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5: Link-Local Addresses Rick Graziani Cabrillo College

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Presentation on theme: "5: Link-Local Addresses Rick Graziani Cabrillo College"— Presentation transcript:

1 5: Link-Local Addresses Rick Graziani Cabrillo College

2 © For more information please check out my Cisco Press book and video series: IPv6 Fundamentals: A Straightforward Approach to Understanding IPv6 By Rick Graziani ISBN-10: IPv6 Fundamentals LiveLessons: A Straightforward Approach to Understanding IPv6 By Rick Graziani ISBN-10:

3 5.1: Purpose and Format of Link-Local Addresses

4 © IPv6 Address Types IPv6 Addresses FF00::/8FF02::1:FF00:0000/104 ::/128::1/ ::/3FE80::/10FC00::/7::/80 Unicast Multicast Anycast Assigned Solicited Node Global Unicast Link-Local Loopback Unspecified Unique Local Embedded IPv4 IPv6 does not have a “broadcast” address.

5 © Link-Local Unicast Range Link – Network segment Link-local means, local to that link or network. Remaining 54 bits 64-bit Interface ID xx xxxx : : Range: FE80: FEBF: Link-local Unicast First 10 bits First hextet

6 © Link-Local Unicast Address IPv6 Source – Always a unicast IPv6 Destination – Unicast, multicast, or anycast. Unicast, including a link-local address IPv4 IPv6

7 © Used to communicate with other devices on the link. Are NOT routable off the link (network). Only have to be unique on the link. Not included in the IPv6 routing table. An IPv6 device must have at least a link-local address. Link-Local Communications Link-Local Unicast Address

8 © PC> ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix : Link-local IPv6 Address.... : fe80::50a5:8a35:a5bb:66e1 IPv4 Address : Subnet Mask : Default Gateway : Most Networks Are Already Running IPv6 IPv6 is automatically enabled with Windows, MAC and Linux operating systems. Can communicate with other devices on the link, including the router. I’m not running IPv6… or am I? I can now communicate with you and give you a GUA and be your default gateway using SLAAC. But I am really a bad guy and I can do a DoS or MITM attack. Even if IPv6 is not deployed, must understand and secure IPv6. People Icon: Occupations set 5 © Copyright Fredy Sujono

9 © I will use your link- local as my default gateway, Used as a source IPv6 address before a device gets one dynamically (SLAAC and DHCPv6). Router’s link-local address is used by devices as the default gateway. Routers exchange routing messages. Router use the link-local address as the next-hop address in the routing table: via link-local address. An Important Role in IPv6 ICMPv6 Router Solicitation From: Link-local or unspecified address To: Multicast ICMPv6 Router Advertisement From: Link-local To: Multicast Routing Protocol Messaging From: Link-local To: Multicast

10 5.2: Automatically Created Link-Local Addresses

11 © Link-Local Unicast Address Link-local addresses are created Automatically : FE80 (usually) – First 10 bits Interface ID EUI-64 (Cisco routers) Random 64 bits (many host operating systems) Static (manual) configuration – Common practice for routers. Remaining 54 bits 64-bit Interface ID xx xxxx FE80::Interface ID First 10 bits

12 © R1 G0/0 G0/1 S0/0/0 R1# show interface gigabitethernet 0/0 GigabitEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is CN Gigabit Ethernet, address is fc c3e0 (bia fc c3e0) Automatic Link-Local Address Using EUI-64 Link-local address: FE80:: 64-bit Interface ID A 64-bit Interface ID is created with EUI-64 using: 48-bit MAC address Inserting 16 bits: FF-FE Flipping the U/L (Universal/Local) bit

13 © Modified EUI-64 Format (Extended Unique Identifier–64) FC994775C3E0 OUI (24 bits)Device Identifier (24 bits) FC994775C3E0FFFE C3E0FFFE FC U/L bit flipped FEFE994775C3E0FFFE Insert FF-FE

14 © R1 G0/0 G0/1 S0/0/0 R1# show interface gigabitethernet 0/0 GigabitEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is CN Gigabit Ethernet, address is fc c3e0 (bia fc c3e0) R1#show ipv6 interface brief GigabitEthernet0/0 [up/up] FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E0 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::1 GigabitEthernet0/1 [up/up] FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E1 2001:DB8:CAFE:2::1 Serial0/0/0 [up/up] FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E0 2001:DB8:CAFE:3::1 R1# EUI-64 Serial interfaces will use a MAC address of an Ethernet interface. FF:FE = EUI-64 (most likely) Wait! Two Link-locals are the same! Verifying the Router’s Link-Local Address Link-local addresses only have to be unique on the link. Mystery © Copyright sato00

