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F ORENSIC A NTHROPOLOGY The vertebral column. T HE V ERTEBRAL C OLUMN Functions: support, movement of trunk Total of 33 (usually) individual vertebra.

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Presentation on theme: "F ORENSIC A NTHROPOLOGY The vertebral column. T HE V ERTEBRAL C OLUMN Functions: support, movement of trunk Total of 33 (usually) individual vertebra."— Presentation transcript:

1 F ORENSIC A NTHROPOLOGY The vertebral column

2 T HE V ERTEBRAL C OLUMN Functions: support, movement of trunk Total of 33 (usually) individual vertebra 5 types of vertebrae (plural) Cervical (5) Thoracic (12) Lumbar (5) Sacral (5) Coccygeal (4)

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4 G ENERAL MORPHOLOGY – NEED TO KNOW Vertebral body (ant) Vertebral arch (post) On each arch…. 2 pedicles – attach arch to body 2 transverse processes – lateral projections 2 lamina – posterior surface of arch Spinous process – points postero-inferiorly 2 articulations for each adjacent vertebra 2 superior 2 inferior Encircle vert foramen (form vert canal)

5 H OW TO ORIENT VERTEBRAE Superior facets face posteriorly Inferior facets face anteriorly Spinous process points postero-inferiorly

6 A RTICULATIONS Each vertebra articulates with 2 other vertebrae (superior and inferior) Other articulations in…. The cervical vertebra: C1 articulates with the occipital The thoracic vertebra: 2 ribs with EACH vert Lumbar (NONE) Sacrum: ilium of the innominate (x2)

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9 V ERTEBRAL GROWTH AREAS 3 growth centers for each vertebra Centrum (body) and 2 arches Arches fuse first T spine <1 year old C spine 2 years old L spine 5 years old Arches (at the pedicles) fuse to the centrum between 2 – 5 years of age 5 secondary growth centers at the transverse processes, spinous process, and superior and inferior vertebral bodies appear in teens, fuse in early adulthood

10 T HE C SPINE – UNIQUE CHARACTERS C1 – call the atlas Occipital articulation surface Articular surface for dens (p/i) NO VERT BODY C2 – called the axis Dens (odontoid process)

11 T YPICAL C SPINE C3 – C7 Bifid spinous process “Square-shaped” bodies C7 has the longest spinous process and forms the vertebral prominence

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13 T HE T SPINE 12 vertebrae (pair with 12 pairs of ribs) Rib facets/costal pits – articular area of each T2-T8 typically have 2 rib demi-facets on each lateral side of the vertebral body (4 total) T1-T10 typically have 1 rib facet on each transverse process (2 total) epidural-anatomy1.gif

14 T HE T SPINE T1 1 full facet (superior) on each side 1 demi facet (inferior) on each side 1 facet on each transverse process T2-T8 2 demi facets on each side 1 facet on transverse process T10 1 facet on each side of body 1 facet on each transverse process T11 1 facet on each side of the body 1 facet on each transverse process T12 same as T11, but with widened inferior body to meet with L1

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16 T HE L SPINE Notice it for what it is missing – No transverse foramena OR rib facets Typically large bodied Short stunted spinous process S/I articular facets curved in (U-shaped) in order to increase stability

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18 orthop.com/corpusmaitri/orthopaedic/mo70_maigne_thoracolumbar/fig2.GIF

19 S ORTING THE VERTEBRAE There should be a logical progression as the descend Body size increases Spinous process size changes Increase in C spine Decreases through T and L spine Articular surface shape and position should match

20 S ORTING THE VERTEBRAE Make three piles Orient each with spinous process away, superior surface up Begin at top and work way down matching inferior surface of upper with superior surface of next one down

21 T HE SACRUM Large, wedge-shaped Composed of 5 sacral vertebrae – fused Articulates with L5, both innominates Characteristics Large bodies Reduced spinous processes

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24 T HE SACRUM – NEED TO KNOW Superiorly Sacral promontory (sup/ant): central, superior border of S1 Superior articular facets: articulation of L5-S1 Spinal canal Ala (wings) Laterally Auricular surface Spinous processes Posteriorly – Posterior sacral foramina Anteriorly Anterior sacral foramina Transverse line of fusion

25 T HE SACRUM – USES IN FORENSICS Male vs female Males sacrum curved Females sacrum straight (WHY?) Age Transverse line between S1 – S2 closes mid twenties

26 T HE COCCYX Coccyx – group of fused bones vs coccygeal vertebra (individual bone) Usually 4 segments fused – variation 3-5 CV1 had transverse processes and horns (cornua) CV2+ are variable, small, frequently lost Typically all fuse together and frequently to sacrum

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28 THE PELVIS The many names for this region Pelvis: composed of 2 innominate bones and the sacrum Innominate (or Os Coxae): each half of the “pelvic bowl” formed by the fusion of Ilium Ischium Pubis

29 THE INNOMINATE ILIUM – most superior of the 3 the blade ISCHIUM - most inferior of the 3 the ‘sit bone’ PUBIS – most anterior of the 3 forms the symphysis

30 THE INNOMINATE FUNCTIONS: Support internal organs Changes in the human pelvis allow for bipedal locomotion

31 THE INNOMINATE Each innominate articulates with *sacrum (at the auricular surface) *one femur (at the acetabulum) *the other innominate (at pubic symph)

32 THE INNOMINATE – WHAT TO KNOW The ilium: medially - Iliac crest – superior rim Iliac fossa – superior depression under rim ASIS and AIIS Arcuate line – midline inferior ridge Iliac tuberosity – posterior rugosity Auricular surface - posterior (art.w/ sacrum) Preauricular sulcus

33 THE INNOMINATE – WHAT TO KNOW The ilium: laterally – Iliac crest Iliac pillar – ridge on midline of blade PSIS and PIIS Greater sciatic notch Acetabulum (actually the point where all three bones fuse together, art. w/femur)

34 THE INNOMINATE – WHAT TO KNOW The ischium and pubis – medially Pubic ramus: anterior/superior, twists Pubic symphysis: most anterior point Ischiopubic ramus: flat Obturator foramen: big hole The ischium and pubis – laterally Ischial spine: most inferior/posterior Lesser sciatic notch: inferior Ischial tuberosity: very thick Pubic tubercle: anterior, above symph

35 THE INNOMINATE – L FROM R Orient ilium (crest and blade) superior Orient the pubic symphysis anteriorly and medially, ischium posterior and inferior The acetabulum is on the side of origin (lateral)

36 THE INNOMINATE – FUSION AGES Ischiopubic ramus; 5-8 years Acetabululm; years Ischial tuberosity; years Iliac crest; years

37 THE INNOMINATE USES IN FORENSICS The pelvis is best for sex – due to changes in the pelvis for childbirth, there are numerous, easy to distinguish features that help differentiate males from females in both the PUBIS and the ILIUM ALSO, well developed methods for aging adults based on changes in the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS

38 THE INNOMINATE USES IN FORENSICS TO RECAP: SEX: PUBIS AND ILIUM AGE: FUSIONS, AURICULAR SURFACES, PUBIC SYMPHYSIS


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