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**Chapter 11 Gaussian Elimination (I)**

Speaker: Lung-Sheng Chien Reference book: David Kincaid, Numerical Analysis

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OutLine Basic operation of matrix - representation - three elementary matrices Example of Gaussian Elimination (GE) Formal description of GE MATLAB usage

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**Matrix notation in MATLAB**

6 -2 2 4 12 -8 6 10 3 -13 9 3 -6 4 1 -18

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**Matrix-vector product**

Inner-product based 6 -2 2 4 x1 6 x1 + (-2) x2 + 2 x3 + 4 x4 12 -8 6 10 x2 12 x1 + (-8) x2 + 6 x x4 3 -13 9 3 x3 3 x1 + (-13) x2 + 9 x3 + 3 x4 -6 4 1 -18 x4 (-6) x1 + 4 x2 + 1 x3 + (-18) x4 outer-product based 6 -2 2 4 x1 6 -2 2 4 12 -8 6 10 x2 12 -8 6 10 x1 x2 x3 x4 3 -13 9 3 x3 3 -13 9 3 -6 4 1 -18 x4 -6 4 1 -18

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**Matrix-vector product: MATLAB implementation**

matvec.m Inner-product based outer-product based Question: which one is better

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**Column-major nature in MATLAB**

physical index : 1D 6 1 12 2 3 3 Question: how does column-major affect inner-product based matrix-vector product and outer-product based matrix-vector product? -6 4 Logical index : 2D -2 5 -8 6 6 -2 2 4 -13 7 12 -8 6 10 4 8 3 -13 9 3 2 9 -6 4 1 -18 6 10 9 11 1 12 4 13 10 14 3 15 -18 16

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**Matrix representation: outer-product**

where is outer-product representation

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**Elementary matrix [1] (1) The interchange of two rows in A:**

Define permutation matrix How to explain? Question 1: why Question 2: how to easily obtain

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**Concatenation of permutation matrices**

such that such that Question: implies Direct calculation

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**Elementary matrix [2] (2) Multiplying one row by a nonzero constant:**

Define scaling matrix How to explain? since

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**Elementary matrix [3] (3) Adding to one row a multiple of another:**

Define GE (Gaussian Elimination) matrix How to explain? outer-product representation

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Use MATLAB notation

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**Concatenation of GE matrices**

such that Suppose such that Question:

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**OutLine Basic operation of matrix**

Example of Gaussian Elimination (GE) - forward elimination to upper triangle form - backward substitution Formal description of GE MATLAB usage

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6 -2 2 4 x1 12 12 -8 6 10 x2 34 3 -13 9 3 x3 27 -6 4 1 -18 x4 -38 12 -8 6 10 34 6 -2 2 4 x1 12 -4 2 2 x2 10 6 -2 2 4 12 3 -13 9 3 x3 27 -6 4 1 -18 x4 -38 -4 2 2 10 3 -13 9 3 27 6 -2 2 4 x1 12 -4 2 2 x2 10 6 -2 2 4 12 -12 8 1 x3 21 -6 4 1 -18 x4 -38 -12 8 1 21

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-6 4 1 -18 -38 6 -2 2 4 x1 12 -4 2 2 x2 10 6 -2 2 4 12 -12 8 1 x3 21 2 3 -14 x4 -26 2 3 -14 -26 6 -2 2 4 x1 12 First row does not change thereafter -4 2 2 x2 10 -12 8 1 x3 21 2 3 -14 x4 -26 -12 8 1 21 6 -2 2 4 x1 12 -4 2 2 x2 10 -4 2 2 10 2 -5 x3 -9 2 3 -14 x4 -26 2 -5 -9

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2 3 -14 -26 6 -2 2 4 x1 12 -4 2 2 x2 10 -4 2 2 10 2 -5 x3 -9 4 -13 x4 -21 4 -13 -21 6 -2 2 4 x1 12 -4 2 2 x2 10 2 -5 x3 -9 4 -13 x4 -21 4 -13 -21 6 -2 2 4 x1 12 -4 2 2 x2 10 2 -5 -9 2 -5 x3 -9 -3 -3 -3 x4 -3

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**Backward substitution: inner-product-based**

