 2001, art. 71 African leaders have learnt from their own experiences that peace, security, democracy, good governance, human rights and sound economic management are conditions for sustainable development.

47 47 ACP-EU Partnership Agreement, signed in Cotonou, 23 June 2000 Article 9 Essential Elements and Fundamental Element (1) Cooperation shall be directed towards sustainable development centred on the human person, who is the main protagonist and beneficiary of development; this entails respect for and promotion of all human rights. Respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms, including respect for fundamental social rights, democracy based on the rule of law and transparent and accountable governance are an integral part of sustainable development. (2) The Parties reaffirm that democratisation, development and the protection of fundamental freedoms and human rights are interrelated and mutually reinforcing.

48 48 International Democracy Promotion Objective: External IDP should contribute to the development and consolidation of democracy Reasons: - democracy is a universal value (A. Sen) - moral obligation - instrumental rationale grounded in the goals of universal peace, social justice and global development IDP – democracy building: - promoting the (pre-)conditions for development - assisting the democratisation -in failed, weak states - for the time being - political stability may be a priority Means, approaches: A continuum from ‘soft power’ (Joseph Nye) and other non-coercive form of influence to diplomatic pressure, political conditionalities and (threat of) sanctions (‘hard power’ - # war)

49 49 Cotonou Agreement ARTICLE 9 Essential elements regarding human rights, democratic principles and the rule of law, and fundamental element regarding good governance Respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms, including respect for fundamental social rights, democracy based on the rule of law and transparent and accountable governance are an integral part of sustainable development. The Partnership shall actively support the promotion of human rights, processes of democratisation, consolidation of the rule of law, and good governance. These areas will be an important subject for the political dialogue. The Community shall provide support for political, institutional and legal reforms and for building the capacity of public and private actors and civil society in the framework of strategies agreed jointly between the State concerned and the Community.

50 50 Lise Rakner, Alina Rocha Menocal, Verena Fritz.: Democratisation’s Third Wave and the Challenges of Democratic Deepening: Assessing International Democracy Assistance and Lessons Learned, London 2007 ( third-wave-and-the-challenges-of.pdf - 7.12.11 ); third-wave-and-the-challenges-of.pdf Democracy assistance: Lessons learned and remaining challenges.....................23 3.2 Forms of democracy assistance 3.2.1 Electoral assistance..................................... 3.2.2 Assistance to political parties ……………… 3.2.3 Justice sector assistance............................. 3.2.4 Assistance to civil society............................. 3.2.5 Assistance to media..................................... ----- [3.2.6 Assistance to decentralization of a country + to local democracy………………………………………..]

51 51 What worked? - In the 70ies: support to states transitioning from dictatorship to democracy, incl. Portugal, Spain and Greece. (< German political foundations). - 1993 Copenhagen criteria of the EC for accession countries > good results - Sanctions: apartheid South Africa; Cuba and Zimbabwe (mixed results) Democracy assistance assessments (so difficult): - Political foundations: in some countries very successful, in others helpful (Indonesia, Chile) or poor results (China) - Evaluation of the EU efforts in Ukraine, Indonesia, Angola and Guatemala: The impact of external assistance has been modest. - USAID: more than 100 countries between 1990-2003 achieved higher scores for democracy, but the overall democracy dividend was itself small, because the aid commitment has been small - Other studies (SIDA, DANIDA, GTZ/GIZ, political foundations): both yes and no (promotion of parties, parliaments, civil society)

52 5252 Since the end of the Cold War, NGOs and INGOs are playing quite important roles in the development process (international conferences, advocacy role, negotiation partners). The tendency for donors and international organisations to engage with civil society and NGOs but to neglect parliaments is neither acceptable nor prudent. Donors and international organisations have to engage with parliaments, who have the last word on laws and budgets and are the representative institutions providing the political base for policy and institutional arrangements.

53 53 “It's time, also for the international community, to try democracy”* By Vidar Helgesen, IDEA Secretary-General The International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance is an intergovernmental org. Both the world and the Arab region are changing and, in tandem with these changes, the demand for democracy appears to be returning with renewed vitality. Twenty two years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, seventeen years after the end of the apartheid regime in South Africa, thirteen years after the democratic reform in Indonesia, the 2011 democracy wave is about to engulf the Arab world. And this time, democracy doesn't come at the point of foreign guns or as a by-product of other agendas. The seeds are unequivocally and genuinely home-grown. Men and women are simply determined to take their future in their own hands. They want to be represented and have a say in the way their country is governed. * (7.12.11)

54 54 While their agenda is domestic, they are at the same time teaching the international community some lessons: 1. Firstly, the marginal role democracy has played in international relations in the last decade has not made democracy less central to citizens' aspirations around the world. The democratic uprising took the world by surprise: again, democracy defies predictions. 2. Secondly, in the new, multi-polar world, democracy too is becoming truly global. It can no longer be dismissed as a European or Western cultural export. There are twice as many people living under democracy in the global South as the populations of Europe and North America together. 3. Thirdly, the information, awareness-raising and political mobilization capacity of new media has by far exceeded the capacity of authoritarian governments to insulate their citizens from regional and global trends. The multiple social networks are like water streams in a field; they always find alternative paths and create new ones, often in real time. 4. Last but not least, in the turbulent Arab region, the alibi of authoritarian regimes as self-appointed guarantors of regional security and stability is no longer convincing and credible, and hence, should no longer be taken at face value by other influential international actors.

