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1 Constraint operations: Simplification, Optimization and Implication.

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2 Simplification, Optimization and Implication u Constraint Simplification u Projection u Constraint Simplifiers u Optimization u Implication and Equivalence

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3 Constraint Simplification u Two equivalent constraints represent the same information, but u One may be simpler than the other Removing redundant constraints, rewriting a primitive constraint, changing order, substituting using an equation all preserve equivalence

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4 Redundant Constraints u One constraint C1 implies another C2 if the solutions of C1 are a subset of those of C2 u C2 is said to be redundant wrt C1 u It is written

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5 Redundant Constraints u We can remove a primitive constraint which is redundant with respect to the rest of the constraint. Definitely produces a simpler constraint

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6 Solved Form Solvers u Since a solved form solver creates equivalent constraints it can be a simplifier For example using the term constraint solver Or using the Gauss-Jordan solver

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7 Projection It becomes even more important to simplify when we are only interested in some variables in the constraint Simplified wrt to V and I

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8 Projection u The projection of a constraint C onto variables V is a constraint C1 such that u C1 only involves variables V u Every solution of C is a solution of C1 u A solution of C1 can be extended to give a solution of C

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9 Fourier’s Algorithm u Eliminates variable y from linear ineqs C u Write each ineq with y on one side of ineq u For each pair u produce a new ineq u The result is all new ineqs and those ineqs in C which do not involve y

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10 Fourier’s Algorithm Example Projecting out Y Result only involving X

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11 Projecting Term Constraints u We can also project term constraints u projected onto {X,Z} is u But what is X = cons(Y,Z) projected onto X? u Answer: there is no such constraint!

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12 Constraint Simplifiers u constraints C1 and C2 are equivalent wrt variables V if u taking any solution of one and restricting it to the variables V, this restricted solution can be extended to be a solution of the other u Example X=succ(Y) and X=succ(Z) wrt {X}

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13 Simplifier Definition u A constraint simplifier is a function simpl which takes a constraint C and set of variables V and returns a constraint C1 that is equivalent to C wrt V u We can make a simplifier for real inequalities from Fourier’s algorithm

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14 Tree Constraint Simplifier u apply the term solver to C obtaining C1 u if C1 is false then return false u foreach equation x=t in C1 u if x is in V then u if t is a variable not in V u substitute x for t throughout C1 and result u else add x=t to result u return result

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15 Tree Simplification Example Tree constraint to be simplified wrt {Y,T} Equivalent constraint from tree solver Discard the first two equations, keep the third and use the last to substitute for U by T

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16 Simplifier Properties u Desirable properties of a simplifier are: u projecting: u weakly projecting: for all constraints C2 that are equivalent to C1 wrt V u a weakly projecting solver never uses more variables than is required u Both properties allow a simplifier to be used as a solver (How?)

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17 Optimization u Often given some problem which is modelled by constraints we don’t want just any solution, but a “best” solution u This is an optimization problem u We need an objective function so that we can rank solutions, that is a mapping from solutions to a real value

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18 Optimization Problem u An optimization problem (C,f) consists of a constraint C and objective function f u A valuation v1 is preferred to valuation v2 if f(v1) < f(v2) u An optimal solution is a solution of C such that no other solution of C is preferred to it.

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19 Optimization Example An optimization problem Find the closest point to the origin satisfying the C. Some solutions and f value Optimal solution

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20 Optimization u Some optimization problems have no solution. u Constraint has no solution u Problem has no optimum u For any solution there is more preferable one

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21 Simplex Algorithm u The most widely used optimization algorithm u Optimizes a linear function wrt to linear constraints u Related to Gauss-Jordan elimination

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22 Simplex Algorithm u A optimization problem (C, f) is in simplex form: u C is the conjunction of CE and CI u CE is a conjunction of linear equations u CI constrains all variables in C to be non- negative u f is a linear expression over variables in C

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23 Simplex Example An optimization problem in simplex form An arbitrary problem can be put in simplex form by replacing unconstrained var X by new vars replacing ineq by new var s and

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24 Simplex Solved Form u A simplex optimization problem is in basic feasible solved (bfs) form if: u The equations are in solved form u Each constant on the right hand side is non- negative u Only parameters occur in the objective u A basic feasible solution is obtained by setting each parameter to 0 and each non- parameter to the constant in its equation

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25 Simplex Example An equivalent problem to that before in bfs form We can read off a solution and its objective value

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26 Simplex Algorithm starting from a problem in bfs form repeat Choose a variable y with negative coefficient in the obj. func. Find the equation x = b + cy +... where c<0 and -b/c is minimal Rewrite this equation with y the subject y = -b/c + 1/c x +... Substitute -b/c + 1/c x +... for y in all other eqns and obj. func. until no such variable y exists or no such equation exists if no such y exists optimum is found else there is no optimum solution

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27 Simplex Example Choose variable Y, the first eqn is only one with neg. coeff Choose variable Z, the 2nd eqn is only one with neg. coeff No variable can be chosen, optimal value 2 is found

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28 Another example An equivalent simplex form is: An optimization problem showing contours of the objective function

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29 Another example Basic feasible solution form: circle Choose S3, replace using 2nd eq Optimal solution: box

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30 The Missing Part u How do we get the initial basic feasible solution? u Solve a different simplex problem u Add artificial variables to make equations in basic feasible solved form u Minimize the sum of the artificial variables u If the sum is zero we can construct a bfs for the original problem

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31 The Missing Part Example Original simplex form equations With artificial vars in bfs form: Objective function: minimize

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32 Missing Part Example II Problem after minimization of objective function Removing the artificial variables, the original problem

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33 Implication and Equivalence u Other important operations involving constraints are: u implication: test if C1 implies C2 u impl(C1, C2) answers true, false or unknown u equivalence: test if C1 and C2 are equivalent u equiv(C1, C2) answers true, false or unknown

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34 Implication Example For the house constraints CH, will stage B have to be reached after stage C? For this question the answer if false, but if we require the house to be finished in 15 days the answer is true

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35 Implication and Equivalence u We can use impl to define equiv and vice versa u We can use a solver to do simple impl tests u e.g.

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36 Simplification, Optimization and Implication Summary u Equivalent constraints can be written in many forms, hence we desire simplification u Particularly if we are only interested in the interaction of some of the variables u Many problems desire a optimal solution, there are algms (simplex) to find them u We may also be interested in asking questions involving implication

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