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Chapter 10: Photosynthesis

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10: Photosynthesis"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10: Photosynthesis

2 Essential Knowledge 2.a.1 – All living systems require constant input of free energy ( ). 2.a.2 – Organisms capture and store free energy for use in biological processes ( ).

3 Photosynthesis Process by which plants use light energy to make food
A reduction process that makes complex organic molecules from simple molecules

4 Ps General Equation 6 CO2 + 6 H2O  C6H12O6 + 6 O2 Requires: ♦Notice:
Chlorophyll This is VERY Light similar to the cell resp eq.

5 Ps: a redox process Hydrogens are added to Carbons-reduces CO2 to sugar Water is split; becomes source of hydrogens Complex covalent bonds made Requires energy

6 Ps Has two chemical reactions: 1. Light Reaction 2. Dark Reaction
Names are from “light” as a requirement, not where or when they occur

7 Light A form of electromagnetic radiation/energy
Visible light has the right energy for use in Ps Travels in waves

8 Too Hot Too Cold Just Right Detected by our eye-hence the term visible


10 Action Spectrum Not all colors are useable to the same degree for Ps
Red and Blue light - absorbed and used in Ps Green light - reflected or transmitted


12 Comment In oceans, red light is lost or filtered out early because it has lower energy Only blue light which has higher energy can reach the lower depths

13 Result Many deep ocean fish are bright red in color. Why?
They can’t be seen because there is no red light to reflect their color

14 Photosynthesis Pigments
Pigment: absorb light Different pigments absorb different wavelengths Types: Chlorophylls (a and b) Accessory Pigments (carotenoids)

15 Chlorophylls Have C,H,O,N and Mg Two major types: a, b
Molecule has a lipophilic tail (allows it to dissolve into membranes) Contains Mg in a reaction center.


17 Accessory Pigments Absorb light energy and transfer it to chlorophyll
Various shades of yellow/orange Function: photoprotection Ex: Carotene (orange) Xanthophyll (yellow)

18 Fall Leaf Colors Chlorophyll breaks down
N and Mg salvaged and moved into the stem for next year Accessory pigments remain behind, giving the various fall leaf colors

19 Parts of Plant: Ps function
Stomata Roots Mesophyll Veins


21 Site of Ps Chloroplast Contain chlorophyll pigment
All green parts of plants contain chloroplasts Most are found in leaves Why? Larger surface area

22 Chloroplast Structure
Double outer membrane Inner membrane folded and stacked into grana Stroma - liquid that surrounds the thylakoid membranes


24 Photosystems Collection of pigments that serve as a light trap
Made of chlorophyll and the accessory pigments Two types known: PSI & PSII


26 Parts of Photosystem 1) Rxn center/e- acceptor 2) Pigment
Chlorophyll uses light energy to move e- to next energy level 2) Pigment Light absorption, photon acceptor 3) Light-harvesting complex Proteins, contain pigment


28 Light Reaction Same thing as Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
Location - grana of the chloroplast Function - to split water and produce ATP and NADPH (provide chem energy for next cycle)


30 Light Reaction Requirements: Light Water ADP + Pi NADP+ Products: O2

31 Chemiosmosis Model The chloroplast produces ATP in the same manner as the mitochondria in Rs Light energy is used to pump H+ across a membrane When the H+ diffuses back, ATP is generated

32 Chemiosmosis H+ are pumped into the thylakoid space
ATP and NADPH are made when the H+ diffuse into the stroma Both Rs and Ps use ETC to pump H+

33 Light Rxn Tutorial

34 Dark Reactions How plants actually make food (carbohydrates)
Don't require light directly to run Also known as the Calvin cycle or C3 Ps

35 Calvin cycle/Dark reaction
Anabolic – builds sugars from smaller molecules Function - use ATP and NADPH to build food from CO2 Location - stroma of the chloroplast Calvin Cycle movie

36 Rubisco Ribulose BisPhosphate Carboxylase
Enzyme that adds CO2 to an acceptor molecule Most important enzyme on earth Catalyzes first step of dark rxn

37 C3 Ps C3 plants are plants that DO use Rubisco enzyme “normally”
Keep stomata open during day MOST plants are C3 plants When you “think of Ps”, you think of a C3 plant performing Ps Adaptive value: Require less Less enzyme activity, no specialized organs/anatomy

38 Photorespiration When Rubisco accepts O2 instead of CO2 as the substrate Generates no ATP Actually uses ATP Decreases Ps output by as much as 50%

39 Photorespiration May reflect a time when O2 was less plentiful and CO2 was more common Important to evolution of autotrophs Photo=occurs in light Respiration=consumes oxygen while producing CO2

40 Alternate Ps Methods 1. C4 Ps 2. CAM Ps

41 Intro to C4 and CAM Remember: MOST plants are C3 plants that performs Ps “normally” Both are adaptations to arid conditions CAM plants “idle” and save energy while C4 plants go through Ps faster

42 C4 Ps Uses a different enzyme to initially capture CO2
Separates CO2 capture from carbon fixation into sugar Still uses C3 Ps to make sugar, but only does so in the bundle sheath cells

43 C4 Ps Found in 19 plant families
Characteristic of hot regions with intense sunlight Examples - sugarcane, Bermuda grass, crab grass

44 C3 Ps vs C4 Ps Can use photorespiration Shade to full sun
High water use Cool temperatures Slow to moderate growth rates Cool season crops No Photorespiration Full sun only Moderate water use Warm temperatures Very fast growth rates Warm season crops

45 CAM plants Found in plants from arid conditions (where water stress is a problem) Avoid H2O stress by keeping stomates closed during the day Generally have slow growth Ex: pineapple, cacti, orchids

46 CAM Plants, cont. Store CO2 as C4 acid
During the day, the acid is broken down and CO2 is made into sugar.


48 Ps:Rs Ratios Reflect a plant’s balance in making food and using food
1. Ps > Rs, energy available for growth and reproduction 2. Ps = Rs, no growth, but don’t die either 3. Ps < Rs, death by starvation

49 Comments - Ps:Rs Rs happens 24 hours a day Ps only in light
Plants overwinter on stored food when Ps > Rs If Ps < Rs, best solution is to increase the amount of light

50 Factors Affecting Ps 1. Light - quantity and quality
2. Temperature - too hot or too cold 3. CO2 - often limits C3 plants 4. Minerals - especially NPK and Mg

51 Importances of Ps 1. Food - either directly or indirectly comes from plants 2. Oxygen in the air 3. CO2 balance 4. Plant products 5. Life on Earth

52 Summary Identify the basic equation of photosynthesis.
Identify the main reactions of photosynthesis. Recognize the function, location, requirements and products of the photosynthesis reactions. Recognize the role of light and pigments in the photosynthesis process. Recognize the effects and importance of photorespiration. Recognize various types of photosynthesis and their importance. Identify the biological and economic importance of photosynthesis.


54 Exclusion Statements You do NOT need to memorize the steps in the Calvin Cycle, the structure of the molecules, and the names of the enzymes (except ATP synthase).

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