55 55 The building of democracy in the Arab region will take time. As already discovered in earlier transitions, democracy is not what you find in the pot when you lift the heavy lid of authoritarian government. While democracy is the best guarantor of stability in the long run, the process of democratization is often destabilizing: after all, it is about changing power relations in society. Those rightly concerned with the danger of instability and conflict in the Middle East should however realize that by now, it is delaying democratic change which holds the greater risk. Citizens of Tunisia, Egypt and other countries of the region have a long way to go. Mass protest can overthrow a dictatorship, but cannot build democracy. Changes are required in constitutions, electoral systems, laws and regulations related to political parties, the media, the justice system, and not least, in people's minds. One fundamental such shift required is that of the place of women in political life in the region.

56 56 The International Afghanistan Conference in Bonn 5 December 2011 Afghanistan and the International Community: From Transition to the Transformation Decade CONFERENCE CONCLUSIONS* 3. Ten years ago today at the Petersberg, Afghanistan charted a new path towards a sovereign, peaceful, prosperous and democratic future, and the International Community accepted the responsibility to help Afghanistan along that path. Together we have achieved substantial progress over these ten years, more than in any other period in Afghanistan’s history. Never before have the Afghan people, and especially Afghan women, enjoyed comparable access to services, including education and health, or seen greater development of infrastructure across the country. Al Qaida has been disrupted, and Afghanistan’s national security institutions are increasingly able to assume responsibility for a secure and independent Afghanistan. *

57 57

58 58 (6.12.2011)

59 59 6. Afghanistan reaffirms that the future of its political system will continue to reflect its pluralistic society and remain firmly founded on the Afghan Constitution. The Afghan people will continue to build a stable, democratic society, based on the rule of law, where the human rights and fundamental freedoms of its citizens, including the equality of men and women, are guaranteed under the Constitution. Afghanistan recommits to upholding all of its international human rights obligations. Acknowledging that on this path Afghanistan will have its own lessons to learn, the International Community fully endorses this vision and commits to supporting Afghanistan’s progress in that direction.

60 60 7. We have taken note of statements by Afghan civil society organisations, including today’s statements by two of their delegates at this meeting. We all reaffirm that the human rights and fundamental freedoms enshrined in the Afghan Constitution, including the rights of women and children, as well as a thriving and free civil society are key for Afghanistan’s future. Therefore, we underscore the further promotion of civil society participation, including both traditional civil society structures and modern manifestations of civic action, including the role of youth, in the country’s democratic processes. 19. The International Community shares Afghanistan’s aim of achieving self ‐ reliance and prosperity through developing its human and resource potential on its path towards sustainable and equitable growth and improved standards of living, and welcomes the Afghan Government’s economic Transition strategy as elaborated in the document Towards a Self ‐ Sustaining Afghanistan.

61 61 18. Mindful of the relevant UN resolutions, the International Community concurs with Afghanistan that the peace and reconciliation process and its outcome must be based on the following principles: (a) The process leading to reconciliation must be  truly Afghan ‐ led and Afghan ‐ owned; as well as  inclusive, representing the legitimate interests of all the people of Afghanistan, regardless of gender or social status. (b) Reconciliation must contain  the reaffirmation of a sovereign, stable and united Afghanistan;  the renunciation of violence;  the breaking of ties to international terrorism;  respect for the Afghan Constitution, including its human rights provisions, notably the rights of women. (c) The region must respect and support the peace process and its outcome. An outcome of the peace process respecting the above principles will receive the full support of the International Community.

62 62 The coalition agreement between CDU, CSU and FDP 2009-2013 SECURING PEACE Through partnership and common responsibility in Europe and the world 1.Germany in Europe 2.Value-oriented and interest-led foreign policy 3.Germany’s international responsibilities 4.International deployment and instruments within German security policy 5.Modern and efficient German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr) 6.Protecting human rights – promoting the rule of law 7.Cultural relations and education policy 8.Development co-operation

63 63  Germany’s future in peace, freedom, security and prosperity is inextricably linked to political developments in Europe and the world. We are committed to a policy that both serves the interests of our country in a unified Europe and contributes to peace in the world. To this end, we assume a formative role in the alliances and international organisations with which we cooperate.  Our political strategies are shaped by the values in the Basic Law and directed by the goal of protecting the interests of our country. We are committed to the universality of human rights, the rule of law domestically and in international relations and consider human rights an invariable constant of German foreign and security policy.  We are committed to strong partnerships and effective multilateral structures. Transatlantic co-operation and European unification are the centrepieces of our policy.

64 64  We advocate strengthening the United Nations and are committed to comprehensive reforms. We are committed to structures in this global organisation that reflect present day realities.  In this context we will continue to advocate a permanent joint EU seat on the Security Council in the overall reform of the UN and in keeping with the Lisbon Treaty.  We will continue to expand Bonn as a location for the United Nations and international nongovernmental organisations.

65 65  We will only engage militarily if we can do so in the framework of the UN, NATO or the EU and on the basis of legitimacy under international law. The right to self defence is not affected. We will continue to be guided by our culture of restraint.  Diplomatic efforts have the utmost priority in international crisis prevention and management; the importance of utilising civil forces, namely the police and the judiciary, is increasing.  We are committed to the cross-linked security policy approach. It requires modern and efficient armed forces and suitable civil instruments for international conflict prevention and management, and for closer integration and co-ordination.  The federal government will inform the German Bundestag about the ongoing deployments of German armed forces on a regular basis thus fulfilling the requirements for adequate parliamentary control.

66 66 Thank you very much for your attention and active participation

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