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PLS221 Capsicum Foto del: The Chile Pepper Institute, NMSU, ?t=CHILE.

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Presentation on theme: "PLS221 Capsicum Foto del: The Chile Pepper Institute, NMSU, ?t=CHILE."— Presentation transcript:

1 PLS221 Capsicum Foto del: The Chile Pepper Institute, NMSU, ?t=CHILE

2 Spooner et al 2008

3 C. annuum C. baccatum C. pubescens C. frutescens C. chinense Origin & domestication

4 m C. annuum (var. glabriusculum) chacoense galapagence

5 Moscone at al 2007 X=13

6 Specific traits


8 C. annuum C. chinense C. frutescens The Chile Pepper Institute, NMSU, html?t=CHILE

9 C. baccatum

10 C. pubescens Rocoto, locoto, chile manzano


12 Wild species related to C. pubescens C. eximium & C. cardenasii

13 C. cardenasii

14 C. tovari C. spp Wild species

15 Capsicum galapagoense

16 Genetic Diversity of Chiltepins

17 Variety Clasificacion Non-pungent (sweet): Bell pepper, pimento, paprika, yellow wax 2x acreage than hot peppers Hot peppers (pungent): NewMex type (‘Anaheim’, ‘Largo Verde’), jalapeño, ancho, serrano, Tabasco, habanero etc Paprika in USA is a product: chile powder from non- pungent NewMex types In Europe it is a variety, in Hungary are sweet and hot paprika Bosland et al. 1996. Capsicum pepper varieties and classification

18 Bosland et al. 1996. Capsicum pepper varieties and classification

19 Genes controlling main traits of Capsicums > 292 described genes for: Morphology,Physiology,Sterility Disease and pest resistance Wang D & P Bosland (2006) HortScience 41:1169-1187

20 Pepper Trisomics

21 Paran et al Mol. Breed. 13:251-61 Capsicum linkage maps, 2262 markers

22 Plant height: dwafs: dw-1, dw-2, dw-3, dw-4, dw-5, dw-6, dw-7, dw-8 Tall: tal Leaf shape : ~31 genes Flowers: Multiple Flowers: Mf-1, Mf-2, Mf-3 Fruit shape: 6 genes: O round; up-1, up2, upright; pf parthenocarpy Immature fruit color: sw1 sulfur white; sw2 yellow-green; sw3 light green, A & MoA, F purple Sample of important genes

23 y cl c1 c2 Y Cl C1 C2 red Y Cl c1 C2 light rrd Y Cl C1 c2 orange Y Cl c1 c2 light orange Y cl C1 C2 chocolate y Cl C1 C2 yellow y Cl c1 C2 light yellow y Cl C1 c2 lemon yellow y Cl c1 c2 white y cl - - olive green Mature fruit color

24 Y (Ccs) capsanthin y capsorubin synthase, y= zeaxanthin chrom 6 C2: (phytoene synthase), chrom 4 Molecular basis cl: clorophyll retention Unknown function chrom 1

25 Heat or Pungencycapsaicinoid alkaloids Most abundant: Heat or Pungency: capsaicinoid alkaloids Most abundant: Capsaicin & Dihydrocapsaicin

26 TypespeciesScoville units HabaneroC. chinense210,000 TabascoC. frutescens120,000 Thai HotC. annuum60,000 JalapeñoC. annuum25,000 AmarilloC. baccatum17,000 SerranoC. annuum4,000 BellC. annuum0 Guiness record: Bhut Jolokia de la India, con 1,001,304 US,

27 Steward et al. Plant J. 2005 Capsaicinoid synthesis

28 The Known Capsaicinoids *Capsaicin * Homocapsaicin *Norcapsaicin Nornorcapsaicin Bis-homocapsaicin Tris-homocapsaicin Tetra-homocapsaicin

29 The Known Capsaicinoids *Dihydrocapsaicin * Homodihydrocapsaicin Nordihydrocapsaicin Nornordihydrocapsaicin 3-nor-dihydrocapsaicin Tris-homodihydrocapsaicin Bis-homodihydrocapsaicin Tetra-homodihydrocapsaicin

30 The Known Capsaicinoids Isomers of Dihydrocapsaicin Tetra-homodihydrocapsaicin Tris-homodihydrocapsaicin Nordihydrocapsaicin Nornordihydrocapsaicin

31 SB2-66, candidate gene Pun1 Stewart et al., 2005, The Plant J. 42:675-688 SB2-66 sequence co- localized with Pun1 in F2 mapping pop C. frutescens BG 2816 (Pun1/Pun1) x C. annum ‘Maor’ (pun1/pun1) Mapped on chromosome 2 DNA seq variation between sween and hot varieties

