Presentation on theme: "Cultura, Geografía e Historia"— Presentation transcript:
1Cultura, Geografía e Historia MÉXICOCultura, Geografía e Historia
2La HistoriaBy the 1500s, the Aztec civilization had solidified power over the other indigenous groups in Mexico. In 1521, the Aztec Empire fell to Hernán Cortés and the Spanish Empire. Mexico then became a Spanish colony until After gaining independence, Mexico was in political turmoil resulting in a civil war led by Benito Juárez in In 1910, the 10 year Mexican Revolution began. In 1929, the National Revolutionary Part became the governing party of Mexico until loosing the 2000 presidential election.
3AlmanaquePoblación:Capital: La Ciudad de México (o México, D.F.)Gobierno: republica federalIdioma oficial: españolMoneda: peso mexicanoCódigo Internet:$ 1$ 5$ 10$ 50$ 100$ 250$ 500$12.99$64.96$129.92$649.6$1299.2$$Exchange rate as of October 12, 2013
4La Bandera de MéxicoThere are two beliefs about the representation of the colors in the Mexican flag.Green : Hope and Victory; White: Purity of Ideals; Red: The blood shed by the national heroes.Green : Independence; White: Roman Catholicism; Red: Union.Symbolism : Interesting symbolism surrounds the coat of arms used on the Mexican flag. The legend says that when the Aztecs were settling in North America sometime in the 14th century, there were unsure of where to build their central city. It is said that they were instructed by one of their gods to to look for a Mexican eagle sitting on a prickly pear cactus, holding a serpent in its talons. The place where they spotted the eagle is the present-day capital of Mexico, Mexico City, with the imagery taken from this legend used to design the country's coat of arms. For the symbolism associated with the colors, see the relevant section above.Source:
5Las civilizaciones antiguas Approximately 30% of the Mexican population is comprised of indigenous people while the other 60-70% are mestizos (of mixed indigenous and European heritage). The primary language of more than 5 million Mexicans is not Spanish but one of several indigenous dialects: Mayan, Mixtec, Náhuatla, and Zapotec.
6Las civilizaciones antiguas Tenochtitlán: The ruins of this ancient city reflect the Aztec civilization. This Aztec capital astounded Cortés with palaces, markers, and finely dressed lords and ladies. Today, it is the site of Mexico City.
7Las civilizaciones antiguas Chichén Itzá: This is a Mayan pyramid located in the Yucatan Peninsula and is one of Mexico’s most studied and revered archeological sites.
8Las civilizaciones antiguas Tulum is another ancient Mayan site found on the Yucatan Peninsula.
9La GeografíaThe geography of Mexican ranges from beaches to deserts to mountainous areas. There are 5 major mountain ranges: Sierra Madre Oriental, Sierra Madre Occidental, and Sierra Madre del Sur.El Valle Central: The area around Mexico City is home to over 1/5 of the Mexican population. It is also some of the nation’s most fertile farmland.La Reserva de La Biósfera Calakmul: Located in the Yucatan Peninsula, it is Mexico’s largest remaining tropical forest and home to many endangered species, such as the jaguar.
10La GeografíaEl Volcán Popocatépetl: one of Mexico’s active volcanoes it is located in the Central Valley of Mexico and is the 2nd highest peak of the country. It erupted twice during the 1990s and in 1993, it caused the evacuation of 25,000. More than 20 million people live within 50 miles of this volcano.
11La GeografíaLa Barranca del Cobre: This is a series of canyons in the Sierra Madre Occidental and it is much larger than the Grand Canyon in Arizona.Agua Azul: The clear waters of Agua Azul in the state of Chiapas form a beautiful series of waterfalls.
12La CapitalLa Ciudad de México (also known as D.F.) is considered one of the largest cities in the world.
13La CulturaEl jarabe tapatio: The national folk dance of Mexico which is characterized as being very happy.La Vida de la Familia: In Mexico, Family is very important! Often, extended families live under the same roof (sometimes children, parents, grandparents, aunts, uncles and cousins). Everyone in the family contributes to the home! Sunday is a special day when many get together with their families and have a large meal.
14La ComidaMuch of the food that we eat today in many parts of the world originate in the Americas. For examples: potatoes, pumpkin, tomato, and turkey are from this region. Also, Europeans did not know about chocolate until after the European explorers arrived in the Americas!
15El maízMexico stakes claim to corn, a staple food in many Spanish-speaking countries. Present-day Mexico City is where the 1st varieties of corn were grown. Elotl (late becoming elote in Mexican Spanish) is the word for corn in Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs.
16El atoleAtole, like many traditional foods, dates to the pre-Columbian Mexican cultures. Atole is a drink from both the Aztec and Mayan cultures that combines corn meal, water, and a flavoring such as cholate, fruit, or even chile peppers. Atole is so popular that it even comes packaged like instant hot chocolate.
17La ComidaIn the north, meat and beans provide the mainstay of typical meals. Almost all meals are served with tortillas, (ground flour or corn grilled on a hot griddle), and some kind of chile made into salsa. There are dozens of varieties of chiles, and their flavor and name changes when they are dried. For example, a mouth burning jalapeño becomes the smoky tasting chipotle in its dried form.
18La ComidaMexican food is usually very simple and subtle, varies greatly by geographic region and culture. With an extensive coastline, many places in Mexico are known for their delicious fresh fish. Ceviche, a Mexican standard, is any white fish “cooked” by letting it sit overnight in a marinade of lime juice, then diced with onion, chile, tomato and cilantro.
19La Comida El mole poblano is a favorite dish in Mexico. El mole poblano is a favorite dish in Mexico.Las empanadas de flor de calabaza are typical food in Morelos.Chiles en nogada are a typical part of the food during Christmas and Mexican Independence Day because the colors in the dish are the green, red, and white.
20Las CelebracionesDecember 12 is the day that millions of Mexicans make a pilgrimage to the Villa de Guadalupe to pay homage and celebrate the appearance of their beloved Virgen de Guadalupe. Conchero dancers don costumes imitating Aztec traditional festival dress, with brightly colored feather headdresses, and bells and shells around their ankles. Young boys dress up like peasants, wearing a serape, sandals, and a false mustache to imitate Juan Diego, the peasant who first saw the Virgen in Approximately 15 million people go to the Villa de Guadalupe each year! This is also the beginning of the Christmas season in Mexico.
21El Día de la Virgen de Guadalupe (El doce de diciembre)
22Las celebracionesEl Festival Internacional Cervantino in Guanajuato is dedicated to Miguel de Cervantes (who wrote Don Quixote de la Mancha). It is celebrated with plays and dances.El Festival de La Guatelaguetza, o Lunes del Cerro, in Oaxaca gets distant communities throughout the state together to celebrate their indigenous roots.
23Las celebracionesEl Festival del 16 de septiembre is celebrated throughout Mexico. This is the day Mexico declared independence from Spain. The celebration begins when the President of Mexico shouts “Viva Mexico” from the balcony at the presidential palace.