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Afternoon Session – Day 1 Towards Full Accessibility in LMS OpenACS/.LRN Fall Confenrece 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "Afternoon Session – Day 1 Towards Full Accessibility in LMS OpenACS/.LRN Fall Confenrece 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 Afternoon Session – Day 1 Towards Full Accessibility in LMS OpenACS/.LRN Fall Confenrece 2006

2 OpenACS/.LRN Fall Conference – Nov. 1-4, 2006 – Boston Objectives of the Session 1.On-going developments and research works on accessibility compliance in LMS 2.Analyze the accessibility status of.LRN/OpenACS and discuss the existing main problems and the way to solve them. 3.Educate.LRN community in the importance of developing with accessibility requirements in mind 4.Define some guidelines to help.LRN developments reach the accessibility requirements

3 OpenACS/.LRN Fall Conference 2006 Artificial Intelligence Dpt. Day 1 - Afternoon Session Towards Full Accessibility in LMS Accessibility Requirements in dotLRN Olga C. Santos R&D Technical Manager of aDeNu Research Group UNED (Spain)

4 OpenACS/.LRN Fall Conference – Nov. 1-4, 2006 – Boston Overview Introduction to Accessiblity Objectives WAI guidelines: WCAG 1.0 & 2.0 Accessibility in.LRN Previous efforts Current status Reported bugs Practical Guidelines AJAX and accessibility Validation

5 Introduction to Accessibility

6 OpenACS/.LRN Fall Conference – Nov. 1-4, 2006 – Boston Objectives To allow different strategies for web access To facilitate the integration of technical aids Remove accessibility barriers and Guarantee access for all

7 OpenACS/.LRN Fall Conference – Nov. 1-4, 2006 – Boston Checkpoints for WCAG 1.0

8 OpenACS/.LRN Fall Conference – Nov. 1-4, 2006 – Boston WCAG 2.0 Still a DRAFT version!!! WCAG 2.0 Quick Reference Several changes Success Criteria and Conformance Levels Instead of Checkpoints and Priorities Baseline concept: technologies with accessibility support Does not prohibit the use of any specific technology As long as they are supported by accessible user agents, including assistive technologies.user agentsassistive technologies Comparison: WCAG 1.0 checkpoints to WCAG 2.0 Success Criteria

9 OpenACS/.LRN Fall Conference – Nov. 1-4, 2006 – Boston [Off Topic]: Web Design World 2006 Boston: Dec 11-13, /boston/ 06/boston/ "Accessibility in a Web 2.0 World" by Shawn HenryShawn Henry WAI Outreach Coordinator at the W3C WAIW3C holds a research appointment at the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL)MITCSAIL

10 Accessibility in.LRN

11 OpenACS/.LRN Fall Conference – Nov. 1-4, 2006 – Boston Accessibility Status in.LRN Previous efforts: Tristan Kalnins-Cole's under Dorian Peter's supervision Tristan Kalnins-Cole's was ‘unofficially’ WCAG 1.0 level A compliant Selva theme: Selva theme Designed to improve navigation and usability and based on CSS Current version:.LRN Tried to comply with WCAG 1.0 level A Analysis based on the checkpoints from WCAG 1.0 Problems reported to the Bug tracker

12 OpenACS/.LRN Fall Conference – Nov. 1-4, 2006 – Boston Requirements for accessibility in.LRN Selva Theme Accessible forms (instead of standard.adp) openacs-4/packages/acs-templating/resources/forms/accessible- forms.adp Minor changes in some files (some already in CVS) openacs-4/www/blank-master.adp openacs-4/packages/acs-subsite/lib/login.tcl openacs-4/packages/acs-templating/tcl/widget-procs.tcl openacs-4/packages/dotlrn/www/admin/term-new.tcl

13 OpenACS/.LRN Fall Conference – Nov. 1-4, 2006 – Boston Bug Tracker: open accessibility bugs WCAG 1.0 level A: 6 open bugs #3024: WCAG - Checkpoint 5.2 #2940: LORS frames need a title #2939: LORS requires Javascript #2931: Specify language with lang attribute #2822: alt and title description in Calendar images #2816: alt description in dotLRN logo is not sufficient WCAG 1.0 level AA: 9 open bugs #2841: WCAG - Checkpoint 3.6 #2840: WCAG - Checkpoint 3.5 #2839: WCAG - Checkpoint 3.2 #2837: WCAG - Checkpoint 13.3 #2836: WCAG - Checkpoint 13.2 #2835: WCAG - Checkpoint 13.1 #2834: WCAG - Checkpoint 12.4 #2833: WCAG - Checkpoint 5.3 #2832: WCAG - Checkpoint 3.3 WCAG 1.0 level AAA: 2 open bugs #3022: WCAG - Checkpoint 2.2 #3021: WCAG - Checkpoint 13.5