32 Genomic DNA Sequence and structure of Pun1 Genomic DNA Sequence and structure of Pun1 locus Acyltransferase Deletion of 25Kb in sweet types (recessive) of C. annuum

33 6 QTL control amount of capsaicinoids Ben-Chaim et al

34 Fruit shape and size Zygier et al., 2005 Theor Appl Genet 111:437-445 Ben Chaim et al. 2003b Theor Appl. Genet 106:889-894

35 Conservation of QTL on chrom 2 & 4 in Capsicum (3 species) & tomato

36 QTL for fruit size (3) fw2.1 (major effect), fw-4.1 y fw4.2 Same locations as tomato QTL for fruit shape (6) fs3.1 y fs10.1 (major effects) not conserved in tomato fs2.1 (minor effect), associated to fw2.1 fs4.1 y fs4.2 (minor effects) associated with fw.4.1 & fw4.2 respectively. fs8.1 (minor effect)

37 Nematode resistence (Meloidogyne spp) Djian-Caporalino et al 2007. Theor Appl Genet 114:473-486 6 resistance genes on chrom 9 Me1, Me3 & Me 7 wide spectrum, plus N

38 Marker assisted selection for nematode resistance

39 Virus Resistence TMV: gene L (or Tm), multiple alleles CMV: gene cm, plus 7 QTL restrict virus movement Caranta et al 2002 Theor Appl Genet 104:586-591 Potyvirus (PVY, TEV Pep-moV, PVMV, CVMV, PVE) Genes prv-1, prv-3,prv-5, pvr-6, prv8 (recessive), Prv-4, Pvr-7, Pn-1 (dominant) Markers available for prv-1, chromos 3 Yeam et al 2005. Theor Appl Genet 112:178-86 TSWS (tomato spotted wilt topovirus) Gene Tsw, marker available, chrom 10

40 Resistance to other diseases Bacterial spot (Xanthomonas) Genes Bs-1, Bs-2, Bs-3, Bs-4, Xcv (dominant) Bs-5, bs-6, gds (recessive) Markers available for Bs-2,Bs-3 Phytophtora Gene Psr, Pfr 6 QTL: Phyto4.1,5.1, 5.2, 6.1, 11.1, 12.1 Antracnosis: genes Anr-1 al -5. Oidium: genes lmr-1 al 3, + 7 QTL

41 Cytoplasmic male sterility Gulyas et al 2006. Breeding Sci 56:331-4 C. annuum rf in cytoplasm S Restorer Rf Markers distinguishing sterile and fertile plants

42 Pepper cms Kim & Kim 2005

43 Fruit taste and aroma Very little know on inheritance of compounds determining these traits Specific flavor Bell-pepper (2-isobutyl 3 methoxypyrazine, decadienal) habanero, jalapeño, baccatum yellow pepper? habanero, jalapeño, baccatum yellow pepper? Species specific? Changes during fruit maturation?

44 baccatum (yellow) chinense (habanero) annuum (jalapeño) Negre & Quiros,unpub

45 #Compound Jalapeño (C. annuum) Habanero (C. chinense) Amarillo (C. baccatum) 1Hexyl 2-methylbutanoate xxx 2  -himachalene xx 33-methylbutyl 3-methylbutanoate xx 4Hexyl 2-methylpropanoate xx 5cis-3-hexenyl 3-methylbutanoate xx 6Hexyl 3-methylbutanoate xx 7Hexylhexanoate xx 8  -cubebene xx 9 cis-  -ocimene x 10Isocaryophyllene x 11  -himachalene x 124-methylpentanol x 13cis-3-hexenol x 14Hexanol x 15Heptanol x 165-methyl 6-heptenol x 17Pentyl 3-methylbutanoate x 183,5-dimethylcyclohexene x 192,2-dimethylheptylpropanoate x 202-methylheptylbutanoate x 213,3-dimethylcyclohexanol x 22Octyl 3-methylbutanoate x 23cis-5-octenol x 24  -ionone x + 12 others specific to yellow

46 Available to Capsicum breeder Allows to obtain homozygous lines, including RI. Twin seedlings (traditional) Anther culture Doubled Haploides

47 Transgenesis Agrobacterium transformation difficult in Capsicum annuumDificulties: 1) Shoot regeneration is genotype dependent 2) Low efficiency of infection by Agrobacteriumin cot/hypocots 2) Low efficiency of infection by Agrobacterium in cot/hypocots Virus resistence obtained experimentally Lee et al (2004) Plant Cell Rept 23:50-58

48 Celestial smile The Chile Pepper Institute, NMSU,

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