11What is Modified Citrus Pectin (MCP) ? MCP is derived from the pith of citrus fruit peelsComplex polysaccharide fiber of repeating galacturonic acid groups with neutral sugar side chainsUnmodified citrus pectin molecular weight 50 to 300 kiloDaltons (kDa) with esterification ~70%Optimal biological activity: molecular weight <13 kDa with esterification <10%, and specific structure
12Modified Citrus Pectin is a Galectin-3 Blocker Binds to Galectin-3 moleculesBlocks aggregation of cancer cellsBlocks docking of cancer cellsBlocks interactions with endothelium necessary for angiogenesis
14Benefits of MCP in Cancer Treatment Anti-Cancer and Anti-MetastasisBlocking of Galectin-3 EffectsSynergistic Effect with ChemotherapyProtection Against Post-Radiation DamageImproved Quality of Life
15Inhibition of Spontaneous Metastasis in a Rat Prostate Model by Oral Administration of Modified Citrus PectinPienta KJ, Naik H, Akhtar A, Yamazaki K, Replogle, TS, Lehr J, Donat TL, Tait L, Hogan V, Raz A Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA J Natl Cancer Inst (5):Method: MCP’s inhibition of prostate cell adhesion to endothelial cells. 0.1% and 1.0% MCP in rats’ drinking water; controls had plain waterResults: Significant reduction in lung metastases -- 50% reduction in 0.1% group; 56% reduction in 1.0% group (P<0.03 & P<0.001).
16Inhibition of Spontaneous Metastasis in a Rat Prostate Model by Oral Administration of Modified Citrus PectinPienta KJ, Naik H, Akhtar A, Yamazaki K, Replogle, TS, Lehr J, Donat TL, Tait L, Hogan V, Raz A Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA J Natl Cancer Inst (5):Conclusion: MCP acted as potent inhibitor of spontaneous prostate carcinoma metastasis.
17Inhibition of Human Cancer Cell Growth & Metastasis in Nude Mice by Oral Intake of Modified Citrus PectinNangia-Makker P, Hogan V, Honjo Y, Baccarini S, Tait L, Bresalier R, Raz A Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA J Natl Cancer Inst (24):Method: MCP’s inhibition of breast & colon cancer progression; MCP’s interaction with Galectin-3Results: 70.2% Reduction in Breast Tumor GrowthBreast Angiogenesis: 66% ReductionBreast to Lung Metastasis: 0% MCP v. 100% ControlColon to Liver Metastasis: 0% MCP v. 60% ControlColon to Lymph Metastasis: 25% MCP v. 100% Control
18Inhibition of Human Cancer Cell Growth & Metastasis in Nude Mice by Oral Intake of Modified Citrus PectinNangia-Makker P, Hogan V, Honjo Y, Baccarini S, Tait L, Bresalier R, Raz A Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA J Natl Cancer Inst (24):Conclusion: MCP inhibits carbohydrate mediated tumor growth, angiogenesis & metastasis via effects on Galectin-3 function
19Modified Citrus Pectin Induces Cytotoxicity of Prostate Cancer Cells in Co-Culture with Human Endothelial MonolayersWeiss T, McCulloch M, Eliaz I Amitabha Medical Clinic & Healing Center, Sebastopol, CA, USA EcoNugenics, Santa Rosa, CA, USA Intl Conference on Diet & The Prevention of Cancer 1999, Tampere, Finland.Method: Human vascular endothelial cell layer & PC-3 prostate cancer cells.Results: Strong tumor cell death response with MCP, compared to controls.
20Effect of Modified Citrus Pectin on PSA Doubling Time in Prostate Cancer Patients: A Pilot Clinical TrialStrum S, Scholz M, McDermed J, McCulloch M, Eliaz, IProstate Oncology Specialist, Marina del Rey, CA, USAAmitabha Medical Clinic & Healing Center, Sebastopol, CA, USAEcoNugenics, Santa Rosa, CA, USA. International Conference on Diet & The Prevention of Cancer 1999, Tampere, Finland.Method: MCP 15 g/day to patients with biochemical relapse post local therapy. PSA Doubling Time (PSADT) evaluated at intervals.Results: MCP significantly increased PSADT in prostate cancer patients.
