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T ECHNOLOGY AND L EARNING W ITH T ECHNOLOGY IN M ATHEMATICS AND S CIENCE I NSTRUCTION By: Gabby Benningfield & Casey Hunt Chapter 11

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1.While these tools are usually used more at the elementary level, researchers report that they can also improve high school students’ attitudes towards mathematics. A.Virtual manipulates C. Calculator-based labs B.Graphing calculators D. Computer-based tutoring 2. Without this technology tool, it is difficult, if not impossible, for students to move from the symbolic realm of f(x)=x2-3 to the equivalent graphical rendering on an x-y coordinate to its accompanying numerical representation. A.Virtual manipulative C. Graphing calculator B.Mathematical simulation D. Geometry software 3. These programs allow users to create and manipulate geometric constructions. A.Calculator-based laboratory (CBL) C. Interactive or dynamic math manipulates B.Computer algebra system (CAS) D. Interactive or dynamic geometry software

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4. This software is often used to facilitate activities such as planning a fund-raising activity or analyzing data from students’ counts of colors in a bag of M&Ms or other candies. A.Graphing calculators C. Probeware B.Counting software D. Spreadsheets 5. Through virtual schools propose that these can be effective, some science organizations object to them as poor substitutes for “the real thing.” A.Virtual manipulates C. Distance mentors B.Distance education courses D. Virtual science labs

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I NTEGRATING T ECHNOLOGY F OR M ATH Bridging the gap between abstract and concrete with virtual manipulatives Benefits: Abstract mathematics concepts more concrete Flexible environments that allow exploration Concrete representations of abstract concepts

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I NTEGRATING T ECHNOLOGY F OR M ATH Allowing Representation of Mathematical Principles Benefits: Visual depiction of abstract math concepts Environment that allows exploration Graphing Calculators Interactive or dynamic geometry software Computer algebra system (CAS)

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I NTEGRATING T ECHNOLOGY F OR M ATH Supporting Mathematical Problem Solving Benefits: Gather data to use in problem solving Rich, motivating, problem-solving environments Opportunities to apply knowledge and skills Calculator-based laboratories (CLBs. or probeware)

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I NTEGRATING T ECHNOLOGY F OR M ATH Implementing Data-Driven Curricula Benefits: Easy access to many data sets Real data and statistics to support investigations Develop skills in data analysis Allow exploration and presenting data

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I NTEGRATING T ECHNOLOGY F OR M ATH Supporting math-related communications Benefits: Easy contact with math experts Promotes social interaction Teacher connection

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I NTEGRATING T ECHNOLOGY F OR M ATH Motivating skill building and practice Benefits: Motivation for practicing foundational skills Guided instruction in a structured environment

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Issues and Problems in Science Instruction -Accountability for Standards in Science -The Narrowing Pipeline of Scientific Talent -Increasing Need for Scientific Literacy -Difficulties in Teaching K-8 -Objections to Virtual Science Labs

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Accountability for Standards in Science National Science Education Standards (NSES) The U.S. Department of Education and the National Science Foundation Endorse mathematics and science curricula that “promote active learning, inquiry, problem solving, cooperative learning, and other instructional methods that motivate students” National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment stated, “school science education must reflect science as it is practiced,” and that one goal of science education is “to prepare students who understand the modes of reasoning of scientific inquiry and can use them” To integrate technology in the science classroom on a regular basis, one must understand the meaning of technology in the context of science teaching and learning.

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The Narrowing Pipeline of Scientific Talent Great concern has grown about America’s ability to compare in science, mathematics, and technology in the future. Females and minority students- pursing studies in math, science, and engineering fields. Trend could have serious consequences for the long-term economic and national security of our country Increasing Need for Scientific Literacy A need for ALL citizens to be scientifically literate in order to make informed decisions that affect our country’s future. American’s economic and environmental progress depends on the character and quality of the science education that the nation’s school provide.

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Difficulties in Teaching K-8 Science is a rapidly changing area Elementary education teachers face a greater challenge One way to assist teachers in science is through professional development (PD). Online PD opportunities help increase elementary teachers to improve in these important areas.

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Objections to Virtual Science Labs Students need to DO not just see Hands-on/minds-on science- engaging in in-depth investigations with objects, materials, phenomena, and ideas and drawing meaning and understanding from those experiences. Virtual Schools can provide the science without the danger

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Technology Integration Strategies for Science Instruction Technology Integration StrategiesBenefitsSample Resources and Activities Involving students in scientific inquiry through authentic online projects Internet project provide environments that support all phases of authentic science experience Data Loggers Globe Project: GLOBE Program: Support for specific processes in scientific inquiry Helps students locate & obtain info to support inquiry Makes data collection & analysis more manageable Makes phenomena easier to visualize & understand Helps students communicate results of inquires CBLs and spreadsheets The Exploratorium Museum: Supporting science skills and concept learning Allows students to simulate & model various scientific processes Provides opportunities to engage in problem solving Poll Everywhere text message (use cell phones as clickers) Engaging students in engineering topics through robotics Gives students experience w/ engineering principles Gets students thinking abt engineering careers NASA’s Robotics Alliance project: Accessing science information and tools Offers sources of information, lesson plans on science topics Telescopes in Education: Other science resource websites for teachers Offers sources of information, lesson plans on science topics National Science Education Standards

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Needs and Challenges in Mathematics and Science Instruction Technologies are integral part of modern mathematics education and science education because they are essential in the field themselves. Mathematics and Science Content Knowledge -Training the workforce of tomorrow Mathematics and Science Pedagogical Knowledge -Must teach in engaging and motivational, while maintaining effective achievements. Mathematics and Science Technological Knowledge - Teachers must master the tools of technology

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R ELATED W EBSITES National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Math Forum at Drexel-Internet Math Library Texas Instruments Resources for Educators Free Mathomatic computer algebra system Free science tutorials and games International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Science website engaging in in-depth investigations with objects, materials, phenomena, and ideas and drawing meaning and understanding from those experiences.

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1.While these tools are usually used more at the elementary level, researchers report that they can also improve high school students’ attitudes towards mathematics. A.Virtual manipulates C. Calculator-based labs B.Graphing calculators D. Computer-based tutoring 2. Without this technology tool, it is difficult, if not impossible, for students to move from the symbolic realm of f(x)=x2-3 to the equivalent graphical rendering on an x-y coordinate to its accompanying numerical representation. A.Virtual manipulative C. Graphing calculator B.Mathematical simulation D. Geometry software 3. These programs allow users to create and manipulate geometric constructions. A.Calculator-based laboratory (CBL) C. Interactive or dynamic math manipulates B.Computer algebra system (CAS) D. Interactive or dynamic geometry software

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4. This software is often used to facilitate activities such as planning a fund-raising activity or analyzing data from students’ counts of colors in a bag of M&Ms or other candies. A.Graphing calculators C. Probeware B.Counting software D. Spreadsheets 5. Through virtual schools propose that these can be effective, some science organizations object to them as poor substitutes for “the real thing.” A.Virtual manipulates C. Distance mentors B.Distance education courses D. Virtual science labs

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