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C3 – Chemicals in Our Lives. Starter Element or Compound?

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Presentation on theme: "C3 – Chemicals in Our Lives. Starter Element or Compound?"— Presentation transcript:

1 C3 – Chemicals in Our Lives

2 Starter Element or Compound?

3 Sulphur S

4 Carbon Dioxide CO 2

5 Water H2OH2O

6 Chlorine Cl 2

7 Sulphuric Acid H 2 SO 4

8 Carbon (Buckminsterfullerene) C 60

9 Sodium Hydroxide NaOH

10 Definitions Element Contains only one type of Atom. Found on the Periodic Table (of elements) Compound Consists of 2 or more elements bonded (fixed) together


12 Which Elements are in the Compounds?

13 Carbon Dioxide CO 2

14 Water H2OH2O

15 Sulphuric Acid H 2 SO 4

16 Sodium Hydroxide NaOH

17 Elements, Compounds and Rocks Rocks are a MIXTURE of Compounds The most common compound is Silicon Dioxide SiO 2 This is commonly known as Quartz or Silica

18 Rocks and Plate Movements

19 The Rock Cycle Three Rock Types: Sedimentary - made from sediment Metamorphic – changed by heat and pressure Igneous – formed from Lava or Magma (molten rock)

20 Plate Movements

21 Useful Resources from Rocks Coal (carbon) Limestone (Calcium Carbonate) Marble (Calcium Carbonate) Rock Salt (Sodium Chloride) Metal Ores (Compounds containing Metals)

22 Early Chemical Industry


24 What’s the use in Salt? What can Salt be used for? List as many things as you can. Hint – For some, Think about the elements that Salt is made from.

25 Uses of Salt Food (seasoning and preservation) Gritting Road (melts ice) Making Chlorine – Bleach Making Sodium Hydroxide – Soaps and Cleaners Making Hydrogen Gas – A Fuel

26 How is Salt obtained? Evaporation of Sea Water Mining of Rock salt Solution mining of Rock Salt


28 Why use salt in our food? Preservative (stops bacteria from growing) Flavour enhancer (seasoning) Makes food taste better / stronger

29 Salted Cod – Used to Preserve it

30 What is Risk? Risk depends upon 2 factors: Chance of something happening Level of harm that occurs if it does

31 Risk Actual Risk – A Risk calculated from actual data Perceived Risk – A risk thought by individuals without clear data to support it

32 Precautionary Principle If the risks or harm from an activity may be greater than any benefit, it makes sense to restrict or stop the activity. This is particularly true where the level of risk is as yet unknown.

33 Salt and Health Risks: High Blood Pressure, Heart Disease and Strokes High Salt diet – Processed food with added salt Salt is needed – but no more than about 4g per day Current average intake in the UK: Men - 11g of salt per day Women - 8g of salt per day

34 What is an Alkali? Chemical Compounds that contain HYDROXIDE ions (OH-) Turn Universal Indicator Blue or Purple Have a pH over 7, usually between 9 (weak) and 14 (very strong)

35 Recognising Alkalis

36 Uses of Alkalis Making Soap Neutralising Soil Making Glass Dyeing Cloth




40 Alkali Reactions


42 Is it an Alkali? Sodium Hydroxide

43 Is it an Alkali? Water

44 Is it an Alkali? It turns Universal Indicator Blue

45 Is it an Alkali? Potassium Hydroxide

46 Is it an Alkali? Hydrochloric Acid

47 Is it an Alkali? Urea (Urine)

48 Is it an Alkali? Wasp Sting

49 Is it an Alkali? Soapy Water

50 Is it an Alkali? Milk

51 Is it an Alkali? Ammonium Hydroxide

52 Is it an Alkali? Rain water

53 Is it an Alkali? It turns Universal Indicator Yellow

54 Is it an Alkali? Lithium Hydroxide

55 Is it an Alkali? Sulphuric Acid

56 Is it an Alkali? Blood

57 Is it an Alkali? Bee Sting

58 Is it an Alkali? Bleach

59 Is it an Alkali? Fizzy Drinks

60 Is it an Alkali? Toothpaste

61 Acid or Alkali? Magnesium Hydroxide

62 Acid or Alkali? It turns Universal Indicator Blue

63 Is it an Alkali? Lemon Juice

64 Acid or Alkali? Vinegar

65 Acid or Alkali? Drain Cleaner

66 Acid or Alkali? Bar of Soap

67 Acid or Alkali? Stomach Juices

68 Acid or Alkali? Aluminium Hydroxide

69 Acid or Alkali? It turns Universal Indicator Yellow

70 Acid or Alkali? Caesium Hydroxide

71 Acid or Alkali? HCl

72 Acid or Alkali? NaOH

73 Acid or Alkali? KOH

74 Acid or Alkali? H 2 SO 4

75 Electrolysis Using Electricity to split up compounds into the original element that they are made from


77 Chlorine Extracted from Salt Water by ELECTROLYSIS Toxic Green Coloured Gas Very Strong Bleach Why would it be added to drinking water?


79 Risks of Chlorine in Drinking Water Chlorine in drinking water can pose potential risks – creating chemicals which are toxic or even carcinogenic SO WHY ADD CHLORINE??? Benefit outweighs the risk

80 Questions Why is it important that drinking water is treated with Chlorine? Chlorine is a Toxic gas. How can it be safe to add it to drinking water? What potential health risks come from Chlorine in drinking water? Why do we continue to add Chlorine, despite the risks is poses?

81 Electrolysis of Brine Brine – Solution of Salt Water Salt – Sodium Chloride Electrolysis – Splitting up compounds using Electrical Current

82 Chemical Warning Signs Chemistry and Chemicals have their own warning signs of potential hazards These help you to take the correct precautions to ensure that you stay safe and risk is minimised. What do these hazard symbols stand for?



85 Flammable


87 Toxic


89 Explosive


91 Corrosive


93 Harmful (h) or Irritant (i)


95 Oxidising


97 Dangerous to the Environment

98 Assessing Chemical Risk We need to know: -How much of it is needed to cause harm -How much will be used -How it will be used -Chance of escaping into the environment -Who or what it may affect

99 Chemical Safety REACH Regulation Evaluation Authorisation and restriction of Chemical Substances

100 Risks of Plasticisers uPVC – Stiff, Tough Plastic used to make many things including Drainpipes, Doors and Window Frames PVC – Can be softened by adding PLASTICISERS. These make the plastic softer and more flexible. Used in sheeting, coating for wires and as a leather replacement.

101 Risks of Plasticisers

102 What does Sustainable mean? Using the Earth’s resources in a way that can continue in the future “They won’t run out”

103 At the end of the Life Cycle

104 Life Cycle Assessment CRADLE: What is your product? What materials is it made from? What raw materials are used? Are they sustainable? LIFE: What is your product used for? How long will it last? Is any energy or chemicals used in maintaining it during its life? How long is its life likely to be? GRAVE: What could happen to it at the end of its life? List all the alternatives and what would happen to it in this stage. Which of these is the best option and why?

105 LCA

106 Revision Summary





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