21Pilot Clinical Results: MCP’s Effect on PSA Doubling Time PatientMCP Use (Months)PSADT ChangeStatusPatient 15193%ResponsePatient 26Patient 3380%Patient 4>1555%Patient 56%P. ResponsePatient 6-7%Stable DiseasePatient 7-69%No Response
22Modified Citrus Pectin Increases the Prostate-Specific Antigen Doubling Time in Men with Prostate Cancer: A Phase II Pilot StudyGuess BW, Scholz MC, Strum SB, Lam RY, Johnson HJ, Jennrich RI Healing Touch Oncology, Marina del Rey, CA, USA Prostate Cancer & Prostatic Disease 2003;6(4):301-4.Method: 10 men with biochemical prostate cancer relapse used MCP: 15g daily for 1 year.
23Modified Citrus Pectin Increases the Prostate-Specific Antigen Doubling Time in Men with Prostate Cancer: A Phase II Pilot StudyGuess BW, Scholz MC, Strum SB, Lam RY, Johnson HJ, Jennrich RI Healing Touch Oncology, Marina del Rey, CA, USA Prostate Cancer & Prostatic Disease 2003;6(4):301-4.Results: MCP significantly increased PSADT in 7 out of the 10 participants (p<0.01).
24Phase II Study: PSADT Results After 1 Year 968 %**
25Using Splines to Detect Changes in PSA Doubling Times Guess B, Jennrich R, Johnson H, Redheffer R, Scholz M, Healing Touch Oncology, Marin del Ray, CA, Department of Statistics, UCLA, CA, The Prostate :88-95.
27Clinical Benefit in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors Treated with Modified Citrus Pectin Azémar M, Hildenbrand B, Haering B, Heim ME, Unger CAlbert-Ludwigs-University in Freiburg, GermanySonnenberg-Klinik, Bad Sooden-Allendorf, GermanyClinical Medicine: Oncology :73–80.Method: MCP 15g daily.Results: 49 patients with advanced solid tumors. 29 evaluated after 2 months -- 21% showed stabilization & improvements in quality of life.One patient w/ metastasized prostate carcinoma showed 50% decrease in PSA, with significant increase in quality of life & decrease in pain.
28Clinical Benefit in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors Treated with Modified Citrus Pectin Azémar M, Hildenbrand B, Haering B, Heim ME, Unger C Albert-Ludwigs-University in Freiburg, Germany Sonnenberg-Klinik, Bad Sooden-Allendorf, Germany Clinical Medicine: Oncology :73–80.Conclusion: MCP shows clinical benefits & improvements in quality of life in advanced cancer patients.
29Inhibitory Effect of Modified Citrus Pectin on Liver Metastasis in a Mouse Colon Cancer Model Liu HY, Huang ZL, Yang GH, Lu WQ, Yu NRGuangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou, ChinaWorld J Gastroenterol (48):Method: 5 groups of 15 mice. MCP: 0.0%, 1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0%; and negative control.Colon cancer cells injected into spleen except negative control -- liver metastasis observed after 3 wks. ELISA used to detect Galectin-3.Results: MCP groups: Metastasis 80%, 73.3% & 60%. MCP 0.0%: Metastasis100%.
30Conclusion: MCP significantly reduced liver metastasis. Inhibitory Effect of Modified Citrus Pectin on Liver Metastasis in a Mouse Colon Cancer ModelLiu HY, Huang ZL, Yang GH, Lu WQ, Yu NRGuangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou, ChinaWorld J Gastroenterol (48):Conclusion: MCP significantly reduced liver metastasis.
