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P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t ADIMIX ® Sodium Butyrate For animal’s Health & Performance ADIMIX.

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Presentation on theme: "P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t ADIMIX ® Sodium Butyrate For animal’s Health & Performance ADIMIX."— Presentation transcript:

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2 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t ADIMIX ® Sodium Butyrate For animal’s Health & Performance ADIMIX ® Improves Feed Conversion Stimulates Early Feed Intake Enhances Intestinal Health Natural Attractant

3 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t Active substance butyric acid  an organic acid with specific characteristics  a short chain fatty acid (SCFA)  a viscous liquid  miscible with water, ethanol and ether (lipids) (unlike other SCFA’s, like propionic acid / acetic acid)  the characteristic smell of rancid butter (when it is present as -very volatile- free fatty acid) CH 3 - [CH 2 ] 2 - COOH ADIMIX ®

4 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) Chemical formula Trivial nameMol mass Boiling point (°C) Melting point (°C) pK value Kp* CH 3 - COOH Acetic acid CH 3 CH 2 - COOH Propionic acid CH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 COOH N-Butyric acid  Distribution in chloroform/water. Increasing number indicates higher solubility in lipids  Na-n-butyrate: white stable non-volatile powder up till 250°C Water soluble Water & Fat soluble

5 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t  N – Butyric acid sodium salt, or  N – Butyrate, sodium salt, or  Butanoic acid, sodium salt, or  Sodium butanoate, or  E 470  Spray-dried white powder  Pure form contains 98% sodium butyrate or 78% butyric acid What is ADIMIX ® ? CH 3 - [CH 2 ] 2 - COONa

6 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t Adimix ® : dissociation CH 3 - [CH2] 2 – COOH CH 3 - [CH2] 2 – COO ¯ + H +  In the undissociated state, butyric acid is strongly lipophilic and can easily cross membranes (both bacterial and cellular membranes)  The dissociation rate of organic acids is mainly influenced by the pKa value (pH at which 50% of the acid is in the dissociated state and 50% is in the undissociated state) and the pH of the intestinal liquid  The pKa value of butyric acid is about 1 pH unit higher than ‘traditional’ organic acids like formic and lactic acid (see next slide). As a result, butyric acid has different characteristics with respect to its anti-microbial activity, but also the biological effect of butyric acid is linked with its high pKa value. n-butyric acidn-butyrate pH (Undissociated) (Dissociated)

7 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t Antibacterial effect : G - & G + G - bacteria G + bacteria Butyric acid X Organic Acids Only at 10 X normal dose More complex membrane ( > FAT !! ) Favours / does not harm / even stimulates Lactobacillus The combination of Organic Acids & Adimix ®  Performs better than single approach (synergy)  Is the most economical application

8 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t Bacterial Cell Antibacterial effect pH drop RCOO - H+H+ pKa DNA RCOOH (Organic Acid – Undissociated) H+H+ ATP ADP + P

9 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t Antibacterial effect  Stop of DNA transcription (prevents growth and cell multiplication)  Bacterial Cell exhausts  No energy for multiplication  Bacterial Cell collapses Bacterial Cell

10 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t Antibacterial effect Bacterial Cell Antibacterial effect pH drop RCOO - H+H+ pKa DNA RCOOH (Organic Acid – Undissociated) H+H+ ATP ADP + P

11 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t BACTERIA Gram + Cocci Staphylococci Streptococci Enterococci Rods Aerob Bacillus anthracis Corynebacterium Listeria Anaerob Clostridium Gram Cocci Neisseria meningitidis Moraxella Rods Enterobacteria (E.Coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Proteus) Acinetobacter Bacteroides Bordetella Brucella Coxiella Haemophilus Helicobacter Legionella Pseudomonas Streptobacullus moniliformis Ehrlichia Vibrio

12 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t Dissociation of n-Butyric acid: pH dependent  At higher pH values (5-6), more butyric acid is present in the undissociated form compared to formic or lactic acid (differences in pKa value)  This means there is a synergy between Butyric acid and Formic/Lactic acid in terms of their anti-microbial effect (this is the basis for the Nutri-Ad acidification program for pigs). pKa value Butyric acid travels further down the digestive tract pH

13 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t Butyric acid, Acetic acid, Propionic acid metabolic end-products of carbohydrate digestion by bacteria in the rumen or large intestine of pigs, poultry, rabbits and ruminants Short Chain Fatty Acids: metabolism  Low Fibre-fermentation capacity for young animals  Naturally present,... but insuffient ?  % in milk fat

14 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t Metabolism of n-butyrate Cellulose and/or Starch (from diet) Bacterial fermentation pigs, (poultry)  colon multigastrics  rumen n-butyrate Metabolisation by rumen and intestinal eptithelium cells (villi) Secretion via respiratory tract, skin,... Blood absorption 70%30% High levels in human : leaves body via sweat and breath  socially unacceptable

15 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t Absorbed n-butyrate Messenger molecules Insulin hormone Biological effect of Adimix ® : effect on the gastro-intestinal cell wall  Although the exact mode of action of butyrate on rumen and intestinal epithelium is not yet fully understood, the stimulatory effect is probably mediated via messenger molecules and the insulin hormone. The result is the presence of readily available energy to epithelial cells, having a very intesive metabolism and turnover rate.

