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CHAPTER 50 AN INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY AND THE BIOSPERE Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Section C2: Aquatic and Terrestrial Biomes (continued) 2. The geographic distribution of terrestrial biomes is based mainly on regional variations in climate
Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 50.24
These areas are defined by their abiotic and biotic factors. Vertical stratification is also important in these biomes. The canopy of the tropical rain forest is the top layer, covering the layers below. The permafrost in the tundra is a permanently frozen stratum that lies under ground. The species composition of any biome differs from location to location. Human activity has radically altered the natural patterns of many biomes. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Tropical forests are close to the equator, receive high amounts of rainfall (although this can vary from region to region), and contain a great variety of plants and animals. The vegetation is layered, with the canopy being one of the top layers. Fig. 50.25a Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Savannas are grasslands with scattered trees, that show distinct seasons, particularly wet and dry. They have many types of plants and animals. Fire is an important abiotic factor. Fig. 50.25b Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Deserts have low rainfall, and are generally hot. Vegetation is usually sparse, and includes cacti and succulents. Many animals are nocturnal, so they can avoid the heat. Fig. 50.25c Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Chaparrals have mild wet winters and dry hot summers. They contain dense spiny, evergreen shrubs and have periodic fires. Some plants produce seeds that will only germinate after a fire. Fig. 50.25d Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Temperate grasslands exhibit seasonal drought, occasional fires, and are usually used for grazing and agriculture. Fig. 50.25e Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Temperate deciduous forests contain dense stands of trees and have very cold winters and hot summers. The trees lose leaves and go dormant in winter. This biome includes a large variety of plants and animals. Humans have logged many of these forests around the world. Fig. 50.25f Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Coniferous forests are the largest terrestrial biome on earth. They exhibit long cold winters and short wet summers. Conifers inhabiting them are adapted for the climate. Conifer forests are home to various animals, some of which hibernate. Fig. 50.25g Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Tundra contains low growing plants. The climate is windy and cold which causes a short growing season. A layer of permafrost is found below 1 meter and does not thaw, which prevents root growth; not many animals live in tundra biomes. There are two types, arctic, which is found in areas of Alaska and the Arctic circle, and alpine, which is found on very high mountaintops. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Fig. 50.25h Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
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