31PectaSol-C Modified Citrus Pectin Induces Apoptosis & Inhibition of Proliferation in Human & Mouse Androgen Dependent & Independent Prostate Cancer CellsYan J, Katz AColumbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USAIntegrative Cancer Therapies :Method: 1% MCP treatment of human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP & PC3) and mouse prostate cancer cell lines (CASP2-1 & CASP1-1)
324 day MCP treatment showed cytotoxicity: PectaSol-C Modified Citrus Pectin Induces Apoptosis & Inhibition of Proliferation in Human & Mouse Androgen Dependent & Independent Prostate Cancer CellsYan J, Katz AColumbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USAIntegrative Cancer Therapies :Results: Confirmed apoptosis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation4 day MCP treatment showed cytotoxicity:52.28% in LNCaP48.16% in PC323.03% in CASP2-149.01% in CASP1-1
33Combination Effect of PectaSol and Doxorubicin on Viability, Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in DU-145 and LNCaP Prostate Cancer Cell LinesNajmeh T, Houri S, Parvin M, Firouzeh B, Arash HN, Abdolfattah S, Ebrahim H Tehran University, Tehran, Iran Cell Biology International (2012) doi: /CBIMethod: 48 hour effects of PectaSol on Doxorubicin (Dox) cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cell cycle in prostate cancer cell lines.IC50 Decrease: 1.5 foldIC50 Decrease: 1.3 fold
34Combination Effect of PectaSol and Doxorubicin on Viability, Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in DU-145 and LNCaP Prostate Cancer Cell LinesNajmeh T, Houri S, Parvin M, Firouzeh B, Arash HN, Abdolfattah S, Ebrahim H Tehran University, Tehran, Iran Cell Biology International (2012) doi: /CBIConclusion: Lower, less toxic doses Dox needed when combined with PectaSol.
35MCP During Chemotherapy & Radiation MCP can enhance therapeutic effect of chemotherapy drugs and treatment of chemo resistant cancersCisplatin (Platinol), Bortezomib (Velcade), Dexamethasone (Decadron), DoxorubicinMCP use very important in preventing post chemotherapy & radiation damageSpecifically post radiation induced inflammation and fibrosis
36Summary: MCP in Cancer Treatment MCP Reduces:Primary TumorAngiogenesisMetastatic ProcessMCP Provides:Blocking of Galectin-3 EffectsSynergistic Effect with ChemotherapyProtection Against Post-Radiation DamageImproved Quality of Life
38MCP Immune System Benefits Modified Citrus Pectin:Induces NK Cell ActivationInduces NK Cell ActivityActivates T Cytotoxic CellsIncreases B Cell Activation
39Activation of Human T-Cytotoxic Cell, B-Cell, and Natural Killer (NK)-Cells and Induction of NK-Cell Activity Against K562 Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells with Modified Citrus PectinRamachandran C, Wilk, B, Hotchkiss, A, Eliaz, I & Melnick SJDharma Biomedical, Miami, FL, USA, EcoNugenics, Santa Rosa, CA, USA Eastern Regional Research Center, ARS, USDA, Wyndmoor, PA, USADepartment of Pathology, Miami Children's Hospital, Miami, FL, USABMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011, 11:59.Method (Part I): Healthy human blood samples incubated with increasing doses of MCP and antibodies.At 24 hours samples lyzed and run on a flow cytometer. Analyzed % of activated T-cytotoxic cell, B-cells, and NK-cells; and % increase over untreated control.
40Results Part I: MCP Activates T-Cytotoxic Cells ****
41Results Part I: MCP Increases B-Cell Activation *****
42Results Part I: MCP Increases NK Cell Activation ******
43MCP: Induction of NK-Cell Activity Against K562 Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells Method (Part II): NK cell ability to induce leukemia cell death analyzed by co-incubating MCP-treated lymphocytes with K562 T-cell leukemia cells.Healthy human lymphocyte samples treated with increasing doses of MCP. After 24 hours, K562 labeled. Plates returned to incubator (for 4 hrs) to induce leukemia cell death.