14 OpenACS/.LRN Fall Conference – Nov. 1-4, 2006 – Boston Main reported problems (1/3) Skip menu missing (select where to go from top of the page) Site map or table of contents missing Colour combinations used are not optimal Foreground and background of top menus (white vs. greenish/bluish) Critical problems in Calendar, Forums Default size of the text used in some pages is too small Folder names, learning material, assessment, learning units, … Specify language with lang attribute Proper descriptions in ALT and TITLE tags Explicitly associate the form controls and their labels with the LABEL element Forums, Assessment

15 OpenACS/.LRN Fall Conference – Nov. 1-4, 2006 – Boston Main reported problems (2/3) Forums An iframe is used and does not have a title Alt text for expanding the thread (upside down orange triangle) is "+“ Table should have a table header (TH), summary and caption for the table, while layout should be controlled by css E.g. table under "members” does not Frames Need to be avoided, or properly commented TITLE attributes for the frames are empty Reconsidering the way LORS and IMS-LD packages are displayed Applets Used in LORS Metadata to give semantics keywords, author, date,...

16 OpenACS/.LRN Fall Conference – Nov. 1-4, 2006 – Boston Main reported problems (3/3) Mark up lists and list items properly. UL elements can only include LI elements, but not P, BR or B, which are format elements and should be applied from the CSS. Use header elements to convey document structure h1 and h2 tags are used to give format to the titles!!! Documents have to validate to published formal grammars The same ID attribute is used several times in many pages ABSMIDDLE or BASELINE are not valid values for the attribute align. Attributes that do not exist are used: e.g. REMEMBER Deprecated attributes are used: e.g. BORDER Style element can only be used in the head, not in the body.  in the forums: div style="clear: both;“ Use style sheets to control layout and presentation

17 Practical Guidelines

18 OpenACS/.LRN Fall Conference – Nov. 1-4, 2006 – Boston Guidelines Guidelines for accessible and usable web sites: “Observing Users Who Work With Screen Readers” - Theofanos and Redish (2003) Usability testing with people with disabilities Understand the relationship between accessibility and usability Understand how blind and low-vision users work with Web sites Develop research-based guidelines for accessibility and usability Assess the usability of specific Web sites for blind and low-vision users 32 guidelines grouped by: Using a Screen Reader Navigating through Web Sites Filling Out Forms

19 OpenACS/.LRN Fall Conference – Nov. 1-4, 2006 – Boston Other references Books, Sites, and Guidelines on Accessible Web Design Books aimed at developers who already have some experience coding web pages and project managers and administrators who need to be informed about accessibility, solid usability principles, and web standards. Web Accessibility Center at Ohio State University

20 AJAX

21 OpenACS/.LRN Fall Conference – Nov. 1-4, 2006 – Boston Ajax Asynchronous Javascript and XML mix of old technologies and new ideas incremental update of portions of a Web page without reloading the entire page. On the fly reloading of pages speeds up the Web, avoiding the need to reload the page how users and assisstive technologies identify slight page changes? Screen readers have to read the page from the beginning Partially sighted work on subpges If javascript is off, do it in ‘the old way’

22 OpenACS/.LRN Fall Conference – Nov. 1-4, 2006 – Boston 10 "Must Read" articles on AJAX, Accessibility and Web 2 technology 1.AJAX Accessibility Overview 2.Accessibility of AJAX Applications 3.AJAX and Screenreaders: When Can it Work? 4.Accessible Javascript guidelines 5.Why Ajax Sucks (Most of the Time) 6.Making AJAX work with screen readers

23 OpenACS/.LRN Fall Conference – Nov. 1-4, 2006 – Boston Some recommendations from standards-schmandards.com accessibility accessibility Inform the user that the page is updated dynamically screen reader users can decide when to trigger a re-read of the page Send alerts when information is updated alert boxes are read by screen readers and usually displayed with a sound Highlight recently updated areas for a short period of time Don’t let the user fill in forms that cannot submit Inform the user at the top or detect javascript automatically and warn

24 Validation

25 OpenACS/.LRN Fall Conference – Nov. 1-4, 2006 – Boston Validation Technical guidelines can be automatically managed and validated But others require the manual (human) involvement The ALT and TITLE tags are filled, but the content is good? Accessibility content guidelines Structuring the contents: key idea paragraphs, main point at the beginning, … Terminology: standard names, pronunciation by screen readers, Additional information about the contents: descriptions, acronyms, headings, …

26 OpenACS/.LRN Fall Conference – Nov. 1-4, 2006 – Boston Validation Meeting just the accessibility guidelines defined by the WAI standards (or the national implementations such as the American Section 508, the UK SENDA, the Italian Stanca, or the German BITV) does not necessarily mean that the contents are accessible for all But it is a BIG step forward

27 OpenACS/.LRN Fall Conference – Nov. 1-4, 2006 – Boston Validation End-user evaluations are needed User evaluation (real users using assitive devices) Expert evaluation Important feedback for.LRN will be gathered by aDeNu Group from the following projects: FAA (Open and Flexible Training) EU4ALL (European Unified Approach for Accessible Life Long Learning) ALPE (Accessible Learning Platform for Europe)

28 Thanks for your attention Any Questions?


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