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11/04/2017 11/04/2017 C2 Material Choices

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Presentation on theme: "11/04/2017 11/04/2017 C2 Material Choices"— Presentation transcript:

1 11/04/2017 11/04/2017 C2 Material Choices This PowerPoint supports the C2 topic from the 2011 OCR 21st Century course W Richards

2 C2.1 Properties of Materials
11/04/2017 Q. For each of the following materials describe what properties the material needs to have and why…

3 Properties of materials
11/04/2017 Plastic (polythene) Light Flexible Easily moulded

4 Properties of materials
11/04/2017 Plastic (polystyrene) Light Rigid Good insulation

5 Properties of materials
11/04/2017 Nylon Light Tough Waterproof

6 Properties of materials
11/04/2017 Polyester Light Tough Waterproof

7 Properties of materials
11/04/2017 Unvulcanised rubbers Low tensile strength Soft Flexible

8 Properties of materials
11/04/2017 Vulcanised rubbers High tensile strength Hard Flexible

9 11/04/2017 C2.2 Crude Oil

10 Using Different Materials
11/04/2017 We use a variety of materials from a variety of different places: Cotton from plants Silk from silkworms Wood and paper from trees These are all “natural” materials – we can also use synthetic (man-made) ones like plastics – these are often made from materials from within the Earth like crude oil.

11 11/04/2017 C2.4 Nanotechnology

12 Chemical formulae 11/04/2017 The chemical formulae of a molecule or compound is simply a way of showing the ratio of atoms in it. For example… Na Cl = sodium chloride (NaCl) K I = potassium iodide (KI) O O = potassium nitrate (KNO3) K N O

13 Chemical formulae Try drawing these: Water H2O Carbon dioxide CO2
11/04/2017 Try drawing these: Water H2O Carbon dioxide CO2 Calcium sulphate CaSO4 Magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2

14 Simple chemical reactions
11/04/2017 Mg O H Cl Magnesium oxide + Hydrochloric acid Magnesium chloride + Water MgO + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2O Mg O Cu S Magnesium + Copper sulphate Copper + Magnesium sulphate Mg + CuSO4 Cu + MgSO4 Notice that the number of atoms on each side of the equation is the same!

15 Hydrocarbons and crude oil
11/04/2017 Crude oil is a mixture of HYDROCARBONS (compounds made up of carbon and hydrogen). Some examples: Increasing length C H These different “lengths” are called “_______” and most of them are used as _____. Some are used to make materials such as _______. Longer chains have higher _____ points. Ethane Butane C H Words – boiling, fractions, plastics, fuels

16 Fractional distillation
11/04/2017 Crude oil can be separated by fractional distillation. The oil is evaporated and the hydrocarbon chains of different lengths condense at different temperatures: Fractions with low boiling points condense at the top Fractions with high boiling points condense at the bottom

17 Forces between molecules
11/04/2017 Weak force of interaction here Longer molecules = stronger force of attraction, leading to higher boiling points due to the molecules needing more energy to “pull” them away from each other.

18 Polymers 11/04/2017 C H Ethene Here’s ethene. Ethene is called a MONOMER because it is just one small molecule. We can use ethene to make plastics… Step 1: Break the double bond Step 2: Add the molecules together: This molecule is called POLYETHENE (i.e. polythene), and the process that made it is called POLYMERISATION

19 11/04/2017 C2.3 Molecular Structure

20 Uses of addition polymers
11/04/2017 Poly(ethene) Poly(propene) Poly(styrene) Poly(chloroethene), PVC

21 Words – high, low, strong, weak, stretched, rigid
Structure of Plastics 11/04/2017 1) Some plastics have ____ intermolecular forces between each molecule – these have __ melting points and can be ________ easily 2) Some plastics have _____ forces between each molecule. These have ____ melting points and are ____. Words – high, low, strong, weak, stretched, rigid

22 Forces between molecules
11/04/2017 As we’ve already said, longer molecules have stronger forces of attraction between them. This tends to lead to longer chain plastics being: Stronger Stiffer Harder More difficult to melt (i.e. higher melting point)

23 Modifying Plastics Polymers can be modified in a number of ways:
11/04/2017 Polymers can be modified in a number of ways: Increasing the chain length ...making it stronger 2) Crosslinking ...making it harder 3) Plasticizing ...making it softer and more flexible 4) Packing more closely (a crystalline polymer) ...making it stronger and more dense

24 Nanotechnology 11/04/2017 Task: To find out what nanotechnology is and what it is used for What is nanotechnology? Define the terms nanoparticle and nanocomposite Gives some examples of its uses Describe some of the future uses of this technology Describe some of the ethical concerns over this technology

25 Nanotechnology Definition:
11/04/2017 Definition: Nanotechnology is a new branch of science that refers to structures built from a few hundred atoms and are 1-100nm big. They show different properties to the same materials in bulk, partly because they also have a large surface area to volume ratio and their properties could lead to new developments in computers, building materials etc.

26 How nanoparticles are formed
11/04/2017 Nanoparticles can be formed by a number of methods: They can occur naturally in sea spray They can also be formed during combustion Or they can be formed by grinding down materials

27 Two examples of nanotechnology
11/04/2017 The “Nano Carbon Pro” tennis racket uses nanoparticles to increase its strength. Silver nanoparticles can be used to give fibres antibacterial properties – look at what they do to e-coli bacteria: Normal e-coli E-coli affected by silver nanoparticles

28 Nanoscience and health
11/04/2017 Nanoparticles are obviously very small and, as we have said, have a large surface area to volume ratio. This makes them useful but can also make them dangerous. Nanoparticles could easily pass through a cell membrane: I’m going to die… How do these health concerns affect the development of nanotechnology?

29 11/04/2017 This slideshow has been made freely available on the TES Resources website. More Science PowerPoints like this can be found at the website This site contains slideshows that cover the 2011 AQA, EdExcel, OCR Gateway and OCR 21st Century courses (with more material being added every year) and A Level Physics and KS3 material. Some slideshows are free, others require a small subscription fee to be taken out (currently only £50 for a year). Further details can be found at Education Using PowerPoint.

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