45Modified Citrus Pectin: Chelation & Detoxification Research
46MCP Heavy Metal Elimination Forms stacked “egg box” structureEach pocket negatively chargedNegative charge binds heavy metalsToxic metal trapped in the “egg box”Safely excreted from the body
47The Effect of Modified Citrus Pectin on Urinary Excretion of Toxic Elements Eliaz I, Hotchkiss AT, Fishman ML, Rode D; Amitabha Medical Clinic & Healing Center, Sebastopol, CA, USA; Eastern Regional Research Center, ARS, USDA, Wyndmoor, PA, USA; UC, Davis, CA, USA Phytother Res (10):Methods: MCP administered for 6 days. Baseline 24 hr urine collection before MCP, and on days 1 and 6. Days 1 - 5: MCP 15 g/day & Day 6: MCP 20 g/day.
48The Effect of Modified Citrus Pectin on Urinary Excretion of Toxic Elements Eliaz I, Hotchkiss AT, Fishman ML, Rode D; Amitabha Medical Clinic & Healing Center, Sebastopol, CA, USA; Eastern Regional Research Center, ARS, USDA, Wyndmoor, PA, USA; Univer. of CA, Davis, CA, USA Phytother Res (10):Results: Urinary excretion of lead, mercury, cadmium & arsenic increased. Essential minerals not changed. No side effects reported.
49The Effect of Modified Citrus Pectin on Urinary Excretion of Toxic Elements #* p < .05# p < .10##***#
50MCP & Urinary Excretion of Toxins MCP Chelation:Increased urinary excretion of toxic metalsDemonstrated heavy metal chelation due to reduced molecular size & esterification10% rhamnogalacturonan II -- known for binding affinity and immune enhancementDoes not affect essential mineralsNo side effects reported
51Modified Citrus Pectin Decreases the Total Body Burden: A Pilot Human Clinical trial Eliaz I. Amitabha Medical Clinic & Healing Center, Sebastopol, California, USA.EcoNugenics, Santa Rosa, California, USA.228th ACS National Meeting, Philadelphia, PAMethods: Oral intake 5 g Modified Citrus Pectin/3x day for 4-10 months. Base line body burden and change measured with DMPS challenge (250mg i.v. followed by 6 hr. urine collection).Results: All subjects showed significant decrease in Mercury levels. Average decrease was 62.17%, ranging between 38.13% & 74.83% (p=0.0313).No significant side effects were noted.
52Study Conclusion Percent Reduction in Mercury from Baseline MCP was effective in decreasing the total body burden of Mercury in all subjects.MCP is a promising systemic gentle chelator of heavy metals that can be used on an on going basis.10 months4.5 months4 months6 months6.5 monthsMCP Intervention Individual Results
53The Role of Modified Citrus Pectin as an Effective Chelator of Lead in Children Hospitalized with Toxic Lead LevelsZhao ZY, Liang L, Fan X, Yu Z, Hotchkiss AT, Wilk BJ, Eliaz IChildren’s Hospital, Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Republic of ChinaCentrax International, Inc, San Francisco, CA, USAEastern Regional Research Center, ARS, USDA, Wyndmoor, PA, USAEcoNugenics, Santa Rosa, CA, USAAltern Ther Health Med (4):34-8.
57Prostate Poly Botanical Formula Integrative blend of 33 ingredients: Vitamins, Minerals, Botanically Enhanced Medicinal Mushrooms, and Botanical Extracts
58ProstaCaid Induces G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest & Apoptosis in Human & Mouse Androgen-Dependent & -Independent Prostate Cancer CellsYan J & Katz AE; Department of Urology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. Integr Cancer Ther :Effects on cell viability on androgen-dependent, LNCaP (A) & CASP 2.1 (C), & androgen-independent PC3 (B) & CASP 1.1 (D)Effects on long-term cell viability by colony formation
59Effect of ProstaCaid on Invasive Behavior of Prostate Cancer Cells (A) Cell adhesion. PC-3 cells were treated with ProstaCaid for 24 hours and cell adhesion to fibronectin determined.(B) Cell migration. Cell migration was determined after 24 hours of incubation with ProstaCaid in Boyden Chambers.CDuPA DensityuPAProstaCaid ( mg/ml)(D) uPA secretion. PC-3 cells were treated for 24 hours and the expression of uPA detected in conditioned media with anti-uPA antibody by Western blot. * p<0.05(C) Cell invasion. Cell invasion was determined after 24 hours of incubation with ProstaCaid in Boyden Chambers coated with Matrigel.