15 © PC> ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix.: IPv6 Address : 2001:db8:acad:1:3496:1c51:3f57:fe89 Link-local IPv6 Address... : fe80::3496:1c51:3f57:fe89 Default Gateway : fe80::1 Many operating systems will use a random 64-bit Interface IDs for GUA and Link-Local IPv6 Addresses. Verifying the PC’s Link-Local Address EUI-64 or random 64-bit value

16 5.3: Manually Created Link-Local Addresses

17 © Link-Local Unicast Address Link-local addresses are created Automatically : FE80 (usually) – First 10 bits Interface ID EUI-64 (Cisco routers) Random 64 bits (many host operating systems) Static (manual) configuration Only needed on devices where it helps the network administrator remember the address… routers, default gateways. Remaining 54 bits 64-bit Interface ID xx xxxx FE80::Interface ID First 10 bits

18 © R1 G0/0 FE80::1 G0/1 FE80::1 S0/0/0 FE80::1 R1(config)#interface gigabitethernet 0/0 R1(config-if)#ipv6 address fe80::1 ? link-local Use link-local address R1(config-if)#ipv6 address fe80::1 link-local R1(config-if)#exit R1(config)#interface gigabitethernet 0/1 R1(config-if)#ipv6 address fe80::1 link-local R1(config-if)#exit R1(config)#interface serial 0/0/0 R1(config-if)#ipv6 address fe80::1 link-local R1(config-if)# Link-Local Addresses have to be unique only on the link! Static addresses are more easily remembered and recognizable. Static Link-Local Addresses

19 © R1 G0/0 FE80::1 G0/1 FE80::1 S0/0/0 FE80::1 Link-Local Addresses: Local and Unique R2 S0/0/0 FE80::2 Link-local addresses have to be unique only on the link but … Link-local addresses must be unique on the link! Hosts don’t need to their link-local address statically configured – automatically created is fine. FE80::2

20 5.4: Verifying Link-Local Addresses

21 © Verifying Router’s Link-Local Address R1#show ipv6 interface brief GigabitEthernet0/0 [up/up] FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E0 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::1 R1# R1# show ipv6 interface gigabitethernet 0/0 GigabitEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E0 Global unicast address(es): 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::1, subnet is 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/64 R1#

22 © Router(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/1 Router(config-if)# ipv6 enable Router(config-if)# end Router# show ipv6 interface brief GigabitEthernet0/1 [up/up] FE80::20C:30FF:FE10:92E1 Router# Link-local addresses are automatically created whenever a global unicast address is configured on the interface. The ipv6 enable command will: Automatically create a link-local address when there is no global unicast address or static link-local address Maintain the link-local address even when the global unicast address is removed Link-local unicast address only Do I Need to Use the ipv6 enable Command?

23 © R1# ping fe80::2 Output Interface: ser 0/0/0 % Invalid interface. Use full interface name without spaces (e.g. Serial0/1) Output Interface: serial0/0/0 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to FE80::2, timeout is 2 secs: !!!!! Must include exit-interface G0/0 FE80::1 2001:DB8:CAFE:2::/64 Ser 0/0/0 :1 Ser 0/0/0 :2 R2R1 FE80::1 FE80::2 2001:0DB8:ACAD:1::/64 FE80::2 ? Pinging a Link-Local Address

24 © R1# show ipv6 route ospf O 2001:DB8:CAFE:2::/64 [110/657] via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0 O 2001:DB8:CAFE:3::/64 [110/1304] via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0 O 2001:DB8:CAFE:A002::/64 [110/1294] via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0 R1# Link-local addresses are used as next hop addresses IPv6 Routing Table and Link-Local Addresses IPv6 dynamic routing protocols like OSPFv3 and EIGRP form neighbor adjacencies and exchange messages using their link-local address as the source address.

25 © For more information please check out my Cisco Press book and video series: IPv6 Fundamentals: A Straightforward Approach to Understanding IPv6 By Rick Graziani ISBN-10: IPv6 Fundamentals LiveLessons: A Straightforward Approach to Understanding IPv6 By Rick Graziani ISBN-10:

26 5: Link-Local Addresses Rick Graziani Cabrillo College


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