Today: Three Questions What are the Characteristics of Life? Who developed our system of classification? How do we study the natural world?
What are the Characteristics of Life? All living things exhibit the 7 Characteristics of Life. Cells Reproduction Metabolism Homeostasis Growth & Development Response to Stimuli Adaptation & Evolution
The Prefix/Suffix, Metric System, Graphing and Lab Safety Rules go with these Notes for the Unit 1 INQUIRY G2 Test!!!
Levels of Organization Matter Atom Molecule Macromolecule Organic Compound Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organ System(11) Organism Species Population Community Ecosystem Biome Biosphere
What are the Characteristics of Life? The Circle Of Life!!!
What are the Characteristics of Life? Each level of biological organization exhibits emergent properties. Ex. Capillaries transport blood (property not exhibited by individual endothelial cells).
1. Cells Unicellular Organisms— one celled organisms All Bacteria Most Protozoans 1 type of Fungi- Yeast Multicellular Organisms— organisms made up of many cells A Few Protozoans: Algae, Giant Kelp and Slime Molds All Fungi except yeast All Plants All Animals
2. Metabolism is the building up or breaking down of molecules inside an organism. 1. Why do organisms need energy? 2. How do organisms obtain energy? is the building up or breaking down of molecules inside an organism. 1. Why do organisms need energy? 2. How do organisms obtain energy?
Types of Metabolism 1.Anabolic— the building of molecules ex: the making of proteins 2.Catabolic— the breaking down of molecules ex: digestion
3. Homeostasis is the ability of an organism to maintain its internal environment despite conditions in the external environment. It is keeping everything working correctly internally. Human body temperature is regulated: if body temperature rises, you sweat. if body temperature lowers, you shiver.
4. Reproduction Asexual reproduction – is when 1 sex cell produces another organism by itself. The new organism will be identical to the parent Sexual reproduction – it is when 2 sex cells unite to produce an organism. The new organism will be genetically different from the parents. Is it essential for an individual to reproduce?
5. Growth and Development Sperm and Egg unite during fertilization Zygote—fertilized egg Embryo—mass of 32 cells Fetus—8 th to 9 th week of development Birth of organism Growth is to increase in size Development is to specialize in function
6. Responding to Stimuli Stimulus/Response Reaction Organisms respond to stimuli in their environment.
7. Adaptation & Evolution Adaptation - an inherited behavior or characteristic that enables an organism to survive & reproduce. Over long periods of time, organisms adapt to their environment and evolve through Natural Selection.
Mutations Life is always changing….. On the level of DNA…… *Mutations occur in the DNA of the cell which causes the cell to become mutated. Change = Evolution This process occurs over long, long periods of time!!! Life is always changing….. On the level of DNA…… *Mutations occur in the DNA of the cell which causes the cell to become mutated. Change = Evolution This process occurs over long, long periods of time!!!
Quick Quiz Time 1. What are the characteristics of life? 2. What is homeostasis? What is an example of homeostasis? 3. What are anabolic steroids? 4. What are the unicellular organisms in the world? 5. What are the multicellular organisms in the world? 6. What are the stages of development?
Life is Diverse Biodiversity refers to the many different types of organisms on earth. Taxonomy is the biological science that classifies life according to evolutionary relationships. The Kingdom is the largest group of organisms.
Linnaeus Classification System Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species King Phillip Came Over From Germany on Saturday Carolus Linnaeous developed our classification system in the 1800’s. Each level is called a TAXON.
Human classification order: Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Primates Family Hominidae Genus & species Homo sapien **The genus and species make up the Scientific Name.
Quick Quiz Time: 1. What is the order of classification? 2. Which has more critters: an order or a genus? 3. What is taxonomy? 4. The scientific name includes the _____ and _____ name.
How do we study the Natural World? What is the Scientific Method? a list of steps used to solve a problem. 1.Problem 2.Research 3.Hypothesis 4.Procedure 5.Data 6.Analysis 7.Conclusion **You use the Scientific Method all of the time in your everyday life!!!!
How do we study the Natural World? Curiosity Hypothesis Prediction Observations Now What???
How do we study the Natural World? Is Always Based On Facts!! Never Opinions!! Science Using opinions would be Biased!!!
Rules that apply to your hypothesis. After you perform your experiment, you need to analyze your data. Does the data support or not support your hypothesis? If your data does not support the hypothesis then…… (In this experiment, my data did not support my hypothesis!!) You do not say you were wrong!!! If your data does support your hypothesis…….. (In this experiment, my data supported my hypothesis!!) You do not say you were right!!!!
What is difference between a hypothesis, theory & law? Hypothesis - “an educated guess” Theory - a widely accepted explanation of natural phenomena; hypotheses become theories after they have been tested by many, many scientists and given consistent results. Law - a statement of what always occurs under certain conditions.
How is a control group different from an experimental group? Control Group—the group that is kept under normal conditions. It is not tested! Experimental Groups--the groups that are tested.
Terms & Lab Techniques Sample-a portion of a population used to study the whole population Placebo Effect-when someone is tested with a substance and it is not what they were told it was. Ex: pain pills; hypochondriacs Bias-to have an opinion Inference-using prior knowledge to answer something
Terms Mutagen-something that causes a mutation in a cell Carcinogen-a type of mutagen that causes cancer Mutation-it changes the DNA in a cell Tumor-a mass of mutated cells (32) Benign-noncancerous Malignant-cancerous
Observations Quantitative Observations— using numbers to describe with Qualitative Observations—using descriptive terms to observe with other than numbers. Ex: color, texture, smell
Lab Techniques Compound Light Microscope-uses a beam of light to view a specimen with; magnifies up to 2500x— the ones at school will magnify 400x. Electron Mircroscope-uses a beam of electrons to view specimen with; cannot view living organisms—the vaccum seal with kill them; magnifies up to millions of times Cell Culture: growing a mass of cells of the same type using a test tube in the lab Centrifuge- an apparatus that spins real fast; used to check white blood cell count; the white blood cells will separate from the red blood cells in test tubes.
Lab Techniques Prepared Slide- a slide that has already been made and the specimen in sealed within the slide Wet-Mount Slide- place specimen in center of slide; add a drop of water; hold cover slip at 45 degree angle and drop; tap out air bubble and dry up any water outside of the cover slip Staining a Wet-Mount-prepare wet-mount by above instructions; add 1 drop of stain to the right edge of the cover slip; hold firmly a folded paper towel on the left side of the cover slip and the stain with diffuse across underneath the cover slip; this will take a couple of minutes for the stain to diffuse all the way across.
Don’t forget about your prefix/suffixes, lab safety rules, graphing and metric system notes!!!