60ProstaCaid Inhibits Tumor Growth in a Xenograft Model of Human Prostate Cancer Results: No effect on body weight or activity of liver enzymes (ALT, AST).No sign of toxicity in liver, spleen, kidney, lung and heart Inhibition of tumor volumes (1024.6±378.6 vs ±234.3, P<0.001)qRT-PCR analysis showed significant up regulation of expression of CDKN1A (p21) and inhibition of expression of IGF2, NR2F2 and PLAU (uPA)Conclusion: ProstaCaid has significant anticancer activity in vivo with no signs of toxicity.
62Breast Polybotanical Formula Contains botanicals, purified biologically active nutritional compounds and botanically enhanced medicinal mushrooms
63Suppression of Proliferation & Invasive Behavior of Human Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells by Dietary Supplement BreastDefendJiang J, Wojnowski R, Jedinak A, Sliva D; Cancer Research Laboratory, Methodist Research Institute, Indianapolis, IN, USA Department of Medicine, Indiana University. Cancer Center, School of Med., Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Integr Cancer Ther 2011; Jun 10 (2):192 – 200.
64BreastDefend Suppresses MDA-MB-231 Growth and Breast-to-Lung Metastasis in a Orthotopic Tumor Model Jiang J, Thyagarajan-Sahu A, Loganathan J, Eliaz I, Terry C,Sandusky GE, Sliva D. Oncol Rep. 2012; 28:Method: Highly aggressive triple negative human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) implanted into the mammary gland in mice then given the formula orally (100 mg/kg of body weight) for four weeks.Results: The formula significantly decreased tumor growth and breast to lung metastasis, and did not affect body weight or activity of liver enzymes or show any sign of toxicity in liver spleen, kidney, lung and heart tissues in mice.The cancer metastasized to the lungs in 67% of controls but only 20 percent of treated mice. The number of metastases per animal was also significantly affected by the formula.Down-regulation of primary tumor genes PLAU (urokinase plasminogen activator, uPA) and CXCR4 (C-X-C chemokine receptor-4).
66Synergistic and Additive Effects of Modified Citrus Pectin with Two Novel Polybotanical Compounds, in the Suppression of Invasive Behavior of Human Breast and Prostate Cancer CellsJiang J, Eliaz I, and Sliva D. Cancer Research Laboratory, MRI, Indiana University Health, Indianapolis, IN, USAAmitabha Med. Clinic & Healing Center, Sebastopol, CA, USADepart. of Med., and Indiana Univer. Cancer Center, Indiana Univer. School of Med., Indianapolis, IN, USA.Integr Cancer Ther March 12 (2):
67Prostate Polybotanical Formula *Effect on Proliferation of Human Prostate Cancer CellsPC3 growth measured using MTT assay. Cells incubated for 24 hrs with ProstaCaid (ug/ml). *P < .05
68Effect on Migration of Human Prostate Cancer Cells Prostate Formula & MCPEffect on Migration of Human Prostate Cancer CellsThe invasive behavior of PC3 evaluated using migration assay in the presence of (A) MCP (mg/mL) & (B) MCP (mg/mL) plus Prostacaid (10 ug/mL).BA
69Breast Polybotanical Formula Effect on Proliferation of Human Breast Cancer Cells*Growth of MDA-MB-231 measured using MTT assay. MDA-MB-231 cells incubated for 24 hrs with BreastDefend (ug/mL) at the indicated concentrations. *P < .05
70Breast Formula & MCPInvasive behavior of MDA-MB-231 evaluated using migration assay in the presence of (A) MCP (mg/mL) & (B) MCP (mg/mL) plus BreastDefend (20 ug/mL).BA
71Modified Citrus Pectin Published Data Summary Preclinical and Clinical Research Highlights on Modified Citrus Pectin
