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1 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 3 2 Consumer Learning Starts Here: Perception

2 2 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2 Learning Outcomes Define learning and perception and how the two are connected. List and define phases of the consumer perception process. Apply the concept of the JND. Contrast the concepts of implicit and explicit memory. LO 3-1 LO 3-2 LO 3-3 LO 3-4

3 3 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 3 Learning Outcomes Know ways to help get a consumer’s attention. Understand key differences between intentional and unintentional learning. LO 3-5 LO 3-6

4 4 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part “Alternative” Milk ▮ Parmalat ▮ Shelf-stable milk: Can last for 5-6 months unopened without refrigeration ▮ Discussion: Would you drink milk out of a room-temperature, square, quart- size box? (McFlurry, Schools, Walmart)

5 5 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 5 Learning and Perception ▮ Learning – a change in behavior resulting from the interaction between a person and a stimulus. Learning can be intentional or unintentional. ▮ Perception – a consumer’s awareness and interpretation of reality. Value involves learning, and consumer learning begins with perception. LO 1

6 6 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Elements of Consumer Perception Exposure LO 1 Attention Comprehension

7 7 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 7 Perception Process by which sensations are selected, organized, and interpreted  Adding meaning to raw sensations (Sunlight DW detergent)

8 8 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 8 Elements of Consumer Perception ▮ Exposure The process of bringing some stimulus within the proximity of a consumer so that it can be sensed by one of the five human senses  Sensation - Consumer’s immediate response to this information  First step for marketing to consumers. LO 3-1

9 9 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 9 Elements of Consumer Perception ▮ Attention The purposeful allocation of information- processing capacity toward developing an understanding of some stimulus ▮ Comprehension When consumers attempt to derive meaning from information they receive LO 3-1

10 10 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 10 LO 3-1 Perception - Example ▮ People who want to lose weight are told to use smaller plates and taller, narrower glasses at meals This gives them the illusion of eating more, while they’re actually consuming less The perception of the quantity of food is influenced by plate or glass size

11 11 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 11 Organizing ▮ Cognitive organization - Process by which the human brain assembles the sensory evidence into something recognizable Interpreting and comprehending what the stimuli is LO 3-2

12 12 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. LO 3-2

13 13 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 13 Organizing ▮ Possible reactions: –Assimilation – occurs when a stimulus has characteristics that allow for easy recognition as an example of some category. –Accommodation – occurs when a stimulus shares some, but not all, of the characteristics that would lead it to fit neatly in an existing category. –Contrast – occurs when a stimulus does not share enough in common with existing categories to allow categorization. LO 3-2

14 14 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Accommodation What is this?

15 15 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Selective Perception Selective exposure Selective attention Selective distortion ©ED FREEMAN/THE IMAGE BANK/GETTY IMAGES

16 16 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 16 Selective Perception ▮ Selective exposure – screening out most stimuli and exposing oneself to only a small portion of stimuli present. ▮ Selective attention – paying attention to only certain stimuli. Clutter – too much information ▮ Selective distortion – process by which consumers interpret information in ways that are biased by their previously held beliefs. LO 2

17 17 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 17 Subliminal Processing ▮ Refers to the way in which the human brain senses very low-strength stimuli (i.e., below the level of conscious awareness). ▮ Stimuli are below the absolute threshold of perception. LO 2

18 18 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. LO 3-2

19 19 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Subliminal Groovin! Can you play a record backwards – or is it just another subliminal rumor?

20 20 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 20 Applying the JND Concept ▮ Just noticeable difference (JND) - Represents how much stronger one stimulus has to be relative to another so that someone can notice that the two are not the same ▮ Weber’s Law - The ability to detect differences between two levels of a stimulus is affected by the original intensity of the stimulus (ROT = 20%) LO 3-3

21 21 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 21 JND: Marketing Implications ▮ Pricing ▮ Quantity ▮ Quality ▮ Add-on purchases LO 3-3

22 22 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. JMD--(Just Meaningful Difference) Represents the smallest amount of change in a stimulus that would influence consumer consumption and choice.

23 23 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 23 LO 3-4 Implicit and Explicit Memory ▮ Explicit memory - Memory for information one is exposed to, attends to, and applies effort to remember Intentional learning ▮ Implicit memory - Represents stored information concerning stimuli one is exposed to but does not pay attention to Unintentional learning

24 24 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 24 Mere Exposure Effect ▮ Represents another way that consumers can learn unintentionally Consumers will prefer stimuli to which they have been exposed ▮ Once exposed to an object, a consumer exhibits a preference for the familiar object over something unfamiliar LO 3-4

25 25 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 25 Mere Exposure Effect ▮ Relevant points: Preattentive Easy to elicit Greatest effect on novel objects Weak effect Best when consumer has lower involvement LO 3-4

26 26 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 26 Mere Exposure Effect ▮ Mere association effect - Occurs when meaning transfers between two unrelated stimuli that a consumer gets exposed to simultaneously ▮ Product placements - Through which promotions can impart implicit memory among consumers Involve branded products placed conspicuously in movies or television shows

27 27 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 27 ATTENTION ▮ The purposeful allocation of cognitive capacity toward understanding some stimulus ▮ Involuntary attention - Attention beyond the conscious control of the consumer; occurs as the result of a surprising or novel stimuli Orientation reflex - A natural reflex that occurs as a response to a threat

28 28 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 28 LO 3-5 Factors that Get Attention ▮ Intensity of stimuli ▮ Contrast ▮ Movement ▮ Surprising stimuli ▮ Size of stimuli ▮ Involvement

29 29 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 29 LO 3-5 COMPREHENSION ▮ The interpretation or understanding that a consumer develops about an attended stimulus Determines the effectiveness of marketing communication

30 30 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 30 LO 3-6 Intentional Learning Consumers set out to specifically learn information devoted to a certain subject Unintentional Learning Consumers simply sense and react (or respond) to the environment

31 31 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Learning Is this intentional or unintentional learning? ©ISTOCKPHOTO.COM/SEAN LOCKE

32 32 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Classical Conditioning A change in behavior that occurs simply through associating some stimulus with another stimulus that naturally causes a reaction. PRNEWSFOTO/DOCKERS

33 33 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 33 LO 3-6 Classical Conditioning Remember Pavlov’s Dogs? Unconditioned stimulus Conditioned stimulus Unconditioned response Conditioned response

34 34 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Instrumental Conditioning Behavior is conditioned through reinforcement. ©KARL WEATHERLY/PHOTODISC/GETTY IMAGES

35 35 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 35 LO 3-6 Instrumental Conditioning ▮ Positive reinforcers come in many forms in the consumer environment

36 36 Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 36 LO 3-6 Shaping Behavior ▮ Shaping is a process through which the desired behavior is altered over time, in small increments ▮ Punishers represent stimuli that decrease the likelihood that a behavior will occur again ▮ Not all reinforcement is positive Negative reinforcement - The removal of bad stimuli as a way of encouraging behavior


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