6 -2 2 4 x1 12 6 -2 2 4 x1 12 -4 2 2 x2 10 -4 2 2 x2 10 2 -5 x3 -9 2 -5 x3 -9 -3 x4 -3 x4 6 -2 2 4 x1 12 6 -2 2 4 x1 12 -4 2 2 x2 10 x2 x3 x3 x4 x4

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**Backward substitution: outer-product-based**

6 -2 2 4 x1 12 -4 2 2 x2 10 2 -5 x3 -9 -3 x4 -3 6 -2 2 x1 12 4 8 -4 2 x2 10 x4 2 8 2 x3 -9 -5 -4 6 -2 x1 8 2 12 x3 -4 x2 8 2 12 6 x1 12 x2 -2 6

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**OutLine Basic operation of matrix Example of Gaussian Elimination (GE)**

Formal description of GE - component-wise and column-wise representation - recursive structure MATLAB usage

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6 -2 2 4 x1 12 12 -8 6 10 x2 34 3 -13 9 3 x3 27 -6 4 1 -18 x4 -38 6 -2 2 4 x1 12 -4 2 2 x2 10 3 -13 9 3 x3 27 -6 4 1 -18 x4 -38 6 -2 2 4 x1 12 6 -2 2 4 x1 12 12 -8 6 10 x2 34 12 -8 6 10 x2 34 -12 8 1 x3 21 3 -13 9 3 x3 27 -6 4 1 -18 x4 -38 2 3 -14 x4 -26

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**Eliminate first column: component-wise**

6 -2 2 4 x1 12 6 -2 2 4 x1 12 12 -8 6 10 x2 34 -4 2 2 x2 10 3 -13 9 3 x3 27 -12 8 1 x3 21 -6 4 1 -18 x4 -38 2 3 -14 x4 -26 where Exercise: check by MATLAB

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**Eliminate first column: column-wise**

define and then Exercise: check by MATLAB Notation:

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**Eliminate second column: component-wise**

6 -2 2 4 x1 12 -4 2 2 x2 10 -12 8 1 x3 21 2 3 -14 x4 -26 6 -2 2 4 x1 12 -4 2 2 x2 10 2 -5 x3 -9 2 3 -14 x4 -26 6 -2 2 4 x1 12 -4 2 2 x2 10 2 -5 x3 -9 4 -13 x4 -21

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**Eliminate second column: column-wise**

define Exercise: check Exercise: check , why? Give a simple explanation. Notation:

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**Eliminate third column: component-wise**

6 -2 2 4 x1 12 -4 2 2 x2 10 2 -5 x3 -9 4 -13 x4 -21 6 -2 2 4 x1 12 -4 2 2 x2 10 define 2 -5 x3 -9 -3 x4 -3 then

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**LU-decomposition Notation: LU-decomposition Exercise: check**

Question: Do you have any effective method to write down matrix Question: why don’t we care about right hand side vector

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**Problems about LU-decomposition**

Question 1: what condition does LU-decomposition fail? Question 2: does any invertible matrix has LU-decomposition? Question 3: How to measure “goodness of LU-decomposition“? Question 4: what is order of performance of LU-decomposition (operation count)? Question 5: How to parallelize LU-decomposition? Question 6: How to implement LU-decomposition with help of GPU?

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**OutLine Basic operation of matrix Example of Gaussian Elimination (GE)**

Formal description of GE MATLAB usage - website resource - “help” command - M-file

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MATLAB website

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MATLAB: create matrix

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**MATLAB: LU-factorization**

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Start MATLAB 2008

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**Command “help” : documentation**

!= in C

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Loop in MATLAB

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**Decision-making in MATLAB**

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IO in MATLAB

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**LU-factorization in MATLAB**

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**M-file in MATLAB matvec.m**

Description of function matvec, write specificaiton of input parameter Consistency check Inner-product based

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**Move to working directory**

M-file

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**Execute M-file Construct matrix**

Execute M-file, like function call in C-language

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**Exercise: forward / backward substitution**

Forward substitution since backward substitution since Write MATLAB code to do forward substitution and backward substitution

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**Exercise: LU-decomposition**

You should find recursive structure of the decomposition

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