72Preclinical Studies with MCP (17 Published Articles) In vitro (Type of Cancer)In vivo (Type of Cancer)Ex vivo (Type of Cancer)5 (Prostate*)2 (Prostate) including 1 Lung Metastasis Study1 (Immune; Leukemia)2 (Breast*,**)2 (Breast*,**) including 1 Lung Metastasis Study1 (Angiosarcoma & Hemangiosarcom)1 (Melanoma***)1 (Melanoma***) including 1 Lung Metastasis Study3 (Colon**) including 1 Lymph and 1 Liver Metastasis Study 1 (Non Cancer; Small Intestine Permeability)2 (Non Cancer; Kidney Injury, Arteriole Fibrosis)9 Total10 Total2 Total*One in vitro study reported on both prostate and breast cancer (Glinskii OV, Huxley VH, Glinsky GV. et al. Neoplasia. 2005;7(5): ). **One article reported two in vivo studies and one in vitro study (Nangia-Makker P, Hogan V, Honjo Y, et al. J Natl Cancer Inst Dec 18;94(24): ). ***One articles reported both an in vivo and an in vitro study (Platt D, Raz A. J Natl Cancer Inst Mar;84(6):438-42)
73Seven Clinical Studies with MCP Human Clinical Study (Number of Participants)Type of TrialResultsZhoa, et al., Altern Ther Health Med (n = 7)Pilot trial: Lead toxicity in hospitalized children ages 5-12Very significant decrease in blood serum levels of lead (P = .0016) and very significant increase in 24-hour urine collection (P = .0007). No adverse effects.Azémar, et al., Clinical Medicine: Oncology (n = 49)Pilot trial: To assess the quality of life, clinical benefit and antitumoral efficacy in advanced stage solid tumors (colorectal, prostate, breast, kidney, cervix/uterine, liver, pharynx, pancreatic, melanoma, stomach, bile duct carcinoma and chondrosarcoma)22.5% patients showed a stable disease (SD) and 12.3% patients had a SD for a period longer than 24 weeks. One patient with metastasized prostate carcinoma showed a 50% decrease in serum PSA level after 16 weeks of treatment associated with a significant increase of clinical benefit, quality of life and decrease in pain. 20.7% patients had an overall clinical benefit response associated with a stabilization or improvement of life quality. All patients tolerated the therapy well without any severe adverse events.Eliaz, et al. Forsch Komplementmed (n = 5)Case studies: Involving lowering of lead and mercury body burden5 case studies presented show reduction in toxic heavy metals was achieved without side effects. Gradual decrease of total body burden is believed to have played an important role in recovery and health maintenance.
74Human Clinical Study (Number of Participants) Type of Trial Results Eliaz, et al. Phytother Res (n = 8)Pilot trial: Toxic heavy metal removal in healthy populationIn the first 24 hours the urinary excretion of arsenic increased significantly (p < 0.05). On day 6, urinary excretion was increased significantly for cadmium (p < 0.05). Lead showed a dramatic increase in excretion (p < 0.08), and mercury approached significance on day six. Other elements analyzed including essential elements did not show any significant change in excretion.Eliaz. 228th Annual American Chemistry Meeting. August (n = 5)Pilot trial: Decrease total body burden of mercuryA significant decrease in total body mercury burden was seen in all participants. The decrease was found more significant over time. The mercury burden for the group dropped 68.32% (p=0.0313). All individual completed the study, and there were no side effects reported.Guess, et al. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis (n = 13)Phase II pilot trial: Lengthening of PSA doubling time in biochemical relapsed prostate cancer patients.There were no serious side effects in any patient, but three patients withdrew from the study due to abdominal cramping or diarrhea. MCP was well tolerated by the remaining 10 evaluable patients. Seven (70%) of these evaluable patients had a significantly increased doubling time of PSA compared with their times before the treatment.Strum, et al. International Conference on Diet and Prevention of Cancer. May (n = 7)Pilot Study: Lengthening of prostate-specific antigen doubling time in biochemical relapsed prostate cancer patients.PSA doubling time was lengthened by more than 30% in 4/7 (57%) of patients. One patient had a partial response, one patient had stable disease, and one patient did not respond. No adverse effects were reported.