16 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t  Cell metabolism  Immune system  Selective action on bacterial micro-flora ADIMIX ® Biological Functions

17 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t 1. Cell metabolism Energy source for intestinal mucosa (brush border) Differentiation of enterocytes +++ Contact surface of intestinal microvilli +++ Calcium aborption +++ Secretion of pancreatic enzymes +++ Secretion of intestinal digestive enzymes ++++ ADIMIX ® : Biological Functions 2. Immune system 3. Selective action on bacterial micro-flora Differs it from any other acid

18 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t 1. Cell metabolism 2. Immune system Increased haemoglobin synthesis Stimulation of non-specific immunity (phagocytosis by macrophages) Stimulation of local immunity in the intestine (Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue) Increase in haptoglobine values (indicator for immune stimulation) Correlation with LPS (liposaccharides) from pathogenic bacteria in a way that it controls the nitric oxide production 3. Selective action on bacterial micro-flora ADIMIX ® : Biological Functions

19 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t 1. Cell metabolism 2. Immune system 3. Selective action on bacterial micro-flora Increase in Bifido-bacteria + Lactobacils Colonisation resistance against harmful / bad-natured bacteria, like E. Coli, Salmonella Direct anti-bacterial action (organic acid effect) ADIMIX ® : Biological Functions

20 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t Hyperacetylation of histones 2.Modifications of cell morphology and membrane composition 3.Increased hormone synthesis 4.Modifications in the structure of the cell skeleton Butyric acid has extensively been studied in human cell biology. Multiple effects on cell metabolism like modulation of protein synthesis (RNA transcription,...) and gene expression, viral transformation of cells and cell morphology / membrane structure have been described. ADIMIX ® : Biological Functions

21 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t  Prevention of inflammatory diseases in the gastro-intestinal tract  Chrone disease  Enterocolitis  Necrotic enteritis  Regression of colon and rectum cancers  ‘A deficiency of butyric acid or other SCFA to the colon causes inflammation’ ( Kien et al., 1999 ) Butyric acid in human gut pathology Inhibits growth of abnormal cells

22 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t New Spray Drying Tower installed Finalized early 2003

23 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t “Power” in the hindgut Coated Formic Acid (C1) Coated Acetic Acid (C2) Coated Propionic acid (C3) Coated Butyric Acid (C4) Trial Veterinary Faculty of the University of Gent – Belgium Anti-Salmonella / Anti-Dysenterie Effect

24 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t Adimix ® C 30 Coated

25 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t

26 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t LIPASE 1

27 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t 2

28 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t 3

29 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t Na-Butyrate versus Ca-Butyrate  A small molecule penetrates the bacterial cell more easy  Calcium Butyrate has a lower anti-bacterial effect, as its molecular weight is 2 X higher than Sodium Butyrate (  resp. 216 and 111, resulting in less diffusion capacity )  Sodium Butyrate is perfectly water-soluble (1.0 kg in 1 kg water)  Calcium Butyrate’s water-solubility is poor (0.3 kg in 1 kg water )  the higher the solubility, the easier the reaction to salt vice versa ; otherwise it only stays as a crystal  Calcium Butyrates are not spray-dried ( 1 - 2% free, volatile But.-acid)  ADIMIX (Na-Butyrate) is spray-dried (< 0.1% free, volatile But.-acid)  ADIMIX : high concentration active ingredient  ADIMIX : captured and covered odeur

30 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t Na-Butyrate versus Ca-Butyrate  Calcium Butyrate has a much stronger ‘typical’ odeur/smell than spray-dried Sodium Butyrate (= related to the level of ‘free buteric acid’, which is an extremely volatile molecule )  Calcium Butyrate have lower levels of active ingredients, and often contains a rather high level of (non-nutritional) anti-caking products  Dust level (measured by ITECH) is twice as high in Ca-Butyrate ( >4%) compared to ADIMIX (2%)  ADIMIX (spray-dried) has a much more uniform particle size than Ca-Butyrate (dry mix)

31 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t Granulometry and particle size distribution ADIMIX More uniform particle size distribution Significantly less fine particles  less dusty product Fines / dust

32 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t ADIMIX Calcium-butyrate Spray-dried powder Uniform particles Low dust Dry mix ( butyric acid + mineral support ) Variable particle size High dust

33 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t ADIMIX : superior solubility Adimix Butyrate 1000 g in 1000 ml of water Calcium Butyrate: 300 g in 1000 ml of water  Poor water solubility  Risk of complex formation of calcium with other dietary components  Perfectly water soluble, no sedimentation  Higher bio-availability  Preferred source for all in-feed applications - specifically for milk replacers & liquid applications-

34 P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t P e r f o r m a n c e E n h a n c e m e n t


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