75The role of active biomarker galectin-3 in chronic disease progression Galectin-3 ResearchThe role of active biomarker galectin-3 in chronic disease progression
76The PREVEND Study (Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease) de Boer RA, van Veldhuisen DJ, R. T. Gansevoort RT, et al. The fibrosis marker Galectin-3 and outcome in the general population. J Intern Med doi: /j x. University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
77Galectin-3 Levels & Mortality from All Causes in the General Population: PREVEND OverallAverage11.9
78Galectin-3 in General Population: PREVEND (number of subjects = 7,968) CHARACTERISTICMedian Gal3TOTAL11.9QUINTILE-17.7QUINTILE-29.4QUINTILE-310.9QUINTILE-412.6QUINTILE-515.6PDM%220.127.116.11.36.10.000MI18.104.22.168.74.27.4Hypertension33.422.226.631.139.747.9Stroke %0.90.80.61.31.60.004Systolic BP129.2±20.2125.0±18.1126.6±19.0128.6±19.6131.3±20.6134.9±22.5Diastolic BP74.0±9.772.1 ±9.473.3±9.874.1±9.675.2±9.875.4±9.8
79Galectin-3 in General Population: PREVEND (number of subjects = 7,968) CHARACTERISTICMedian Gal3TOTAL11.9QUINTILE-17.7QUINTILE-29.4QUINTILE-310.9QUINTILE-412.6QUINTILE-515.6PCRP1.29[ ]0.89[ ]1.04[ ]1.33[ ]1.53[ ]1.98[ ]0.000Cholesterol5.66±1.125.41±1.055.56±1.105.68±1.115.79±1.115.91±1.17LDL3.69±1.053.47±1.003.60±1.013.71±1.043.77±1.053.90±1.06HDL1.27[ ]1.32[ ]1.28[ ]1.25[ ]1.24[ ][ ]Triglycerides1.16[ ]1.02[ ]1.11[ ]1.17[ ]1.23[ ]1.31[ ]
80The COACH (Coordinating Study on Outcomes of Advising and Counseling in Heart Failure) Multicenter, randomized, controlled trial conducted in The Netherlands. A prospective sub-study was designed to evaluate Galectin-3 in patients with chronic heart failure and define cut-off levels for subsequent validation studies.Galectin-3 levels were measured in 582 banked EDTA-plasma samples.
81COACH Galectin-3 Sub-Study Mortality from All Causes at 1 Year in Patients with CHF
82COACH Galectin-3 Sub-Study Cardiovascular Mortality or Heart Failure-Related Hospitalization at 1 Year in Patients with CHF
83Galectin-3 and Cardiovascular Health DeFillipi et al, U.S. Cardiology, 7,1, 3–6 (2010) clearly indicate that circulating Galectin-3 is an important factor in fibrosis of many organs and organ systems, and that reducing circulating Galectin-3 may have an important role in remediating cardiac injury and progression to heart failure (HF).Similarly, Psarras et al, Eur. Heart J., April 26 (2011) demonstrate that reduction in Galectin-3 levels in the myocardium may reduce fibrosis in the heart and improve outlook.De Boer et al, Ann. Med., 43,1, 60–68 (2011) identify Galectin-3 as a key indicator in cardiac health.Shash et al, Eur J. Heart Fail., 12,8, 826–32 (2011) identify Galectin-3 levels as a key agent in heart failure through fibrosis.De Boer et al. Eur. J. Heart Fail., 11, 9, (2009) link an increase in Galectin-3 expression and presence to heightened fibrosis, and heart failure. The same article links Galectin-3 to inflammation. Inflammation is the hallmark of arteriosclerosis, therefore Galectin-3 levels also contribute to coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, strokes, and vascular dementia.
84Modified Citrus Pectin Reduces Galectin-3 Expression and Disease Severity in Experimental Acute Kidney InjuryKolatsi-Joannou M, Price KL, Winyard PJ, Long DA. Nephro-Urology Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UKPLoS ONE 2011 April 6(4): e18683.
85MCP & Kidney Injury Study Background: Folic acid (FA)-induced acute kidney injury modelMethod: Mice given 1% MCP-supplemented water, or plain water, 1 week before FA injectionResults: During initial injury phase, all FA treated mice lost weight while their kidneys enlarged secondary to renal insultGross changes significantly lessened in MCP groupMCP clearly reduced renal cell proliferationRecovery phase: MCP group showed decreased Galectin-3 expression with decreased renal fibrosis, macrophages, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and apoptosis
86Galectin-3 Mediates Aldosterone-Induced Vascular Fibrosis Calvier L, Miana M, Reboul P, et al.Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Jan;33(1):67-75.
87Aldosterone Galectin-3 MCP Vascular Fibrosis Study Background: Aldosterone is involved in arterial stiffness and heart failure. Galectin-3 plays an important role in inflammation, fibrosis, and heart failure. MCP blocks Galectin-3Methods and Results: Rats were treated with aldosterone combined with MCP for 3 weeks. Hypertensive aldosterone-treated rats presented vascular hypertrophy, inflammation, fibrosis, and increased aortic Gal-3 expression. Those also treated with MCP treatment abolished all the above effects.Conclusion: Galectin-3 is required for inflammatory and fibrotic responses to aldosterone in vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo. By inhibiting Galectin-3, MCP prevents vascular fibrosis.
88Elevated Galectin-3: What can we do? Test for Galectin-3 levelsAddress general inflammation & hyperviscosityUse MCP at appropriate dosages by:ConditionGalectin-3 levelsTherapeutic goal
89Serum Galectin-3 Testing USFDA approved blood test that measures Galectin-3 for Cardiovascular Disease
90Galectin-3 Levels: Reference Ranges • Galectin-3 levels > 17.8 ng/ml are considered to be an extreme risk factor of mortality.• Ideal levels are < 14 ng/ml in the general population.• For cancer and cardiac patients, ideal levels are < 12 ng/ml.• Galectin-3 levels change in 20% of population every 3 months.Repeated testing is important.
91Galectin-3 Levels: Cancer Desired levels <12.0 ng/mlFollow up on Galectin-3 levels routinely every 3-6 months
92Active Cancer Levels <17.8, or not tested MCP 15g daily Levels >17.8 MCP g dailyPut MCP Table in
93Cancer Long Term Maintenance (3 years post therapy) Levels < 12.0 ng/ml MCP 5g dailyLevels = 12.0 – 14.0 ng/mlMCP 10g dailyLevels = 14.0 – 17.8 ng/mlMCP 15g dailyLevels >17.8 ng/mlMCP 20 – 25g dailyPut MCP Table in
94Galectin-3 Levels: MCP Dosage (grams) Galectin-3 Test Results(ng/ml)No Known Medical ConditionsCardiovascular, Inflammation, Fibrosis, HepatitisActive CancerPost Cancer (3 years)<1251512.0 – 14.01014.0 – 17.8> 17.820Not Tested5 -10
95In Conclusion: Galectin-3 and Modified Citrus Pectin Galectin-3 is a novel, active biomarker that is both a cause of multiple diseases and a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker.Modified Citrus Pectin is a proven natural Galectin-3 blocker.